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vaccine distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546022/expression-of-immune-genes-in-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-tissues-of-channel-catfish-vaccinated-with-live-theronts-of-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#1
De-Hai Xu, Gabriel S A Moreira, Craig A Shoemaker, Dunhua Zhang, Benjamin H Beck
Ichthyophthiriasis caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has a worldwide distribution and affects most freshwater fishes. Fish surviving natural infection and/or immunized with Ich develop strong innate and adaptive immune responses. However, there is a lack of the knowledge regarding immune gene expression patterns in systemic and mucosal immune tissues, and how immune genes interact and lead to innate and adaptive immune protection against Ich infection in fish. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of innate and adaptive immune-related genes in systemic (liver, spleen) and mucosal (gill, intestine) tissues of channel catfish over time following vaccination with live Ich theronts...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542646/analysis-of-risk-factors-for-infant-mortality-in-the-1992-3-and-2002-3-birth-cohorts-in-rural-guinea-bissau
#2
Stine Byberg, Marie D Østergaard, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Christine S Benn, Peter Aaby, Ane B Fisker
INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS: The Bandim Health Project (BHP) continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage) and infant mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#3
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541628/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-and-attribution-to-cervical-cancer-and-precancerous-lesions-in-a-rural-chinese-population
#4
Xue Lian Zhao, Shang Ying Hu, Qian Zhang, Li Dong, Rui Mei Feng, Ross Han, Fang Hui Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genotype distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and its attribution to different grades of cervical lesions in rural China, which will contribute to type-specific HPV screening tests and the development of new polyvalent HPV vaccines among the Chinese population. METHODS: One thousand two hundred ninety-two subjects were followed based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study I (SPOCCS-I), and screened by HPV DNA testing (hybrid capture® 2 [HC2]), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and if necessary, directed or random colposcopy-guided quadrant biopsies...
July 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532860/readability-comparison-of-pro-and-anti-hpv-vaccination-online-messages-in-japan
#5
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the HPV vaccination rate has sharply fallen to nearly 0% due to a series of sensational media reports of adverse events. Online anti-HPV-vaccination activists often warn readers of the vaccine's dangers. We aimed to examine distribution and readability of pro-and anti-vaccination online messages with relation to these authors' professional expertise. METHODS: We conducted online searches via two major search engines. Identified sites were classified as "anti," "pro," or "neutral" depending on their claims, and "health professional" or "non-health professional" depending on their authors' expertise...
May 13, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531261/age-of-acquiring-causal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-leveraging-simulation-models-to-explore-the-natural-history-of-hpv-induced-cervical-cancer
#6
Emily A Burger, Jane J Kim, Stephen Sy, Philip E Castle
Background.: Although new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can occur at all ages, the age at which women acquire their "causal" HPV infection that develops into cervical cancer is poorly understood and practically unobservable. We aimed to estimate the age distribution at which individuals acquired their causal HPV infection in the absence of HPV vaccination or screening to help guide the optimal use of both. Methods.: Using an empirically calibrated mathematical model that simulates the natural history of cervical cancer, we estimated the cumulative number of causal HPV infections by age, stratified by HPV genotype (HPV16 vs...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529708/yellow-fever-in-the-americas-the-growing-concern-about-new-epidemics
#7
Yeimer Ortiz-Martínez, Andrés Mauricio Patiño-Barbosa, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Yellow fever (YF) is a haemorrhagic viral disease with a high case fatality rate. It is considered a reemerging infectious disease of remarkable importance. During the last outbreaks in Angola (2015-2016) and Brazil (2016-2017), many cases of YF emerged despite high YF vaccination coverage, increasing the risk of major epidemics in the Americas. Several factors, including the vast border and migratory status of Brazil, the widespread distribution of Aedes mosquitoes and the lack of efficient health policies and surveillance systems, favour this complex epidemiological scenario of reemergence...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527973/molecular-analysis-of-group-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-hospitalized-children-from-rawalpindi-pakistan-during-2014
#8
Massab Umair, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Adnan Khurshid, Ghulam Mujtaba, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
As part of strategy to control diarrheal diseases, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to include rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs. Sentinel surveillance networks have been established to monitor rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution in both pre and post vaccine era in many countries. Unfortunately due to lack of proper surveillance programs, data on rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution from Pakistan is scarce. We investigated 502 stool samples from children (<5years) hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2014 for the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) and its genotypic diversity...
May 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518018/penicillin-resistance-of-nonvaccine-type-pneumococcus-before-and-after-pcv13-introduction-united-states
#9
Cheryl P Andam, Colin J Worby, Ryan Gierke, Lesley McGee, Tamara Pilishvili, William P Hanage
Introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States was not associated with a significant change in prevalence of penicillin resistance in nonvaccine type serotypes because of the variable success of highly resistant serotypes. Differences in regional serotype distribution and serotype-specific resistance contributed to geographic heterogeneity of penicillin resistance.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516842/serotype-distribution-antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-pilus-islets-in-pneumococci-following-the-use-of-conjugate-vaccines
#10
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010 and, in 2013, the PCV7 was replaced with the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This study was conducted to investigate serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of pilus islets in pneumococcal isolates from inpatients in a Japanese tertiary hospital. METHODOLOGY: From April 2011 to February 2016, 151 isolates [95 (18 children, 77 adults) and 56 (19 children, 37 adults) in the PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively] were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#11
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512072/lessons-learnt-in-japan-from-adverse-reactions-to-the-hpv-vaccine-a-medical-ethics-perspective
#12
Hirokuni Beppu, Masumi Minaguchi, Kiyoshi Uchide, Kunihiko Kumamoto, Masato Sekiguchi, Yukari Yaju
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been linked to a number of serious adverse reactions. The range of symptoms is diverse and they develop in a multi-layered manner over an extended period of time. The argument for the safety and effectiveness of the HPV vaccine overlooks the following flaws: (i) no consideration is given to the genetic basis of autoimmune diseases, and arguments that do not take this into account cannot assure the safety of the vaccine; (ii) the immune evasion mechanisms of HPV, which require the HPV vaccine to maintain an extraordinarily high antibody level for a long period of time for it to be effective, are disregarded; and (iii) the limitations of effectiveness of the vaccine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511308/-blood-borne-occupational-exposure-and-protection-in-medical-staff-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-hospital
#13
Z G Zhang, Q X Wei, Z P Yang, Q M Wei, X M Wang, X L Wang
Objective: To investigate blood-borne occupational exposure and related protection in the medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital, and to provide a reference for reducing the risk of blood-borne occupational exposure. Methods: Forty-eight medical workers with blood-borne occupational exposure in 2015 were selected to analyze the incidence of blood-borne occupational exposure, influencing factors, operations that caused blood-borne occupational exposure, pathogens, and occupational protection...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507418/spatial-pattern-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-serotypes-in-north-central-nigeria
#14
Yiltawe Simwal Wungak, Olayinka O Ishola, Babasola O Olugasa, David D Lazarus, David O Ehizibolo, Hussaini G Ularamu
AIM: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506425/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-germany-from-2004-2005-to-2014-2015
#15
Julia Schmitz, Mark van der Linden, Adnan Al-Lahham, Natalia Levina, Mathias W Pletz, Matthias Imöhl
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. 21,764 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates from Germany, isolated in the epidemiological seasons from 2004/05 to 2014/15 were analyzed at the German National Reference Centre for Streptococci (GNRCS) for their levofloxacin resistance by micro broth dilution method...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506209/peptides-mimicking-viral-proteins-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-were-profiled-by-the-spectrum-of-mouse-anti-pcv2-antibodies
#16
Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang, Ivan-Chen Cheng
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. RESULTS: The data showed that the sera from PCV2-infected pigs could react with the N-terminal (C1), middle region (C2), and C-terminal peptide (C3) of PCV2 capsid protein (CP), ORF3 protein (N1), ORF6 protein (N2) and ORF9 protein (N3)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501456/assessing-age-dependent-susceptibility-to-measles-in-japan
#17
Ryo Kinoshita, Hiroshi Nishiura
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. METHODS: An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494805/relative-incidence-and-individual-level-severity-of-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2-compared-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1
#18
Kin On Kwok, Steven Riley, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Vivian W I Wei, Peng Wu, Lan Wei, Daniel K W Chu, Ian G Barr, J S Malik Peiris, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: Two subtypes of influenza A currently circulate in humans: seasonal H3N2 (sH3N2, emerged in 1968) and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1, emerged in 2009). While the epidemiological characteristics of the initial wave of pH1N1 have been studied in detail, less is known about its infection dynamics during subsequent waves or its severity relative to sH3N2. Even prior to 2009, few data was available to estimate the risk of severe outcomes following infection with one circulating influenza strain relative to another...
May 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493905/melioidosis-clinical-impact-and-public-health-threat-in-the-tropics
#19
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#20
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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