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Spreading depolarization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331091/terminal-spreading-depolarization-and-electric-silence-in-death-of-human-cortex
#1
Jens P Dreier, Sebastian Major, Brandon Foreman, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Coline L Lemale, Vince DiNapoli, Jason M Hinzman, Johannes Woitzik, Norberto Andaluz, Andrew Carlson, Jed A Hartings
OBJECTIVE: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to central neurons begins only with anoxic depolarization. This potentially reversible, spreading wave typically starts 2-5 min after the onset of severe ischemia, marking the onset of a toxic intraneuronal change that eventually results in irreversible injury...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328020/the-synaptic-ribbon-is-critical-for-sound-encoding-at-high-rates-and-with-temporal-precision
#2
Philippe Jean, David Lopez de la Morena, Susann Michanski, Lina María Jaime Tobón, Rituparna Chakrabarti, Maria Magdalena Picher, Jakob Neef, SangYong Jung, Mehmet Gültas, Stephan Maxeiner, Andreas Neef, Carolin Wichmann, Nicola Strenzke, Chad Grabner, Tobias Moser
We studied the role of the synaptic ribbon for sound encoding at the synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mice lacking RIBEYE (RBEKO/KO). Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a lack of synaptic ribbons and an assembly of several small active zones (AZs) at each synaptic contact. Spontaneous and sound-evoked firing rates of SGNs and their compound action potential were reduced, indicating impaired transmission at ribbonless IHC-SGN synapses. The temporal precision of sound encoding was impaired and the recovery of SGN-firing from adaptation indicated slowed synaptic vesicle (SV) replenishment...
January 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311064/high-content-screening-of-mmv-pathogen-box-for-plasmodium-falciparum-digestive-vacuole-disrupting-molecules-reveals-valuable-starting-points-for-drug-discovery
#3
Jie Xin Tong, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Kevin Shyong-Wei Tan
Plasmodium falciparum infections leading to malaria have severe clinical manifestations and high mortality rates. Chloroquine (CQ), a former mainstay of malaria chemotherapy, has been rendered ineffective due to the emergence of wide-spread resistance. Recent studies, however, have unveiled a novel mode of action in which low micromolar levels of CQ permeabilized the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) membrane, leading to calcium efflux, mitochondrial depolarization and DNA degradation. These phenotypes implicate the DV as an alternative target of CQ and suggests that DV disruption is an attractive target for exploitation through the screening for DV-disruptive antimalarials...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225040/differential-neuromodulatory-role-of-endocannabinoids-in-the-rodent-trigeminal-sensory-ganglion-and-cerebral-cortex-relevant-to-pain-processing
#4
Francesca Eroli, Inge C M Loonen, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Else A Tolner, Andrea Nistri
Endocannabinoids are suggested to control pain, even though their clinical use is not fully validated and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. To clarify the targets of endocannabinoid actions, we studied how activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) affects neuronal responses in two in vitro preparations of rodents, namely the trigeminal sensory ganglion (TG) in culture and a coronal slice of the cerebral cortex. On TG small-medium size neurons, we tested whether submicromolar concentrations of the endogenous CB1R agonist anandamide (AEA) modulated inhibitory GABAA receptors and excitatory ATP-gated P2X3 receptors...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210004/a-mathematical-model-of-recurrent-spreading-depolarizations
#5
Cameron Conte, Ray Lee, Monica Sarkar, David Terman
A detailed biophysical model for a neuron/astrocyte network is developed in order to explore mechanisms responsible for the initiation and propagation of recurrent cortical spreading depolarizations. The model incorporates biophysical processes not considered in the earlier models. This includes a model for the Na+-glutamate transporter, which allows for a detailed description of reverse glutamate uptake. In particular, we consider the specific roles of elevated extracellular glutamate and K+ in the initiation, propagation and recurrence of spreading depolarizations...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150867/near-infrared-diffuse-reflectance-signals-for-monitoring-spreading-depolarizations-and-progression-of-the-lesion-in-a-male-rat-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#6
Satoko Kawauchi, Izumi Nishidate, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato
In ischemic stroke research, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and development of neuroprotection methods are crucial, for which in vivo imaging to monitor spreading depolarizations (SDs) and evolution of tissue damage is desired. Since these events are accompanied by cellular morphological changes, light-scattering signals, which are sensitive to cellular and subcellular morphology, can be used for monitoring them. In this study, we performed transcranial imaging of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance at ∼800 nm, which sensitively reflects light-scattering change, and examined how NIR reflectance is correlated with simultaneously measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) for a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063300/delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-beyond-vasospasm-and-towards-a-multifactorial-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Joseph R Geraghty, Fernando D Testai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and represents a significant cause of poor functional outcome. DCI was mainly thought to be caused by cerebral vasospasm; however, recent clinical trials have been unable to confirm this hypothesis. Studies in humans and animal models have since supported the notion of a multifactorial pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarizes some of the main mechanisms under investigation including cerebral vascular dysregulation, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarizations, and neuroinflammation...
October 23, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046294/local-ca-2-coupling-between-mitochondria-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-following-depolarization-in-guinea-pig-urinary-bladder-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Hisao Yamamura, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sou Inagaki, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Yuji Imaizumi
Spatiotemporal changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) trigger a number of physiological functions in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We previously imaged Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release following membrane depolarization as local Ca(2+) transients, Ca(2+) hotspots, in subplasmalemmal regions. In this study, the physiological significance of mitochondria on local Ca(2+) signaling was examined. Cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) images following depolarization or action potentials were recorded in single SMCs from the guinea pig urinary bladder using a fast-scanning confocal fluorescent microscope...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041816/enhanced-susceptibility-to-cortical-spreading-depression-in-two-types-of-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-2-subunit-deficient-mice-as-a-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-2
#9
Miyuki Unekawa, Keiko Ikeda, Yutaka Tomita, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Norihiro Suzuki
Background Patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) have a mutated ATP1A2 gene (encoding Na+,K+-ATPase α2 subunit) and show prolonged migraine aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), which involves mass depolarization of neurons and astrocytes that propagates slowly through the gray matter, is profoundly related to aura. Methods In two types of Atp1a2-defective heterozygous mice, Atp1a2tm1Kwk (C-KO) and Atp1a2tm2Kwk (N-KO), the sensitivity and responsiveness to CSD were examined under urethane anesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023523/the-role-of-glutamate-in-neuronal-ion-homeostasis-a-case-study-of-spreading-depolarization
#10
Niklas Hübel, Mahshid S Hosseini-Zare, Jokūbas Žiburkus, Ghanim Ullah
Simultaneous changes in ion concentrations, glutamate, and cell volume together with exchange of matter between cell network and vasculature are ubiquitous in numerous brain pathologies. A complete understanding of pathological conditions as well as normal brain function, therefore, hinges on elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways involved in these mostly interdependent variations. In this paper, we develop the first computational framework that combines the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations and glutamate homeostasis, neuronal and astroglial volume changes, and ion exchange with vasculature into a comprehensive model to elucidate the role of glutamate uptake in the dynamics of spreading depolarization (SD)-the electrophysiological event underlying numerous pathologies including migraine, ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, and trauma...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981616/spreading-depression-promotes-astrocytic-calcium-oscillations-and-enhances-gliotransmission-to-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Dong Chuan Wu, Rita Yu-Tzu Chen, Ting-Chun Cheng, Yao-Chang Chiang, Mei-Lin Shen, Li-Ling Hsu, Ning Zhou
Spreading depression (SD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon characterized by propagating waves of profound neuronal and glial depolarization in central nervous system gray matter. Although SD is primarily mediated by neurons with a subsequent astrocytic response, it remains unclear how astrocytic activity is modulated after SD and how altered astrocyte signaling contribute to neuronal excitability. Here, we report that after the concurrent Ca2+ wave, SD enhanced astrocytic activity by promoting a secondary period of Ca2+ oscillations...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969392/spreading-depolarization-and-acute-ischaemia-in-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-the-role-of-mass-depolarization-waves
#12
Shivani Ghoshal, Jan Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969382/subarachnoid-blood-acutely-induces-spreading-depolarizations-and-early-cortical-infarction
#13
Jed A Hartings, Jonathan York, Christopher P Carroll, Jason M Hinzman, Eric Mahoney, Bryan Krueger, Maren K L Winkler, Sebastian Major, Viktor Horst, Paul Jahnke, Johannes Woitzik, Vasilis Kola, Yifeng Du, Matthew Hagen, Jianxiong Jiang, Jens P Dreier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962806/cortical-spreading-depression-and-ischemia-in-neurocritical-patients
#14
REVIEW
Néstor Wainsztein, Federico Rodríguez Lucci
Spreading depolarization in cerebral cortex is associated with swelling of neurons, distortion of dendritic spines, massive ion translocation with a large change of the slow electrical potential, and silencing of brain electrical activity. The term spreading depression represents a wave of spontaneous activity of the electrocorticogram that propagates through contiguous cerebral gray matter at a characteristic velocity. Spreading depression is a consequence of cortical spreading depolarization. Therefore, spreading depolarization is not always accompanied by spreading depression and the terms are not synonymous...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951235/intranasally-administered-igf-1-inhibits-spreading-depression-in-vivo
#15
Yelena Y Grinberg, Lois A Zitzow, Richard P Kraig
Spreading depression (SD) is a wave of cellular depolarization that travels slowly through susceptible gray matter brain areas. SD is the most likely cause of migraine aura and perhaps migraine pain, and is a well-accepted animal model of migraine. Identification of therapeutics that can prevent SD may have clinical relevance toward migraine treatment. Here we show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) significantly inhibited neocortical SD in vivo after intranasal delivery to rats. A single dose of IGF-1 inhibited SD within an hour, and continued to protect for at least seven days thereafter...
December 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948141/simulation-of-spreading-depolarization-trajectories-in-cerebral-cortex-correlation-of-velocity-and-susceptibility-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Denny Milakara, Cristian Grozea, Markus Dahlem, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Janos Lückl, Michael Scheel, Vasilis Kola, Karl Schoknecht, Svetlana Lublinsky, Alon Friedman, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
In many cerebral grey matter structures including the neocortex, spreading depolarization (SD) is the principal mechanism of the near-complete breakdown of the transcellular ion gradients with abrupt water influx into neurons. Accordingly, SDs are abundantly recorded in patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and malignant hemispheric stroke using subdural electrode strips. SD is observed as a large slow potential change, spreading in the cortex at velocities between 2 and 9 mm/min...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941738/spreading-depolarization-is-not-an-epiphenomenon-but-the-principal-mechanism-of-the-cytotoxic-edema-in-various-gray-matter-structures-of-the-brain-during-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Jens P Dreier, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Alon Friedman, Karl Schoknecht
Spreading depolarization (SD) is a phenomenon of various cerebral gray matter structures that only occurs under pathological conditions. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from several decades of research that SD and cytotoxic edema in these structures are largely overlapping terms. SD/cytotoxic edema is a toxic state that - albeit initially reversible - leads eventually to cellular death when it is persistent. Both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke are among the most prominent causes of SD/cytotoxic edema...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928441/effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-on-spreading-depolarization-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#18
Ching-Huei Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Ting-Chun Cheng, Chin-Wei Huang, Yao-Chang Chiang, I-Han Hsiao, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Mei-Lin Shen, Dong Chuan Wu, Ning Zhou
Epilepsy and spreading depolarization (SD) are both episodic brain disorders and often exist together in the same individual. In CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal slices, induction of SD evoked epileptiform activities, including the ictal-like bursts, which occurred during the repolarizing phase of SD, and the subsequent generation of paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs), which are characterized by mild depolarization plateau with overriding spikes. The duration of the ictal-like activity was correlated with both the recovery time and the depolarization potential of SD, whereas the parameters of PDSs were not significantly correlated with the parameters of SD...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925885/spreading-depolarization-waves-in-neurological-diseases-a-short-review-about-its-pathophysiology-and-clinical-relevance
#19
Yağmur Çetin Taş, İhsan Solaroğlu, Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir
Lesion growth following acutely injured brain tissue after stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury is an important issue and a new target area for promising therapeutic interventions. Spreading depolarization or peri-lesion depolarization waves were demonstrated as one of the significant contributors of continued lesion growth. In this short review, we discuss the pathophysiology for SD forming events and try to list findings detected in neurological disorders like migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in both human as well as experimental studies...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916374/amp-activated-protein-kinase-protects-against-anoxia-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Justin J Evans, Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
During anoxia, proper energy maintenance is essential in order to maintain neural operation. Starvation activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved indicator of cellular energy status, in a cascade which modulates ATP production and consumption. We investigated the role of energetic status on anoxia tolerance in Drosophila and discovered that starvation or AMPK activation increases the speed of locomotor recovery from an anoxic coma. Using temporal and spatial genetic targeting we found that AMPK in the fat body contributes to starvation-induced fast locomotor recovery, whereas, under fed conditions, disrupting AMPK in oenocytes prolongs recovery...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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