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Microbial contamination catheters

Christian Adlhart, Joanna Verran, Nuno F Azevedo, Hulya Olmez, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Isabel Gouveia, Luis F Melo, Francy Crijns
The spread of infections in health care environments is a persistent and growing problem in most countries, aggravated by the development of microbial resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. In addition to indwelling medical devices (implants, catheters, etc.), such infections may also result from adhesion of microbes either to external solid-water interfaces such as shower caps, taps, drains, etc, or to external solid-gas interfaces such as door handles, clothes, curtains, computer keyboards, etc. The latter are the main focus of the present work, where an overview of antimicrobial coatings for such applications is presented...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Marie Gominet, Fabrice Compain, Christophe Beloin, David Lebeaux
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is associated with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent potentially severe infection. Microbial contamination of the catheter leads to the development of a microbial consortia associated with the CVC surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix, named biofilm. This biofilm provides bacterial cells the ability to survive antimicrobial agents and the host immune system and to disseminate to other sites of the body. The best preventive strategy is to avoid any unnecessary catheterization or to reduce indwelling duration when a CVC is required...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
H Braunwarth, F H H Brill, J Steinmann, D Hegeholz, W Droste
BACKGROUND: A urostomy with an ileum conduit or a skin fistula leads to a high infection risk for the kidneys and the ureter of the patient. Therefore, the prevention of retrograde colonization of the artificial drain (splint) with e. g. contaminated urine is the most important objective of infection prevention measurements. We performed an in vitro experiment to determine the migration speed of clinically relevant bacteria in a commercially available splint catheter system. METHODS: The migration speed of bacteria in commonly used splint catheters was determined in a practice-like in vitro model...
February 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
A L Casey, T J Karpanen, P Nightingale, S Chaganti, T S J Elliott
The use of a positive-displacement needleless intravenous access device was associated with lower microbial contamination rates compared with a neutral-displacement device when used on central venous catheters in hemato-oncology patients. In addition, rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection did not differ when either device was used.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Lisa Karstens, Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Damien Fair, W Thomas Gregory, James T Rosenbaum, Shannon K McWeeney, Rahel Nardos
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kasi Murugan, Krishnasamy Selvanayaki, Saleh Al-Sohaibani
Self-reproducing microbial biofilm community mainly involved in the contamination of indwelling medical devices including catheters play a vital role in nosocomial infections. The catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) causative Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selectively isolated, their phenotypic as well as genotypic biofilm formation, production and monomeric sugar composition of EPS as well as sugar, salt, pH and temperature influence on their in vitro biofilm formation were determined...
January 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Daniela Chessa, Giulia Ganau, Luisella Spiga, Antonio Bulla, Vittorio Mazzarello, Gian Vittorio Campus, Salvatore Rubino
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination...
2016: PloS One
Marcelo S Neves, Marlei Gomes da Silva, Grasiella M Ventura, Patrícia Barbur Côrtes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Heitor S de Souza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Attention to patient safety has increased recently due to outbreaks of nosocomial infections associated with GI endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate current cleaning and disinfection procedures of endoscope channels with high bioburden and biofilm analysis, including the use of resistant mycobacteria associated with postsurgical infections in Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-seven original endoscope channels were contaminated with organic soil containing 10(8) colony-forming units/mL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Mycobacterium abscessus subsp bolletii...
May 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Yanbao Yu, Patricia Sikorski, Cynthia Bowman-Gholston, Nicolas Cacciabeve, Karen E Nelson, Rembert Pieper
BACKGROUND: Current methodology for the diagnosis of diseases in the urinary system includes patient symptomology, urine analysis and urine culture. Asymptomatic bacteriuria from urethral colonization or indwelling catheters, sample contamination from perineal or vaginal sources, and non-infectious inflammatory conditions can mimic UTIs, leading to uncertainty on medical treatment decisions. METHODS: Innovative shotgun metaproteomic methods were used to analyze urine sediments from 120 patients also subjected to conventional urinalysis for various clinical reasons including suspected UTIs...
2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
Allison Beck Blackmer, M Luisa Partipilo
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-sustaining therapy designed to deliver essential nutrients to patients unable to meet nutrition needs via the enteral route. PN may be delivered via a 2-in-1 system (one solution containing amino acids, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and fluids and one solution containing intravenous fat emulsions [IVFEs]) or via a 3-in-1 system (all nutrients mixed in one container). Although the use of 3-in-1 PN solutions is not necessarily therapeutically advantageous, certain benefits may exist such as the potential to reduce the risk of contamination due to decreased manipulations; ease of administration, particularly in the home care setting; possible cost savings; and reduced IVFE wastage...
June 2015: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Jane Gervasio
Total nutrient admixture (TNA) is a complete parenteral nutrition (PN) formulation composed of all macronutrients, including dextrose, amino acids, and intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE), in one bag. The TNA may be safely administered to the patient, with all components aseptically compounded and minimal administration manipulation required, lending itself to decreases in risks of catheter contamination and patient infections. The TNA is compatible and stable at recommended concentrations, and since the IVFE is in the TNA, it is infused at slower rates, allowing for better fat clearance...
June 2015: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Ahmet Salvarci, Mehmet Koroglu, Tayfun Gurpinar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity in urinary catheters and silicones in antibiotic-coated prosthetic urinary systems in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by catheter-associated infection. METHODS: The study was initiated in 1993 at Houston, USA and continued in Turkey till 1996. A sterileplastic bag was used as kidney in the in vitro urinary system. Physiological renal jet streams (50 cc/h) were generated with an intravenous metric pump...
February 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
H C Wu, J J Ho, M H Lin, C J Chen, Y L Guo, J S C Shiao
Reporting of percutaneous injuries (PIs) to the Chinese Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) became mandatory for all public and tertiary referral hospitals in Taiwan in 2011. We have estimated the number of microbially contaminated PIs and the national PI incidence using a retrospective secondary data analysis approach to analyse 2011 data from the Chinese EPINet to determine the types of PI, mechanisms of occurrence and associated risks. The results revealed a national estimate of PIs between 6710 and 8319 in 2011...
November 2015: Epidemiology and Infection
Anna Casey, Tarja Karpanen, Peter Nightingale, Tom Elliott
There are conflicting reports of the effect needleless intravenous access devices have on rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection. The aim of this study was to identify any differences between the rates of microbial ingress into 8 different devices following contamination. Each type of device was subjected to a 7-day clinical simulation that involved repeated microbial contamination of the injection site and decontamination followed by saline flushes. Significant differences in the number of microorganisms associated with each device were detected in the saline eluates...
January 2015: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
Anabela Rodrigues, Marília Maciel, Cledir Santos, Diana Machado, Joana Sampaio, Nelson Lima, Maria J Carvalho, António Cabrita, Margarida Martins
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter-associated infections remain a challenging cause of technique failure. Patient training and preventive measures are key elements in the management of infection rates. Twenty-seven of the 167 PD catheter transfer sets analyzed (19%) yielded a positive microbial culture (58% gram-negative bacteria). These results show that subclinical contamination, particularly from environmental gram-negative bacteria, is a potential hazard, indicating the need for a protocol for regular transfer set changes...
September 2014: American Journal of Infection Control
David Lebeaux, Dominique Joly, Jean-Ralph Zahar
Long-term intravenous catheters (LTIVC) are standard practice for patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, digestive disease requiring total parenteral nutrition or end-stage renal disease. Even if they greatly improved patients' care, the use of LTIVC is also associated with microbial contamination and subsequent infection. These catheter-related infections are associated with morbidity, mortality and increased health-care costs. As patients carrying these LTIVC stay at home for their treatment (home parenteral nutrition for instance) or between cycles of treatment (antineoplastic chemotherapy or dialysis), it is mandatory that general practitioner and nurses are aware of recent data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of LTIVC-related infections...
May 2014: La Revue du Praticien
David Lebeaux, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Jean-Christophe Lucet
Medical progress led to an increase in the number of indications for indwelling devices. However, colonization of implanted devices by pathogenic microorganisms also increases risks of formation of microbial communities surrounded by an extracellular matrix called biofilms. Biofilms are able to survive in the presence of high concentrations of antimicrobials, therefore leading to treatment difficulties and exposing patients to the risk of infection recurrence. Because of these features, preventive measures reducing the risk of microbial contamination are cornerstone for the management of any patient carrying an indwelling device...
May 2014: La Revue du Praticien
Farzin Khorvash, Saeed Abbasi, Mohsen Meidani, Mehrnoosh Shakeri
BACKGROUND: The abundance of infections associated with intensive care unit (ICU) is increasing due to the increased use of aggressive medical equipments like the central venous catheter (CVC). This study was designed and performed in 2010-2011 at Alzahra hospital, which is a referral center. This study aimed at determining the relative abundance and microbial sensitivity of organisms, which were creating contamination with CVCs in hospitalized patients in the ICUs of Alzahra hospital...
2014: Advanced Biomedical Research
S S Pradeep Kumar, H V Easwer, A Maya Nandkumar
BACKGROUND: Medical devices are an essential part of modern health-care, but its usage has led to the emergence of medical device associated infections otherwise known as Foreign-Body related infections (FBRIs). This is caused by bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on their surfaces which act as a nidus of infection. These biofilms are resistant to antibacterial agents and host immune response. The antibiotics which are useful in treating planktonic forms cannot clear the biofilm and the device must usually be removed to resolve the infection...
October 2013: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jyotsna Chandra, Eric Pearlman, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Microbial biofilms play an essential role in several infectious diseases and are defined as extensive communities of sessile organisms irreversibly associated with a surface, encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), and exhibiting enhanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Forming a biofilm provides the microbes protection from environmental stresses due to contaminants, nutritional depletion, or imbalances, but is dangerous to human health due to their inherent robustness and elevated resistance...
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
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