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Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Sian Stephens, Elizabeth Ford, Priya Paudyal, Helen Smith
PURPOSE: Postnatal depression affects 10% to 15% of new mothers, and approximately 90% of cases are managed in primary care. Antidepressants are effective, but adherence is poor; therefore, psychological interventions must be investigated. In this systematic review, we assessed the efficacy of psychological therapies for postnatal depression in primary care. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search to identify articles published in English between 2000 and 2014 that reported studies meeting our eligibility criteria: (1) had a randomized controlled trial design; (2) assessed psychological interventions for postnatal depression against any other treatment or a wait-list control; (3) recruited patients in primary care; and (4) enrolled mothers with a diagnosed depressive episode or a score of at least 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or at least 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline who had a child younger than 12 months...
September 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
Mariano Martini, Ilaria Gorini, Marta Licata, Francesco De Stefano, Michele Schiavone, Rosagemma Ciliberti
The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Katie Pigott, Ilaria Galizia, Kamini Vasudev, Stuart Watson, John Geddes, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a common recurrent illness with high levels of chronicity. Previous trials have suggested that the anticonvulsant topiramate may be efficacious in bipolar disorder. This is an update of a previous Cochrane review (last published 2006) on the role of topiramate in bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of topiramate for acute mood episodes in bipolar disorder in adults compared to placebo, alternative pharmacological treatment, and combination pharmacological treatment as measured by treatment of symptoms on specific rating scales for individual episodes...
September 3, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J C Smith, David N Weisstub
Social order, to remain stable, needs the voluntary compliance of the majority of the population. Such consent requires normative justification. The rational foundation of the rule of law and the democratic state rests on the presumption of the equality of every citizen. Male domination of females nevertheless remains universal even in the most advanced democratic nation states because it is legitimized by the shared assumption that patriarchy reflects the will of God or is dictated by nature. Freud's diagnosis of patriarchy as a collective neurosis of the group mind negates every possible normative justification that can be made for gender hierarchy...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Aya Zaidel
Starting from his early writings, Freud devoted much thought to "obsessional neurosis" and continued developing this theme for more than thirty years. However, unlike the disorder hysteria, which in recent years has regained its honorable status in psychoanalytic literature, obsessional neurosis has been continually neglected and relegated to the fields of psychiatry and behavioral psychology, which emphasize the symptomatic and the overt. This process, by clinging to the objective aspects of obsessional neurosis and disassociating it from the instincts and from its historical sources, may itself be deemed obsessive...
August 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
Florent Poupart
Sigmund Freud considered the difficulty in defining masculinity and femininity from a psychic point of view as a hiatus in psychoanalytic theory. I contend that masculinity pertains to the centrifugal (to that which goes out, and ultimately to that which one loses), and femininity to the centripetal (to the appetency for taking the object into one's own internal space), whether one is considering their archaic roots or their genitalized culmination. The masculine/feminine pair draws support from the body (and, through anaclisis, from the subjective space), identified with a container that is liable already in the first psychic stages of life to empty itself of its own content and to be filled by a foreign content: the content is subjective in the masculine and object-related in the feminine...
June 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Tony Kendrick, Magdy El-Gohary, Beth Stuart, Simon Gilbody, Rachel Churchill, Laura Aiken, Abhishek Bhattacharya, Amy Gimson, Anna L Brütt, Kim de Jong, Michael Moore
BACKGROUND: Routine outcome monitoring of common mental health disorders (CMHDs), using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), has been promoted across primary care, psychological therapy and multidisciplinary mental health care settings, but is likely to be costly, given the high prevalence of CMHDs. There has been no systematic review of the use of PROMs in routine outcome monitoring of CMHDs across these three settings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of routine measurement and feedback of the results of PROMs during the management of CMHDs in 1) improving the outcome of CMHDs; and 2) in changing the management of CMHDs...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
YanYan Wei, TianHong Zhang, Annabelle Chow, YingYing Tang, LiHua Xu, YunFei Dai, XiaoHua Liu, Tong Su, Xiao Pan, Yi Cui, ZiQiang Li, KaiDa Jiang, ZePing Xiao, YunXiang Tang, JiJun Wang
BACKGROUND: The reported rates of personality disorder (PD) in subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) are quite varied across different countries, and less is known about the heterogeneity of PD among subjects with SZ. We examined the co-morbidity of PD among patients who are in the stable phase of SZ. METHOD: 850 subjects were randomly sampled from patients diagnosed with SZ in psychiatric and psycho-counseling clinics at Shanghai Mental Health Center. Co-morbidity of PDs was assessed through preliminary screening and patients were administered several modules of the SCID-II...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Tsukasa Kanchiku, Yasuaki Imajo, Hidenori Suzuki, Yuichiro Yoshida, Norihiro Nishida, Toshihiko Taguchi
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in adolescents diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis and to evaluate the efficacy of differential diagnosis methods. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of low-back pain in adolescence is similar to that in adults, but the causes of low-back pain are difficult to determine in most cases. For these patients, a definitive diagnosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis as well as adequate treatment are clinically important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment...
June 28, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Lillebeth Larun, Kjetil G Brurberg, Jan Odgaard-Jensen, Jonathan R Price
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elizabeth Ann Danto
Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Elena Romana Gasenzer
Franz Schrekers opera "Die Gezeichneten" is the artistically answer to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. The proceedings in this drama discuss some principles of psychoanalyses. The figures show typical psychological mechanisms like repression, sublimation or regression and also the typical symptoms of neurosis. During the date of origin of the opera, Freud's method of psychoanalysis becomes well known and a lot of physicians and psychologists begin with their education in it. Themes like the theory of sexuality by Freud were discussed in the Vienna society...
June 16, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Petros Skapinakis, Deborah Caldwell, William Hollingworth, Peter Bryden, Naomi Fineberg, Paul Salkovskis, Nicky Welton, Helen Baxter, David Kessler, Rachel Churchill, Glyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common and disabling condition. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the treatment of OCD in children, adolescents and adults. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Trials Registers, which includes trials from routine searches of all the major databases...
June 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Hui-yao Wang, Hu Nie, Wan-jun Guo, Tao Li, Wei-hong Kuang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution, diagnosis and treatment of patients with mental disorders in emergency department of a large general hospital. METHODS: Records of patients with mental disorders, who came for psychiatric diagnosis in the emergency department of West China Hospital of Sichuan University, during 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015 were reviewed. Data about demographic characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of those patients were extracted and analyzed...
March 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Gerhard Dahl
The now available unabridged correspondence between Freud and Abraham leads to a re-evaluation of the significance of Abraham's work. The author proposes the thesis that clinical observations by Karl Abraham of the ambivalence of object relations and the destructive-sadistic aspects of orality have an important influence on the advancement of psychoanalytical theory. The phantasy problem of the Wolf Man and the question of the pathogenic relevance of early actual, or merely imagined traumata led Freud to doubt the validity of his theory...
May 30, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
M A Kutlubaev
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common form of neurosis. Symptoms of OCD could develop as a sign of focal brain lesion, particularly in multiple sclerosis, extrapyramidal disorders, epilepsy, less frequently - in other diseases. Timely diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of OCD is an important aspect in the management of mentioned neurological disorders.
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
François Sirois
Dreams about the analytic session feature a manifest content in which the analytic setting is subject to distortion while the analyst appears undisguised. Such dreams are a consistent yet infrequent occurrence in most analyses. Their specificity consists in never reproducing the material conditions of the analysis as such. This paper puts forward the following hypothesis: dreams about the session relate to some aspects of the analyst's activity. In this sense, such dreams are indicative of the transference neurosis, prefiguring transference resistances to the analytic elaboration of key conflicts...
May 30, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Keith Hawton, Katrina G Witt, Tatiana L Taylor Salisbury, Ella Arensman, David Gunnell, Philip Hazell, Ellen Townsend, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common, often repeated, and associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review first published in 1998, previously updated in 1999, and now split into three separate reviews. This review focuses on psychosocial interventions in adults who engage in self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of specific psychosocial treatments versus treatment as usual, enhanced usual care or other forms of psychological therapy, in adults following SH...
May 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Edyta Dembińska, Krzysztof Rutkowski
This article presents the origins of Polish psychotherapy with a special focus on psychotherapy development in Krakow and at the Jagiellonian University. The history of Krakow psychotherapy starts with the foundation of the Psychiatry and Neuropathology Clinic of the Jagiellonian University in 1905. Doctors working in the Department of psychotherapy developed their skills through contacts with the Zurich University Psychiatric Clinic Burgholzli. At the same time psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis in particular, were raising more and more interest in Poland...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
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