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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813434/detection-of-anti-hspx-antibodies-and-hspx-protein-in-patient-sera-for-the-identification-of-recent-latent-infection-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Jorge Castro-Garza, Paola García-Jacobo, Lydia G Rivera-Morales, Frederick D Quinn, James Barber, Russell Karls, Debra Haas, Shelly Helms, Tuhina Gupta, Henry Blumberg, Jane Tapia, Itza Luna-Cruz, Adrián Rendon, Javier Vargas-Villarreal, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB) a spectrum of disease including acute and asymptomatic latent stages. Identifying and treating latently-infected patients constitutes one of the most important impediments to TB control efforts. Those individuals can remain undiagnosed for decades serving as potential reservoirs for disease reactivation. Tests for the accurate diagnosis of latent infection currently are unavailable. HspX protein (α-crystallin), encoded by Rv2031c gene, is produced in vitro by M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803492/rifampin-vs-rifapentine-what-is-the-preferred-rifamycin-for-tuberculosis
#2
Omamah Alfarisi, Wael A Alghamdi, Mohammad H Al-Shaer, Kelly E Dooley, Charles A Peloquin
One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can progress to tuberculosis disease, the leading cause of death by infection. Rifamycin antibiotics, like rifampin and rifapentine, have unique sterilizing activity against M.tb. What are the advantages of each for LTBI or tuberculosis treatment? Areas covered: We review studies assessing the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), drug interaction risk, safety, and efficacy of rifampin and rifapentine and provide basis for comparing them...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802407/immunological-characterization-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-low-endemic-country
#3
Roelof A de Paus, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Corine Prins, Margreet H Kamphorst, Sandra M Arend, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
The diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is based on detection of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The tuberculin skin test (TST), the Quantiferon (QFT) and a prolonged lymphocyte stimulation test using either ESAT-6/CFP-10 (LST-EC) or PPD (LST-PPD) were evaluated in a cohort of 495 individuals, suspected to have LTBI, in a low endemic country. While the TST and LST-PPD were both positive in the majority (75%) of individuals, only one third responded in the LST-EC and in the QFT...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802403/analytical-evaluation-of-quantiferon-plus-and-quantiferon-gold-in-tube-assays-in-subjects-with-or-without-tuberculosis
#4
E Petruccioli, V Vanini, T Chiacchio, G Cuzzi, D M Cirillo, F Palmieri, G Ippolito, D Goletti
The QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) represents the new QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The main differences is the addition of a new tube containing shorter peptides stimulating CD8 T-cells. Aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of QFT-Plus compared with QFT-GIT in a cross sectional study of individuals with or without tuberculosis (TB). We enrolled 179 participants: 19 healthy donors, 58 LTBI, 33 cured TB and 69 active TB. QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT were performed...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794233/characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cells-using-mhc-class-ii-tetramers-reveals-phenotypic-differences-related-to-hiv-infection-and-tuberculosis-disease
#5
Natalie Strickland, Tracey L Müller, Natacha Berkowitz, Rene Goliath, Mary N Carrington, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers, Catherine Riou
A major challenge for the development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is that the attributes of protective CD4(+) T cell responses are still elusive for human TB. Infection with HIV type 1 is a major risk factor for TB, and a better understanding of HIV-induced alterations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells that leads to failed host resistance may provide insight into protective T cell immunity to TB. A total of 86 participants from a TB-endemic setting, either HIV-infected or uninfected and with latent or active TB (aTB), were screened using M...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793935/utilization-of-electronic-health-record-events-to-conduct-a-tuberculosis-contact-investigation-in-a-high-risk-oncology-unit
#6
Shauna C Usiak, Fabian A Romero, Patrice Schwegman, Violet Fitzpatrick, MaryAnn Connor, Janet Eagan, Arthur E Brown, Mini Kamboj
OBJECTIVE To describe the utilization of electronic medical data resources, including health records and nursing scheduling resources, to conduct a tuberculosis (TB) exposure investigation in a high-risk oncology unit. SETTING A 42-bed inpatient unit with a mix of surgical and medical patients at a large tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. PARTICIPANTS High-risk subjects and coworkers exposed to a healthcare worker (HCW) with cavitary smear positive lung TB. RESULTS During the 3-month exposure period, 270 patients were admitted to the unit; 137 of these (50...
August 10, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793025/environmental-aspects-related-to-tuberculosis-and-intestinal-parasites-in-a-low-income-community-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#7
Biatriz Araújo Cardoso, Fabio de Oliveira Fonseca, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza Martins, Nissa Vilhena da Silva Oliveira, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Maria Helena Féres Saad
We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789982/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-and-predominant-clones-among-the-multidrug-resistant-isolates-in-spain-1998-2005
#8
Sofía Samper, Patricia Gavín, Isabel Millán, María José Iglesias, María Soledad Jiménez, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi
Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is gradually decreasing in Spain, there is an increase in the proportion of foreign-born cases. This changing scenario is slowly shifting the local TB epidemiology from endemic to imported cases with an increased risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MDR/XDR strains from Spain (n=366 MTBC isolates, 1 strain per patient) isolated between 1998 and 2005 were retained for this retrospective analysis...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777204/better-completion-of-pediatric-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-using-4-months-of-rifampin-in-a-us-based-tuberculosis-clinic
#9
James Gaensbauer, Kaylynn Aiona, Michelle Haas, Randall Reves, Janine Young, Robert Belknap
BACKGROUND: Children less than five years of age have the highest age-specific rate of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. Therefore, regimens for treatment of pediatric LTBI must be not only efficacious but practical enough to overcome the unique childhood barriers to regimen adherence. Since 2012, a 4-month regimen of daily rifampin (4R) has been the standard recommendation for pediatric LTBI at the Denver Metro Tuberculosis Clinic (DMTBC). METHODS: Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we compared treatment completion rates between 4R and 9-month isoniazid (9H) regimens for all pediatric patients treated for LTBI at the DMTBC between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2015, and assessed the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics on successful completion of the two regimens...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776518/fighting-tuberculosis-by-drugs-targeting-nonreplicating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-bacilli
#11
REVIEW
Angelo Iacobino, Giovanni Piccaro, Federico Giannoni, Alessandro Mustazzolu, Lanfranco Fattorini
Current tuberculosis (TB) treatment requires 6 months of combination therapy with isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol for active TB and 9 months of INH or 3 months of rifapentine (RFP) + INH for latent TB. The lungs of patients with active and latent TB contain heterogeneous mixtures of cellular and caseous granulomas harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli ranging from actively replicating (AR) to nonreplicating (NR), phenotypically drug-resistant stages. Several in vitro models to obtain NR cells were reported, including exposure to hypoxia, nutrient starvation, acid + nitric oxide, and stationary phase...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774674/concurrent-hepatic-tuberculosis-and-hepatic-graft-versus-host-disease-in-an-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#12
Z Zhao, W Q Leow
BACKGROUND: Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are among the most common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With well-known risk factors including allogeneic HSCT and GVHD, tuberculosis (TB) has a higher incidence and shorter survival rate in HSCT recipients than in the general population. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Indonesian female with a history of latent TB was found to have acute myeloid leukemia 3 months after allogeneic HSCT...
July 31, 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764156/improved-serodiagnostic-sensitivity-of-strip-test-for-latent-tuberculosis
#13
Songsri Kasempimolporn, Wichit Thaveekarn, Kanyanat Promrungreang, Orawan Khow, Supatsorn Boonchang, Visith Sitprija
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) is difficult due to no clinical manifestations. Cases of LTBI are mostly sputum negative. The World Health Organization recommends the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) as the current diagnostic standard for LTBI. Our previously developed serologic strip test for LTBI detection had suboptimal sensitivity. Additional Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (MTB) latency-associated antigens may improve the detection rate of LTBI. AIM: The present study aimed to optimize sensitivity of existing strip test...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761946/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-an-updated-network-meta-analysis
#14
Dominik Zenner, Netta Beer, Ross J Harris, Marc C Lipman, Helen R Stagg, Marieke J van der Werf
Background: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of tuberculosis (TB) control, and this study updates a previous network meta-analysis of the best LTBI treatment options to inform public health action and programmatic management of LTBI. Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and harms of LTBI treatment regimens aimed at preventing active TB among adults and children. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from indexing to 8 May 2017; clinical trial registries; and conference abstracts...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760884/hiv-1-infection-is-associated-with-depletion-and-functional-impairment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Cheryl L Day, Deborah A Abrahams, Levelle D Harris, Michele van Rooyen, Lynnett Stone, Marwou de Kock, Willem A Hanekom
Coinfection with HIV is the single greatest risk factor for reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progression to active tuberculosis disease. HIV-associated dysregulation of adaptive immunity by depletion of CD4 Th cells most likely contributes to loss of immune control of LTBI in HIV-infected individuals, although the precise mechanisms whereby HIV infection impedes successful T cell-mediated control of M. tuberculosis have not been well defined. To further delineate mechanisms whereby HIV impairs protective immunity to M...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759253/differential-recognition-of-mtb-specific-epitopes-as-a-function-of-tuberculosis-disease-history
#16
Thomas J Scriba, Chelsea Carpenter, Sebastian Carrasco Pro, John Sidney, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Virginie Rozot, Grégory Seumois, Sandy L Rosales, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Delia Goletti, Edward Makgotlho, Willem Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn
RATIONALE: Individuals with a history of tuberculosis disease are at elevated risk of disease recurrance. The underlying cause is not known, but one explanation is that previous disease results in less effective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the repertoire of Mtb-derived epitopes recognized by T cells from individuals with latent Mtb infection (LTBI) differs as a function of previous diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756786/negative-latent-tuberculosis-at-time-of-incarceration-identifying-a-very-high-risk-group-for-infection
#17
L Arroyave, Y Keynan, L López, D Marin, M P Arbeláez, Z V Rueda
The main aim was to measure the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and identify risk factors associated with infection. In addition, we determined the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify LTBI and active tuberculosis. We followed 129 prisoners for 2 years following a negative two-step tuberculin skin test (TST). The cumulative incidence of TST conversion over 2 years was 29·5% (38/129), among the new TST converters, nine developed active TB. Among persons with no evidence of LTBI, the NNS to identify a LTBI case was 3·4 and an active TB case was 14·3...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752079/unique-chemokine-profiles-of-lung-tissues-distinguish-post-chemotherapeutic-persistent-and-chronic-tuberculosis-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Soomin Park, Seung-Hun Baek, Sang-Nae Cho, Young-Saeng Jang, Ahreum Kim, In-Hong Choi
There is a substantial need for biomarkers to distinguish latent stage from active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, for predicting disease progression. To induce the reactivation of tuberculosis, we present a new experimental animal model modified based on the previous model established by our group. In the new model, the reactivation of tuberculosis is induced without administration of immunosuppressive agents, which might disturb immune responses. To identify the immunological status of the persistent and chronic stages, we analyzed immunological genes in lung tissues from mice infected with M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751410/evaluating-17%C3%A2-years-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-screening-in-north-west-england-a-retrospective-cohort-study%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-reactivation
#19
Dominik Zenner, Miranda G Loutet, Ross Harris, Stephen Wilson, L Peter Ormerod
Approximately 72% of tuberculosis (TB) cases in England occur among non-UK born individuals, mostly as a result of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI). Programmatic LTBI screening is a key intervention of the TB strategy for England. This article reviews the results of a long-standing LTBI screening initiative in England.A retrospective cohort was created through probabilistic linkage between LTBI screening data and national TB case notifications. Screened persons were followed until they died, became a case, emigrated or until cohort-end...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751171/use-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-ip-10-detection-in-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#20
Raquel Villar-Hernández, Irene Latorre, Sonia Mínguez, Jéssica Díaz, Esther García-García, Beatriz Muriel-Moreno, Alicia Lacoma, Cristina Prat, Alex Olivé, Morten Ruhwald, Lourdes Mateo, José Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Biologic agents are used against rheumatic diseases, however, they increase the risk of developing severe infections and diseases such as tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the benefits of IP-10 detection to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases on different immunosuppressive drug regimens, and compare these results with IFN-γ detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 64 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Infection
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