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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811167/differences-in-mating-behavior-between-two-allopatric-populations-of-a-neotropical-scorpion
#1
Paola A Olivero, Camilo I Mattoni, Alfredo V Peretti
Courtship and mating behavior generally evolve rapidly in diverging populations and species. The adaptation to different environments may cause behavioral divergence in characteristics involved in mate choice. Our objective in this study was to compare the sexual behavior of two distant populations of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis. This species has a broad distribution in South America, inhabiting Central Argentina, Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil. It is known that in this species there is a divergence in morphological patterns (body size, coloration, allometry and fluctuating asymmetry indexes) among distant populations...
July 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807098/protective-effect-of-ozone-against-hemiscorpius-lepturus-envenomation-in-mice
#2
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Farshad Shahi, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mostafa Ghanei, Khadijeh Ashtari, Yoones Panahi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Morteza Izadi
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) stings are a public health concern in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern regions of Iran. The gold standard for the treatment of a scorpion sting is anti-venom therapy. However, immunotherapy can have serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock (which can sometimes even lead to death). The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the protective effect of ozone against toxicity induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) venom in mice...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793026/epidemiological-study-of-scorpion-stings-in-the-rio-grande-do-norte-state-northeastern-brazil
#3
Kaliany Adja Medeiros de Araújo, Aluska Vieira Tavares, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos Marques, Alecxandro Alves Vieira, Renner de Souza Leite
This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790503/mast-cells-and-ige-can-enhance-survival-during-innate-and-acquired-host-responses-to-venoms
#4
Stephen J Galli, Philipp Starkl, Thomas Marichal, Mindy Tsai
Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are thought to promote health by contributing to host responses to certain parasites, but other beneficial functions have remained obscure. Venoms provoke innate inflammatory responses and pathology reflecting the activities of the contained toxins. Venoms also can induce allergic sensitization and development of venom-specific IgE antibodies, which can predispose some subjects to exhibit anaphylaxis upon subsequent exposure to the relevant venom. We found that innate functions of mast cells, including degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, enhanced survival in mice injected with venoms from the honeybee, two species of scorpion, three species of poisonous snakes, or the Gila monster...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782041/a-bimodal-activation-mechanism-underlies-scorpion-toxin-induced-pain
#5
Shilong Yang, Fan Yang, Bei Zhang, Bo Hyun Lee, Bowen Li, Lei Luo, Jie Zheng, Ren Lai
Venomous animals use peptide toxins for hunting and self-defense. To achieve these goals, toxins need to bind to their targets with high affinity due to the small amount that a single bite or sting can deliver. The scorpion toxin BmP01 is linked to sting-induced excruciating pain; however, the reported minimum concentrations for activating TRPV1 channel or inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (both in the micromolar range) appear too high to be biologically relevant. We show that the effective concentration of BmP01 is highly pH-dependent-it increases by about 10-fold in inhibiting Kv channels upon a 1-U drop in pH but decreases more than 100-fold in activating TRPV1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776390/value-of-troponin-levels-in-the-diagnosis-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-moderate-scorpion-envenomation
#6
O Chakroun-Walha, R Karray, M Jerbi, A Ben Rebeh, C Jammeli, M Bahloul, R Ammar, I Chabchoub, M Bouaziz, A Nasri, N Rekik
CONTEXT: Cardiac dysfunction is one of the most serious consequences of scorpion envenomation. The best tool to evaluate cardiac function is echocardiography, but it is not available at all emergency departments. Many studies aimed to describe biological predictive factors of cardiac dysfunction in scorpion envenomation. Troponin is one of these biomarkers but its correlation with myocarditis is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation between troponin levels and cardiac dysfunction in moderate scorpion envenomation...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756775/the-house-spider-genome-reveals-an-ancient-whole-genome-duplication-during-arachnid-evolution
#7
Evelyn E Schwager, Prashant P Sharma, Thomas Clarke, Daniel J Leite, Torsten Wierschin, Matthias Pechmann, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Lauren Esposito, Jesper Bechsgaard, Trine Bilde, Alexandra D Buffry, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Cornelius Eibner, Cassandra G Extavour, Peter Funch, Jessica Garb, Luis B Gonzalez, Vanessa L Gonzalez, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Yi Han, Cheryl Hayashi, Maarten Hilbrant, Daniel S T Hughes, Ralf Janssen, Sandra L Lee, Ignacio Maeso, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Christian L B Paese, Jiaxin Qu, Matthew Ronshaugen, Christoph Schomburg, Anna Schönauer, Angelika Stollewerk, Montserrat Torres-Oliva, Natascha Turetzek, Bram Vanthournout, John H Werren, Carsten Wolff, Kim C Worley, Gregor Bucher, Richard A Gibbs, Jonathan Coddington, Hiroki Oda, Mario Stanke, Nadia A Ayoub, Nikola-Michael Prpic, Jean-François Flot, Nico Posnien, Stephen Richards, Alistair P McGregor
BACKGROUND: The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. RESULTS: We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes...
July 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753044/severe-bark-scorpion-envenomation-in-adults
#8
Ayrn D O'Connor, Angela Padilla-Jones, Anne-Michelle Ruha
INTRODUCTION: The preponderance of medical literature regarding severe bark scorpion envenomation describes pediatric patients; however, the majority (>66%) of annual poison center calls pertain to adults. This retrospective review sought to evaluate the clinical manifestations of adults with severe Centruroides sculpturatus envenomation and determine if significant morbidity occurred. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of adults presenting to a single tertiary referral center with Grade-III or Grade-IV scorpion envenomation from 1 January 2007 to 3 March 2013...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746406/multiple-approaches-to-understanding-the-taxonomic-status-of-an-enigmatic-new-scorpion-species-of-the-genus-tityus-buthidae-from-the-biogeographic-island-of-paraje-tres-cerros-argentina
#9
Andrés A Ojanguren-Affilastro, Renzo S Adilardi, Rodrigo Cajade, Martín J Ramírez, F Sara Ceccarelli, Liliana M Mola
Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735770/to4-the-first-tityus-obscurus-%C3%AE-toxin-fully-electrophysiologically-characterized-on-human-sodium-channel-isoforms
#10
Harry Morales Duque, Caroline Barbosa Farias Mourão, Diogo Vieira Tibery, Eder Alves Barbosa, Leandro Ambrósio Campos, Elisabeth Ferroni Schwartz
Many scorpion toxins that act on sodium channels (NaScTxs) have been characterized till date. These toxins may act modulating the inactivation or the activation of sodium channels and are named α- or β-types, respectively. Some venom toxins from Tityus obscurus (Buthidae), a scorpion widely distributed in the Brazilian Amazon, have been partially characterized in previous studies; however, little information about their electrophysiological role on sodium ion channels has been published. In the present study, we describe the purification, identification and electrophysiological characterization of a NaScTx, which was first described as Tc54 and further fully sequenced and renamed To4...
July 21, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718263/multi-organ-dysfunction-secondary-to-yellow-scorpion-sting
#11
Muhammad Faisal Khan, Hameed Ullah
Scorpion stings are common in tropical and subtropical regions. The history and clinical manifestation warrant urgent recognition and treatment. The incidence of scorpion stings in Pakistan is not known as there is no published data available in literature. We report our experience of a yellow scorpion sting victim who required intensive care admission after developing multi-organ dysfunction.
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712915/comparative-analyses-and-implications-for-antivenom-serotherapy-of-four-moroccan-scorpion-buthus-occitanus-venoms-subspecies-tunetanus-paris-malhommei-and-mardochei
#12
Bruna Luiza Emerich, Maria Elena De Lima, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Pierre E Bougis
Temporary passive immunity such as serotherapy against venoms requires the full knowledge of all venom's components. Here, four venoms from Moroccan common yellow scorpions belonging to Buthus occitanus, subspecies tunetanus, paris, malhommei, and mardochei, all collected in four different restricted areas, were analysed in deep. They were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their molecular masse profile determined by off-line MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Characterisation of their main components was achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antisera against the major lethal scorpion toxins identified so far, i...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700068/implication-of-tityus-apiacas-lourenco-2002-in-scorpion-envenomations-in-the-southern-amazon-border-brazil
#13
Bruna Andressa Jung da Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, André Alexandre Dos Santos Gomes, Anderson da Silva Souza, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Hui Wen Fan, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Herein, four cases of scorpion stings caused by Tityus apiacas recorded from the municipality of Apuí, in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, are described. Patients showed systemic clinical manifestations, described as unusual, involuntary, and generalized tingling and numbness, reported by patients as an electric shock sensation, lasting up to 24 hours after the sting. All patients described local pain and sensation, along with other clinical symptoms including local edema and erythema. Systemic manifestations were not life threatening...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699006/adsorption-and-mineralization-of-ree-lanthanum-onto-bacterial-cell-surface
#14
Yangjian Cheng, Li Zhang, Xiaojing Bian, Hongyang Zuo, Hailiang Dong
A large number of rare earth element mining and application resulted in a series of problems of soil and water pollution. Environmental remediation of these REE-contaminated sites has become a top priority. This paper explores the use of Bacillus licheniformis to adsorb lanthanum and subsequent mineralization process in contaminated water. The maximum adsorption capacity of lanthanum on bacteria was 113.98 mg/g (dry weight) biomass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data indicated that adsorbed lanthanum on bacterial cell surface occurred in an amorphous form at the initial stage...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695745/treating-autoimmune-disorders-with-venom-derived-peptides
#15
Bingzheng Shen, Zhijian Cao, Wenxin Li, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Yingliang Wu
The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689960/scorpion-stings-in-jordan-an-update
#16
Zuhair S Amr, Renad Al Zou'bi, Nour Abdo, Rihan Bani Hani
OBJECTIVE: Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Jordan encountered by health providers in all parts of the country. This study updates epidemiological data on scorpion sting encounters in Jordan. METHODS: Data on scorpion sting encounters were obtained from government and military hospitals around the country, and the National Drug and Poison Information Center (NDPIC). P values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using SPSS Professional Statistics Package version 22 (IBM Corp...
July 6, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689025/venom-derived-peptide-inhibitors-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#17
REVIEW
Raymond S Norton, K George Chandy
Voltage-gated potassium channels play a key role in human physiology and pathology. Reflecting their importance, numerous channelopathies have been characterised that arise from mutations in these channels or from autoimmune attack on the channels. Voltage-gated potassium channels are also the target of a broad range of peptide toxins from venomous organisms, including sea anemones, scorpions, spiders, snakes and cone snails; many of these peptides bind to the channels with high potency and selectivity. In this review we describe the various classes of peptide toxins that block these channels and illustrate the broad range of three-dimensional structures that support channel blockade...
July 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669947/-larvicidal-activity-of-recombinant-escherichia-coli-expressing-scorpion-neurotoxin-aait-or-b-t-i-toxin-cyt2ba-against-mosquito-larvae-and-formulations-for-enhancing-the-effects
#18
Sheng-Qun Deng, Ming-Zhi Deng, Jia-Ting Chen, Li-Lan Zheng, Hong-Juan Peng
OBJECTIVE: To assess the larvicidal effects of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing scorpion neurotoxin AaIT or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis (B.t.i) toxin Cyt2Ba against the second instar larvae of Culex pipiensquinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus and compare different formulations for their larvicidal effects. METHODS: The AaIT- or Cyt2Ba-coding sequences were cloned into pET28a(+) and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3)...
June 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668647/toxicological-evaluation-of-the-aqueous-whole-plant-extract-of-aerva-lanata-l-juss-ex-schult-amaranthaceae
#19
Kayode S Omotoso, Flora R Aigbe, Olanrewaju A Salako, Micah C Chijioke, Oluwafunmilayo O Adeyemi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerva lanata (L.) of the family Amaranthaceae is a Nigerian medicinal plant used traditionally for the management of lithiasis, headache, renal disorder, haematemesis, bronchitis, nasal bleeding, cough, scorpion stings, fractures and spermatorrhoea. Studies that show the pharmacological basis for some of such uses have been reported. There is, however, no scientific report on its toxicity profile to the best of our knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was therefore aimed at investigating the toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Aerva lanata...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668484/a-new-genus-and-species-of-scorpion-from-burma-myanmar-scorpiones-scorpiopidae-implications-for-the-taxonomy-of-the-family
#20
Wilson R Lourenço
Plethoscorpiops profusus gen. n., sp. n., belonging to the family Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905 is described on the basis of two specimens, one adult female and one male juvenile collected in the Saddan Cave, in Kayin State, Hpa-An, Burma (Myanmar). This new scorpion taxon most certainly represents an endemic element for the fauna of Burma and seems to be strictly distributed inside the cave system. The new genus is characterized by a previously unknown and totally unique plethotaxic trichobothrial pattern within the family Scorpiopidae...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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