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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646966/a-systematic-approach-to-diagnosing-intra-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#1
Carlos M Perez-Velez, Claudia L Roya-Pabon, Ben J Marais
Children suffer a huge and often underappreciated burden of disease in tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries. Major hurdles include limited awareness among health care workers, poor integration of TB into maternal and child health approaches, diagnostic difficulties and a lack of child-friendly treatment options. Accurate disease diagnosis is particularly difficult in young and vulnerable children who tend to develop paucibacillary disease and are unable to produce an expectorated sputum sample. In addition, access to chest radiography is problematic in resource-limited settings...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646434/performance-of-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-in-children-receiving-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs
#2
Francesca Gabriele, Maria Trachana, Maria Simitsopoulou, Polixeni Pratsidou-Gertsi, Elias Iosifidis, Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of the Quantiferon(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) interferon (IFN)-γ assay for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in children receiving anti-rheumatic treatment in a tertiary referral hospital of Northern Greece. METHODS: A total of 79 consecutive children receiving anti-rheumatic treatment [of which 18 screened prior to antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment] were tested using Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT-IT...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643624/preclinical-efficacy-testing-of-new-drug-candidates
#3
Eric L Nuermberger
This is a review of the preclinical efficacy testing of new antituberculosis drug candidates. It describes existing dynamic in vitro and in vivo models of antituberculosis chemotherapy and their utility in preclinical evaluations of promising new drugs and combination regimens, with an effort to highlight recent developments. Emphasis is given to the integration of quantitative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses and the impact of lesion pathology on drug efficacy. Discussion also includes in vivo models of chemotherapy of latent tuberculosis infection...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640908/evaluating-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-southern-part-of-germany-a-latent-class-analysis
#4
Valerie-Beau Pucken, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer, Dörte Döpfer, Andreas Groll, Angela Hafner-Marx, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Carola Sauter-Louis, Reinhard K Straubinger, Pia Zimmermann, Sonja Hartnack
Germany has been officially free of bovine tuberculosis since 1996. However, in the last years there has been an increase of bovine tuberculosis cases, particularly in the southern part of Germany, in the Allgäu region. As a consequence a one-time tuberculosis surveillance program was revisited with different premortal and postmortal tests. The aim of this paper was to estimate diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the different tests used within this surveillance program. In the absence of a perfect test with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, thus in the absence of a gold standard, a Bayesian latent class approach with two different datasets was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636589/identifying-specificity-groups-in-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire
#5
Jacob Glanville, Huang Huang, Allison Nau, Olivia Hatton, Lisa E Wagar, Florian Rubelt, Xuhuai Ji, Arnold Han, Sheri M Krams, Christina Pettus, Nikhil Haas, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Scott D Boyd, Thomas J Scriba, Olivia M Martinez, Mark M Davis
T cell receptor (TCR) sequences are very diverse, with many more possible sequence combinations than T cells in any one individual. Here we define the minimal requirements for TCR antigen specificity, through an analysis of TCR sequences using a panel of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (pMHC)-tetramer-sorted cells and structural data. From this analysis we developed an algorithm that we term GLIPH (grouping of lymphocyte interactions by paratope hotspots) to cluster TCRs with a high probability of sharing specificity owing to both conserved motifs and global similarity of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635184/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-isothiosemicarbazones-with-antimycobacterial-activity
#6
Eva Novotná, Karel Waisser, Jiří Kuneš, Karel Palát, Lenka Skálová, Barbora Szotáková, Vladimír Buchta, Jiřina Stolaříková, Vít Ulmann, Marcela Pávová, Jan Weber, Jitka Komrsková, Pavlína Hašková, Ivan Vokřál, Vladimír Wsól
A series of benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde-S-benzylisothiosemicarbazones was synthesized and tested against 12 different strains of mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the significant selectivity toward mycobacteria was proved. Twenty-eight derivatives were evaluated for the inhibition of isocitrate lyase, which is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle necessary for latent tuberculosis infection, and their iron-chelating properties were investigated. Two derivatives, 5-bromosalicylaldehyde-S-(4-fluorobenzyl)-isothiosemicarbazone and salicylaldehyde-S-(4-bromobenzyl)-isothiosemicarbazone, influenced the isocitrate lyase activity and caused a better inhibition at 10 μmol/L than 3-nitropropionic acid, a standard inhibitor...
June 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628015/latent-tuberculosis-potential-biomarkers-reactivation-of-infection
#7
I Pantsulaia, N Kikodze, T Chikovani
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most important infectious causes of death worldwide. Despite substantial investments and progress made in expansion of directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) strategy, improved treatment completion rates and inadequate case detection remains a major obstacle for global control of Tuberculosis. The global case detection rate has increased from 28% to 60%. However, it is estimated that approximately 50% of patients with tuberculosis are still not diagnosed or treated appropriately...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625141/bedaquiline-a-new-hope-for-shorter-and-better-anti-tuberculosis-regimens
#8
Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Federica Magnè, Lucia Taramasso, Antonio Di Biagio
In 2014, an estimated 1.8 million people died from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB); moreover, 680,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Currently available anti-MDR and XDR regimens are long-lasting and expensive, need high adherence and are undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, thus leading to a low success rate; moreover, in the last 50 years only two new molecules, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid, have been approved and released for treatment of MDR-TB. BDQ is a diarylquinoline anti-mycobacterial drug, active regardless the state of MTB; in fact, its efficacy is conserved against replicating and non-replicating bacilli, despite extracellular or intracellular location...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625040/vitamin-d-status-in-under-five-children-with-a-history-of-close-tuberculosis-contact-in-padang-west-sumatra
#9
Finny Fitry Yani, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto, Bambang Supriyatno, Eryati Darwin, Darfioes Basir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum vitamin D influences cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in under-five children. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent in Indonesia. This study described the association of serum vitamin D in the incidence of latent TB in under-five children with a history of close TB contact. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examined 178 under-five children with a history of close TB contact, with 98 index cases from primary health care facilities in Padang...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622258/tuberculosis-still-an-emerging-threat
#10
Carol Johnson, K Alexis Moore, Jacqueline Patterson-Johnson
Primary care providers must be aggressive in their assessment and screening of tuberculosis (TB) infection, which is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This article highlights the overall management of TB infection including the appropriate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of both latent and active infection.
July 15, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620394/vitamin-d-counteracts-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-cathelicidin-downregulation-in-dendritic-cells-and-allows-th1-differentiation-and-ifn%C3%AE-secretion
#11
Anna K O Rode, Martin Kongsbak, Marie M Hansen, Daniel Villalba Lopez, Trine B Levring, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Charlotte M Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler
Tuberculosis (TB) presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world's population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617582/liquid-crystal-based-immunosensor-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-clinical-specimens
#12
Hyeong Jin Kim, Jinseob Rim, Chang-Hyun Jang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global health problem, although it is easily preventable and curable. The prevalence of TB is caused by a lack of simple, rapid, cheap, and effective TB diagnostic tests. In this study, we have established a novel liquid crystal (LC)-based immunosensor to diagnose TB in clinical specimens. The clinical serum samples were incubated on a TB antigen-immobilized substrate, and their optical LC responses were observed using a polarized light microscope. Specific binding of anti-TB antibodies to the TB antigen-immobilized surface only occurred in clinical specimens from TB patients, inducing the disruption of the orientation of LCs...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610785/chemokines-additional-to-ifn-%C3%AE-can-be-used-to-differentiate-among-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-possibilities-and-provide-evidence-of-an-early-clearance-phenotype
#13
Ditthawat Nonghanphithak, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, Wises Namwat, Vivek Naranbhai, Kiatichai Faksri
Current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) remain limited in their ability to discriminate between active TB (ATB) and latent TB infection (LTBI). Early clearance (EC) of TB by individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a debated phenomenon for which evidence is lacking. We measured and compared secreted chemokines in the plasma fraction from 48 ATB, 38 LTBI, 162 presumed EC and 39 healthy controls (HC) using the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube assay. Single chemokine markers were limited in their ability to discriminate between ATB and LTBI: IFN-γ showed 16...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609574/factors-associated-with-the-choice-of-the-first-biologic-in-psoriasis-real-life-analysis-from-the-psobioteq-cohort
#14
Emilie Sbidian, Caroline Giboin, Hervé Bachelez, Carle Paul, Marie Beylot-Barry, Alain Dupuy, Manuelle Viguier, Jean-Philippe Lacour, Jean-Luc Schmutz, Pierre Bravard, Emmanuel Mahé, Nathalie Beneton, Laurent Misery, Emmanuel Delaporte, Philippe Modiano, Sébastien Barbarot, Elodie Regnier, Denis Jullien, Marie-Aleth Richard, Pascal Joly, Florence Tubach, Olivier Chosidow
BACKGROUND: Decision making is a complex process. The aim of our study was to assess factors associated with the choice of the first biological treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. METHODS: Data on all patients included in the French prospective, observational, cohort, Psobioteq and initiating a first biologic prescription between July 2012 and July 2016 were analysed. Demographic information and clinical features were collected during routine clinical assessments by the dermatology team at the recruiting centres using a standardized case report form...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605520/serial-tuberculosis-screening-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-under-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy
#15
Cândida Abreu, Joana Afonso, Cláudia Camila Dias, Rogério Ruas, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro
Background and aims: One of the adverse effects of the tumour necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is a higher propensity for tuberculosis development. The aim of this study was to explore the utility and sensitivity of serial tuberculosis screening during anti-TNFα treatment. Methods: A cohort of 46 inflammatory bowel disease patients on infliximab was prospectively recruited and followed for 26 months...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604316/when-students-become-patients-tb-disease-among-medical-undergraduates-in-cape-town-south-africa
#16
Helene-Mari Van der Westhuizen, Angela Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#17
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
June 8, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601524/rifampin-stability-and-solution-concentration-enhancement-through-amorphous-solid-dispersion-in-cellulose-%C3%AF-carboxyalkanoate-matrices
#18
Hale Çiğdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Junia M Pereira, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease; approximately 2 billion people are currently latently infected with the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 8 million new active cases and 2 million deaths due to TB are recorded annually(1). Rifampin (Rif) is a vital first line TB treatment drug. Its effectiveness is hampered by the high dose required (600 mg 1x/day) and by its moderate, variable bioavailability. These issues can be explained by Rif instability at gastric pH, limited solubility at neutral pH, polymorphism, and stimulation of its own metabolism...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598206/a-novel-in-vitro-human-granuloma-model-of-sarcoidosis-and-latent-tb-infection
#19
Elliott D Crouser, Peter White, Evelyn Guirado Caceres, Mark W Julian, Audrey C Papp, Landon W Locke, Wolfgang Sadee, Larry S Schlesinger
Many aspects of pathogenic granuloma formation are poorly understood requiring new relevant laboratory models that represent the complexity (genetics and diversity) of human disease. To address this need, we developed an in vitro model of granuloma formation using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with active sarcoidosis, latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), or normal healthy controls. PBMCs were incubated for 7 days with uncoated polystyrene beads or beads coated with purified protein derivative (PPD) or human serum albumin (HSA)...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597820/oxidative-phosphorylation-as-a-target-space-for-tuberculosis-success-caution-and-future-directions
#20
Gregory M Cook, Kiel Hards, Elyse Dunn, Adam Heikal, Yoshio Nakatani, Chris Greening, Dean C Crick, Fabio L Fontes, Kevin Pethe, Erik Hasenoehrl, Michael Berney
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens, and our inability to develop new antimicrobials to combat resistance, have inspired scientists to seek out new targets for drug development. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a group of obligately aerobic bacteria that have specialized for inhabiting a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Two fundamental features in this adaptation are the flexible utilization of energy sources and continued metabolism in the absence of growth...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
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