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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#1
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787713/interferon-gamma-release-assay-performance-in-northeastern-brazil-influence-of-the-ifng-874-a-t-polymorphism
#2
Valdirene Leão Carneiro, Maria Teresita Bendicho, Rosalina Guedes Santos, Marilda Casela, Eduardo M Netto, Scarlet Torres Moraes Mota, Iza Cristina Araújo Pina, Roberto Meyer Nascimento, Songeli Menezes Freire, Theolis Barbosa
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis based on the release of interferon-gamma in cultures of peripheral blood cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens has replaced the tuberculin skin test in many countries with low tuberculosis prevalence. The IFN-γ production can be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, of which the IFNG+874 (rs62559044) locus is the most studied. We investigated the possible influence of the IFNG+874 A/T polymorphism on interferon-gamma test performance...
May 19, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785015/frequent-transmission-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-lineage-and-positive-selection-for-the-esxw-beijing-variant-in-vietnam
#3
Kathryn E Holt, Paul McAdam, Phan Vuong Khac Thai, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Huu Lan, Nguyen Thi Quynh Nhu, Hoang Thanh Hai, Vu Thi Ngoc Ha, Guy Thwaites, David J Edwards, Artika P Nath, Kym Pham, David B Ascher, Jeremy Farrar, Chiea Chuen Khor, Yik Ying Teo, Michael Inouye, Maxine Caws, Sarah J Dunstan
To examine the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolated from tuberculosis patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, we sequenced the whole genomes of 1,635 isolates and compared these with 3,144 isolates from elsewhere. The data identify an underlying burden of disease caused by the endemic Mtb lineage 1 associated with the activation of long-term latent infection, and a threefold higher burden associated with the more recently introduced Beijing lineage and lineage 4 Mtb strains. We find that Beijing lineage Mtb is frequently transferred between Vietnam and other countries, and detect higher levels of transmission of Beijing lineage strains within this host population than the endemic lineage 1 Mtb...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783726/case-report-of-isoniazid-related-acute-liver-failure-requiring-liver-transplantation
#4
Andrew A Li, Pratima Dibba, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States in 2011 and 2012 was estimated at 4.4⁻4.8%. As of 2015, 12.4 million people still possessed LTBI. Isoniazid, or isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH), is the most commonly used medication among varying regimens that exist in the treatment of tuberculosis and LTBI. INH-related hepatotoxicity is a well-known adverse effect of its use, often causing asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels. These elevations are typically transient and reversible, but can cause acute, clinically-significant liver injury in rare cases...
May 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780582/the-convergent-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-and-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
Frank Cobelens, Nico Nagelkerke, Helen Fletcher
Although several factors are known to increase the risk of tuberculosis, the occurrence of tuberculosis disease in an infected individual is difficult to predict. We hypothesize that active human cytomegalovirus infection due to recent infection, reinfection or reactivation plays an epidemiologically relevant role in the aetiology of tuberculosis by precipitating the progression from latent tuberculosis infection to disease. The most compelling support for this hypothesis comes from the striking similarity in age-sex distribution between the two infections, important because the age-sex pattern of tuberculosis disease progression has not been convincingly explained...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779770/normalised-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-uveitis
#6
Manas Ranjan Barik, Soveeta Rath, Rohit Modi, Rajkishori Rana, Mamatha M Reddy, Soumyava Basu
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis of tuberculosis-associated uveitis (TBU) in TB-endemic countries is challenging due to likelihood of latent mycobacterial infection in both immune and non-immune cells. In this study, we investigated normalised quantitative PCR (nqPCR) in ocular fluids (aqueous/vitreous) for diagnosis of TBU in a TB-endemic population. Mycobacterial copy numbers (mpb64 gene) were normalised to host genome copy numbers (RNAse P RNA component H1 [RPPH1] gene) in TBU (n = 16) and control (n = 13) samples (discovery cohort)...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779767/novel-red-fluorescence-protein-based-microplate-assay-for-drug-screening-against-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-paraffin
#7
Amar Yeware, Dhiman Sarkar
The hypoxia model of dormancy is widely used in drug screening programs to identify novel inhibitors against latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease. In earlier reported microplate assays, hypoxia was maintained by either sealing the microplate or shifting in an anaerobic chamber to develop dormant phenotype. In these assays, inhibitors were added during inoculation, which mainly represents the active stage inhibitors instead of the dormant ones. Herein, the culture was covered with paraffin to develop hypoxia condition and consequently providing the advantage of adding compounds at any stage during incubation of 96-well plate...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#8
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778672/defective-myd88-and-irak4-but-not-tlr-2-expression-in-hiv-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Ramulu Gaddam, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
HIV infection markedly increases the likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection progressing to active TB. Information on expression of TLR-2, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), IL-1R- associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in HIV+LTBI+ and HIV+ patients with active TB disease is limited. We found significantly higher percentages of CD14+TLR2+ cells in PBMCs of HIV+LTBI+ patients compared to HIV-LTBI+ individuals. γ-irradiated Mtb was unable to induce MyD88, IRAK4 expression and IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 production in HIV+LTBI+ patients...
May 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778396/how-effective-are-approaches-to-migrant-screening-for-infectious-diseases-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Farah Seedat, Sally Hargreaves, Laura B Nellums, Jing Ouyang, Michael Brown, Jon S Friedland
Rates of migration to Europe, and within Europe, have increased in recent years, with considerable implications for health systems. Migrants in Europe face a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C, yet experience a large number of barriers to accessing statutory health care on arrival. A better understanding of how to deliver effective and cost-effective screening, vaccination, and health services to this group is now crucial. We did a systematic review to document and assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of approaches used for infectious diseases screening, and to explore facilitators and barriers experienced by migrants to accessing screening programmes...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777718/malnutrition-is-associated-with-diminished-baseline-and-mycobacterial-antigen-stimulated-chemokine-responses-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Rajamanickam Anuradha, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Chandrakumar Dolla, Subash Babu
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated a diminution in the baseline and mycobacterial antigen - specific cytokines in low body mass index (LBMI) individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We hypothesized that LBMI might be also associated with alteration in the baseline and antigen - stimulated levels of chemokines in LTBI. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we examined baseline, TB- antigen and mitogen stimulated levels of chemokines in these individuals and compared them with those with LTBI and normal BMI (NBMI)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775913/mobile-phone-based-evaluation-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-proof-of-concept-for-an-integrated-image-capture-and-analysis-system
#12
Safa Naraghi, Tinashe Mutsvangwa, René Goliath, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. METHOD: The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773096/acceptance-of-chemo-prophylaxis-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-high-school-college-student-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-shanghai-china
#13
Yang Li, Yi Hui Zheng, Li Ping Lu, Mei Xia Yang, Chang Ming Zhou, Zheng An Yuan, Yi Hu, Biao Xu
Student contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases are susceptible to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and chemo-prophylaxis can reduce the risk of active TB among them. This study aimed to assess the acceptance of chemo-prophylaxis for LTBI among students, and their concerns regarding TB and its preventive treatment. A total of 560 students contacts were included in the investigation. The extent of contact was categorized from high to low (4 levels) with 12.9% of the students being close contacts. About 87.0% of the students were willing to receive chemo-prophylaxis if diagnosed with, LTBI, whereas 73 students declined...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767733/risk-and-timing-of-tuberculosis-among-close-contacts-of-persons-with-infectious-tuberculosis
#14
Mary R Reichler, Awal Khan, Timothy R Sterling, Hui Zhao, Joyce Moran, James McAuley, Patricia Bessler, Bonita Mangura
Background: The risk and timing of tuberculosis (TB) among recently exposed close contacts of patients with infectious TB is not well established. Methods: We prospectively enrolled culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients ≥15 years of age and their close contacts at nine health departments in the United States and Canada. Close contacts were screened and cross-matched with TB registries to identify those who developed TB. Results: TB was diagnosed in 158 (4%) of 4490 contacts to 718 index TB patients...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764958/diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-baseline-analysis-of-a-large-uk-cohort
#15
Charlotte Jackson, Jo Southern, Ajit Lalvani, Francis Drobniewski, Chris J Griffiths, Marc Lipman, Graham H Bothamley, Jonathan J Deeks, Ambreen Imran, Onn Min Kon, Sithembinkosi Mpofu, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Melanie Rees-Roberts, Alice Sitch, Saranya Sridhar, Chuen-Yan Tsou, Hilary Whitworth, Ibrahim Abubakar
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a UK cohort study which enrolled participants at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, defined as a positive result for either of the two interferon gamma release assays). Binomial regression with a log link was used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and LTBI. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index and the presence of other immunocompromising conditions, DM was associated with a 15% higher prevalence of LTBI (adjusted PR=1...
May 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#16
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762657/prospects-for-tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-united-states-results-of-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#17
Nicolas A Menzies, Ted Cohen, Andrew N Hill, Reza Yaesoubi, Kara Galer, Emory Wolf, Suzanne M Marks, Joshua A Salomon
We estimated long-term tuberculosis (TB) trends in the US population and assessed prospects for TB elimination. We used a detailed simulation model allowing for changes in TB transmission, immigration, and other TB risk determinants. We evaluated 5 hypothetical scenarios from 2017 to 2100: 1) maintain current TB prevention and treatment activities (base-case), 2) provision of latent TB infection testing and treatment for new legal immigrants, 3) increased uptake of latent TB infection screening and treatment among high-risk populations, including a 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen, 4) improved TB case detection, 5) improved TB treatment quality...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762390/latent-tuberculosis-treatment-compliance-in-children-a-10-year-experience
#18
Elisabetta Venturini, Chiara Tersigni, Chiara Cordola, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761628/recent-advances-for-identification-of-new-scaffolds-and-drug-targets-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Rohan Dhiman, Ramandeep Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity with an estimated 1.7 billion people latently infected with the pathogen worldwide. Clinically, TB infection presents itself as an asymptomatic infection, which gradually manifests to life threatening disease. The emergence of various drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lengthy duration of chemotherapy are major challenges in the field of TB drug development. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop scaffolds that possess a novel mechanism of action, can shorten the duration of therapy, and are active against both drug resistant and susceptible strains...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758278/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-associated-with-latent-tuberculosis-in-singapore-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Peiling Yap, Kristin Hui Xian Tan, Wei Yen Lim, Timothy Barkham, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Mark Chen I-Cheng, Yee Tang Wang, Cynthia Bin Eng Chee
OBJECTIVES: We performed the first LTBI cross-sectional survey in Singapore, utilizing the QuantiFERON Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) assay to collect data on the prevalence of LTBI and identify potential risk factors associated with it. METHODS: Nation-wide household addresses were randomly selected for enumeration, where Singaporeans or Permanent Residents (PRs), aged 18-79 years, were identified. One eligible member per household was selected using the Kish grid. Each participant answered a questionnaire, assessing medical history (including TB), socio-economic factors and lifestyle and provided a blood specimen for the QFT-GIT assay...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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