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Spreading depolarization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228266/rapid-state-dependent-alteration-in-kv3-channel-availability-drives-flexible-synaptic-signaling-dependent-on-somatic-subthreshold-depolarization
#1
Matthew J M Rowan, Jason M Christie
In many neurons, subthreshold depolarization in the soma can transiently increase action-potential (AP)-evoked neurotransmission via analog-to-digital facilitation. The mechanisms underlying this form of short-term synaptic plasticity are unclear, in part, due to the relative inaccessibility of the axon to direct physiological interrogation. Using voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording from presynaptic boutons of cerebellar stellate interneurons, we observed that depolarizing somatic potentials readily spread into the axon, resulting in AP broadening, increased spike-evoked Ca(2+) entry, and enhanced neurotransmission strength...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227999/polysilicon-based-flexible-temperature-sensor-for-high-spatial-resolution-brain-temperature-monitoring
#2
Zhizhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Jed Hartings, Raj K Narayan, Chong Ahn, Zhizhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Jed Hartings, Raj K Narayan, Chong Ahn, Zhizhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Chong Ahn, Jed Hartings, Raj K Narayan
In this paper, we present a flexible temperature sensor with ultra-small polysilicon thermistors for brain temperature monitoring. In vitro sensitivity, resolution, thermal hysteresis and long term stability tests were performed. Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of -0.0031/ °C and resolution of 0.1 °C were obtained for the sensor. Thermal hysteresis for temperature range of 30~45 °C was less than 0.1 °C. With silicon nitride as the passivation layer, the temperature sensor showed a drift within 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226410/patient-specific-computational-modeling-of-cortical-spreading-depression-via-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Julia M Kroos, Isabella Marinelli, Ibai Diez, Jesus M Cortes, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Luca Gerardo-Giorda
Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD), a depolarization wave originating in the visual cortex and traveling towards the frontal lobe, is commonly accepted as a correlate of migraine visual aura. As of today, little is known about the mechanisms that can trigger or stop such phenomenon. However, the complex and highly individual characteristics of the brain cortex suggest that the geometry might have a significant impact in supporting or contrasting the propagation of CSD. Accurate patient-specific computational models are fundamental to cope with the high variability in cortical geometries among individuals, but also with the conduction anisotropy induced in a given cortex by the complex neuronal organisation in the grey matter...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223494/exploitation-of-the-spreading-depolarization-induced-cytotoxic-edema-for-high-resolution-3d-mapping-of-its-heterogeneous-propagation-paths
#4
Jens P Dreier, Clemens Reiffurth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215745/astrocyte-transport-of-glutamate-and-neuronal-activity-reciprocally-modulate-tau-pathology-in-drosophila
#5
Jason G Kilian, Heng-Wei Hsu, Kenneth Mata, Fred W Wolf, Masashi Kitazawa
Abnormal buildup of the microtubule associated protein tau is a major pathological hallmark of SAlzheimer's disease (AD)and various tauopathies. The mechanisms by which pathological tau accumulates and spreads throughout the brain remain largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that a restoration of the major astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT1, ameliorated a buildup of tau pathology and rescued cognition in a mouse model of AD. We hypothesized thataberrant extracellular glutamate and abnormal neuronal excitatory activities promoted tau pathology...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207602/spreading-depolarization-monitoring-in-neurocritical-care-of-acute-brain-injury
#6
Jed A Hartings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spreading depolarizations are unique in being discrete pathologic entities that are well characterized experimentally and also occur commonly in patients with substantial acute brain injury. Here, we review essential concepts in depolarization monitoring, highlighting its clinical significance, interpretation, and future potential. RECENT FINDINGS: Cortical lesion development in diverse animal models is mediated by tissue waves of mass spreading depolarization that cause the toxic loss of ion homeostasis and limit energy substrate supply through associated vasoconstriction...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198552/cortical-spreading-depolarizations-in-the-postresuscitation-period-in-a-cardiac-arrest-male-rat-model
#7
Frederik Boe Hansen, Niels Secher, Morten Skovgaard Jensen, Leif Østergaard, Else Tønnesen, Asger Granfeldt
Neurological injury develops over days following cardiac arrest (CA); however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. After stroke or trauma, the progression of neurological injury is associated with cortical-spreading depolarizations (CSDs). The objective was to investigate whether CA and subsequent resuscitation in rats are associated with 1) the development of spontaneous negative direct current (DC) shifts indicative of CSDs, and 2) changes in artificially induced CSDs in the postresuscitation period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) CA 90, 2) Control 90, 3) CA 360, and 4) Control 360...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155572/exploring-the-role-of-microglia-in-cortical-spreading-depression-in-neurological-disease
#8
Mamoru Shibata, Norihiro Suzuki
Microglia play a pivotal role in innate immunity in the brain. During development, they mature from myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the yolk sac and colonize the brain to establish a resident population of tissue macrophages. In the postnatal brain, they exert phagocytosis and induce inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Microglia also act as guardians of brain homeostasis by surveying the microenvironment using motile processes. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly propagating (2-5 mm/min) wave of rapid, near-complete depolarization of neurons and astrocytes followed by a period of electrical suppression of a distinct population of cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128691/nadh-fluorescence-imaging-and-the-histological-impact-of-cortical-spreading-depolarization-during-the-acute-phase-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#9
Tomohisa Shimizu, Tomohito Hishikawa, Shingo Nishihiro, Yukei Shinji, Yuji Takasugi, Jun Haruma, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Hirokazu Kawase, Sachiko Sato, Ryoichi Mizoue, Yoshimasa Takeda, Kenji Sugiu, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Isao Date
OBJECTIVE Although cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) has been observed during the early phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in clinical settings, the pathogenicity of CSD is unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of loss of membrane potential on neuronal damage during the acute phase of SAH. METHODS Twenty-four rats were subjected to SAH by the perforation method. The propagation of depolarization in the brain cortex was examined by using electrodes to monitor 2 direct-current (DC) potentials and obtaining NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) fluorescence images while exposing the parietal-temporal cortex to ultraviolet light...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123433/cortical-spreading-depression-induced-preconditioning-in-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Ping-Ping Shen, Shuai Hou, Di Ma, Ming-Ming Zhao, Ming-Qin Zhu, Jing-Dian Zhang, Liang-Shu Feng, Li Cui, Jia-Chun Feng
Cortical spreading depression is a technique used to depolarize neurons. During focal or global ischemia, cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning can enhance tolerance of further injury. However, the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains relatively unclear. To date, numerous issues exist regarding the experimental model used to precondition the brain with cortical spreading depression, such as the administration route, concentration of potassium chloride, induction time, duration of the protection provided by the treatment, the regional distribution of the protective effect, and the types of neurons responsible for the greater tolerance...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121215/heterogeneous-propagation-of-spreading-depolarizations-in-the-lissencephalic-and-gyrencephalic-brain
#11
Edgar Santos, Renán Sánchez-Porras, Oliver W Sakowitz, Jens P Dreier, Markus A Dahlem
In the recently published article, "Heterogeneous incidence and propagation of spreading depolarizations," it is shown, in vivo and in vitro, how KCl-induced spreading depolarizations in mouse and rat brains can be highly variable, and that they are not limited, as once thought, to a concentric, isotropic, or homogenous depolarization wave in space or in time. The reported results serve as a link between the different species, and this paper contributes to changing the way in which SD expansion is viewed in the lissencephalic brain...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094974/monitoring-dopamine-responses-to-potassium-ion-and-nomifensine-by-in-vivo-microdialysis-with-online-liquid-chromatography-at-one-minute-resolution
#12
Khanh T Ngo, Erika L Varner, Adrian C Michael, Stephen G Weber
Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated the technical feasibility of monitoring dopamine at 1 min temporal resolution with microdialysis and online liquid chromatography. Here, we monitor dopamine in the rat striatum during local delivery of high potassium/low sodium or nomifensine in awake-behaving rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted and perfused continuously with or without dexamethasone in the perfusion fluid for 4 days. Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory agent that exhibits several positive effects on the apparent health of the brain tissue surrounding microdialysis probes...
February 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088802/interplay-between-cortical-spreading-depolarization-and-seizures
#13
Daniel R Kramer, Tatsuhiro Fujii, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Charles Y Liu
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is an electrophysiologic phenomenon found mostly in the setting of neurologic injury resulting in the disturbance of ion homeostasis and leading to changes in the local vascular response. The bioelectric etiology of CSD shares similarities to those in epileptic disorders, yet the relationship between seizures and CSD is unclear, with several studies observing cortical depression before, during, and after seizure activity, thus obscuring our understanding of whether CSD activity potentiates or limits seizures and vice versa...
January 14, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#14
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065672/monitoring-microvascular-perfusion-variations-with-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-using-a-view-based-temporal-template-method
#15
Mohammad Zaheer Ansari, Eun-Jeung Kang, Mioara D Manole, Jens P Dreier, Anne Humeau-Heurtier
PURPOSE: Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) continues to gain an increased interest in clinical and research studies to monitor microvascular perfusion. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolutions, LSCI may lead to a large amount of data. The analysis of such data, as well as the determination of the regions where the perfusion varies, can become a lengthy and tedious task. We propose here to analyze if a view-based temporal template method, the motion history image (MHI) algorithm, may be of use in detecting the perfusion variations locations...
January 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028801/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-basic-principles-and-clinical-applications-in-migraine
#16
Anthony T Barker, Kevin Shields
PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological technique with a long established pedigree of safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Initially TMS was used to study the function of the cerebral cortex, but it has now become a treatment for migraine, one of the most common and debilitating neurological conditions. In this review we discuss the scientific background and development of the technique. We explore its application for the treatment of migraine and ponder the possible mechanisms of action in this most common neurological condition...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028144/valproate-reduces-delayed-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
Arend M Hamming, Annette van der Toorn, Umesh S Rudrapatna, Lisha Ma, Hine J A van Os, Michel D Ferrari, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Erik van Zwet, Katherine Poinsatte, Ann M Stowe, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Marieke J H Wermer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spreading depolarizations (SDs) may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We tested whether SD-inhibitor valproate reduces brain injury in an SAH rat model with and without experimental SD induction. METHODS: Rats were randomized in a 2×2 design and pretreated with valproate (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SAH was induced by endovascular puncture of the right internal carotid bifurcation. One day post-SAH, brain tissue damage was measured with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, followed by cortical application of 1 mol/L KCl (to induce SDs) or NaCl (no SDs)...
December 27, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987215/cortical-spreading-depression-preconditioning-mediates-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-stroke-by-inducing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-autophagy-in-a-rat-cerebral-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-model
#18
Pingping Shen, Shuai Hou, Mingqin Zhu, Mingming Zhao, Yibing Ouyang, Jiachun Feng
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), based on its similarities with peri-infarct depolarization, is an ideal model for investigating transformation from the ischemic penumbra to infarct core. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a middle cerebral artery occlusion ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury model to determine whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection of CSD preconditioning in rat cortex...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924865/quantum-error-correction-protects-quantum-search-algorithms-against-decoherence
#19
Panagiotis Botsinis, Zunaira Babar, Dimitrios Alanis, Daryus Chandra, Hung Nguyen, Soon Xin Ng, Lajos Hanzo
When quantum computing becomes a wide-spread commercial reality, Quantum Search Algorithms (QSA) and especially Grover's QSA will inevitably be one of their main applications, constituting their cornerstone. Most of the literature assumes that the quantum circuits are free from decoherence. Practically, decoherence will remain unavoidable as is the Gaussian noise of classic circuits imposed by the Brownian motion of electrons, hence it may have to be mitigated. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of quantum noise on the performance of QSAs, in terms of their success probability as a function of the database size to be searched, when decoherence is modelled by depolarizing channels' deleterious effects imposed on the quantum gates...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919769/transcriptomic-changes-in-rat-cortex-and-brainstem-after-cortical-spreading-depression-with-or-without-pretreatment-with-migraine-prophylactic-drugs
#20
Cèlia Sintas, Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Marta Vila-Pueyo, Patricia Pozo-Rosich, Alfons Macaya, Bru Cormand
: Migraine with aura is a subtype of migraine characterized by transient neurological disturbances that usually precede headache. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely pathophysiological correlate of the aura phase of migraine, found in common and rare forms of migraine, such as familial hemiplegic migraine. CSD is a depolarization wave that propagates across the cerebral gray matter transiently suppressing neuronal activity. Prophylactic treatments for migraine, such as topiramate or valproate, reduce the number of CSD events...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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