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vaccine distribution

Patrick Saunders-Hastings, Bryson Quinn Hayes, Robert Smith, Daniel Krewski
Background: Influenza pandemics emerge at irregular and unpredictable intervals to cause substantial health, economic and social burdens. Optimizing health-system response is vital to mitigating the consequences of future pandemics. Methods: We developed a mathematical model to assess the preparedness of Canadian health systems to accommodate pandemic-related increases in patient demand. We identify vulnerable areas, assess the potential of inter-wave vaccination to mitigate impacts and evaluate the association between demographic and health-system characteristics in order to identify predictors of pandemic consequences...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Madhur S Dhingra, Jean Artois, Simon Dellicour, Philippe Lemey, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Sophie Von Dobschuetz, Thomas P Van Boeckel, David M Castellan, Subhash Morzaria, Marius Gilbert
Over the years, the emergence of novel H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) has been taking place through two main mechanisms: first, the conversion of a low pathogenic into a highly pathogenic virus, and second, the reassortment between different genetic segments of low and highly pathogenic viruses already in circulation. We investigated and summarized the literature on emerging HPAI H5 and H7 viruses with the aim of building a spatio-temporal database of all these recorded conversions and reassortments events...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Zetao Cheng, Yuqian Yan, Shuping Jing, Wen-Gang Li, Wei-Wei Chen, Jing Zhang, Min Li, Shan Zhao, Na Cao, Junxian Ou, Suhui Zhao, Xianbo Wu, Bin Cao, Qiwei Zhang
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-B55) is a recently identified acute respiratory disease (ARD) pathogen in HAdV species B with a recombinant genome between renal HAdV-B11 and respiratory HAdV-B14. Since HAdV-B55 first appeared in China school in 2006, no more ARD cases associated with it had been reported until 2011, when there was an outbreak of adult severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Beijing, China. Reported here is the bioinformatics analysis of the re-emergent HAdV-B55 responsible for this outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leonard J Hoenig, Alan C Jackson, Gordon M Dickinson
Louis Pasteur's vaccine against rabies was introduced in France during 1885. A year later it became available within the United States. This article tells the story of the first use of the Pasteur vaccine in America and describes the early history of the vaccine's production and distribution across the country by Pasteur Institutes established for this purpose. Highlights of Pasteur's landmark studies on rabies are presented: research which pioneered the field of virology and the use of immunization to prevent infectious diseases...
June 16, 2018: Vaccine
Peng Guan, Wei Wu, Desheng Huang
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of monthly reported human brucellosis cases in mainland China and develop an appropriate time series model for short-term extrapolation forecast. METHODS: Surveillance data of the monthly reported human brucellosis cases occurring from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2017, in mainland China were obtained. The spectrum analysis was first adopted to find the cyclic and seasonal features, the existence of the seasonality and trend was determined by exponential smoothing method and the seasonal-trend decomposition...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Anne Schuchat, Larry J Anderson, Lance E Rodewald, Nancy J Cox, Rana Hajjeh, Mark A Pallansch, Nancy E Messonnier, Daniel B Jernigan, Melinda Wharton
The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Minami Kawasaki, Jerome Delamare-Deboutteville, Rachel O Bowater, Mark J Walker, Scott Beatson, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Andrew C Barnes
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes disease in a wide range of animals. The serotype Ib lineage is highly adapted to aquatic hosts, exhibiting substantial genome reduction compared with terrestrial conspecifics. Here we sequence genomes from 40 GBS isolates including 25 from wild fish and captive stingrays in Australia, six local veterinary or human clinical isolates, and nine isolates from farmed tilapia in Honduras and compare with 42 genomes from public databases. Phylogenetic analysis based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs indicated that aquatic serotype Ib isolates from Queensland were distantly related to local veterinary and human clinical isolates...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jean Artois, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Madhur S Dhingra, Pastor Alfonso, Abdelgawad El Tahawy, Ahmed Elbestawy, Hany F Ellakany, Marius Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus is endemic in poultry in Egypt. The winter of 2014/2015 was particularly worrying as new clusters of HPAI A (H5N1) virus emerged, leading to an important number of AI A (H5N1) outbreaks in poultry farms and sporadic human cases. To date, few studies have investigated the distribution of HPAI A (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt in relation to protective / risk factors at the farm level, a gap we intend to fill. The aim of the study was to analyse passive surveillance data that were based on observation of sudden and high mortality of poultry or drop in duck or chicken egg production, as a basis to better understand and discuss the risk of HPAI A (H5N1) presence at the farm level in large parts of the Nile Delta...
June 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Li Yu, Mark T Esser, Judith Falloon, Tonya Villafana, Harry Yang
Immunogenicity data from phase 1 vaccine studies can be difficult to interpret, especially in seropositive populations and when multiple assays are used. We developed 3 statistical methods (Youden index [YI] threshold, receiver-operating characteristic relative to baseline [ROC-B], and ROC of postdose levels [ROC-P]) to characterize complex immunogenicity data by assessing the proportion of a study population that achieved values above thresholds. The YI method calculates a single threshold per assay. Both ROC methods construct ROC curves for individual assays and surfaces for assay combinations to assess degree of separation of postdose values from a reference distribution; the ROC-B method uses overall predose values as the reference distribution and the ROC-P method uses pooled postdose values...
June 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nadine Santana-Magal, Diana Rasoulouniriana, Corey Saperia, Amit Gutwillig, Peleg Rider, Edgar G Engleman, Yaron Carmi
Dendritic cells (DC) are heterogeneous cell populations that differ in their cell membrane markers, migration patterns and distribution, and in their antigen presentation and T cell activation capacities. Since most vaccinations of experimental tumor models require millions of DC, they are widely isolated from the bone marrow or spleen. However, these DC significantly differ from blood and tumor DC in their responses to immune complexes (IC), and presumably to other Syk-coupled lectin receptors. Importantly, given the sensitivity of DC to danger-associated molecules, the presence of endotoxins or antibodies that crosslink activation receptors in one of the isolating steps could result in the priming of DC and thus affect the parameters, or at least the dosage, required to activate them...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emmie R Strassberg, Michael Power, Jay Schulkin, Lauren M Stark, A Dhanya Mackeen, Katie L Murtough, Michael J Paglia
BACKGROUND: Routine influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women to prevent poor maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes is recommended practice; however, actual rates of influenza vaccine acceptance are typically well below the (Healthy People 2020, 2015) goal of 80%. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify barriers to accepting either vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From December 2014 to April 2015 women were given a questionnaire eliciting their experiences, attitudes and history of influenza and Tdap vaccination in pregnancy during their routine prenatal care appointments at a tertiary care center...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Kristina Thorsteinsson, Merete Storgaard, Terese L Katzenstein, Steen Ladelund, Frederikke F Rönsholt, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Anne Gaardsting, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Jesper Bonde, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have elevated risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence, distribution and concordance of cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection, and predictors of oral and anal HPV in WLWH in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN: WLWH followed in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) were enrolled and examined for cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Eric J G Pollitt, Piotr T Szkuta, Nicola Burns, Simon J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause systemic infections. This transition requires evasion of the immune response and the ability to exploit different niches within the host. However, the disease mechanisms and the dominant immune mediators against infection are poorly understood. Previously it has been shown that the infecting S. aureus population goes through a population bottleneck, from which very few bacteria escape to establish the abscesses that are characteristic of many infections...
June 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Chetan D Meshram, Peter Agback, Nikita Shiliaev, Nadya Urakova, James A Mobley, Tatiana Agback, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov
Alphaviruses are widely distributed in both hemispheres and circulate between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts. Geographically separated alphaviruses have adapted to replication in particular organisms. The accumulating data suggest that this adaptation is determined not only by changes in their glycoproteins, but also by the amino acid sequence of the hypervariable domain (HVD) of the alphavirus nsP3 protein. We performed a detailed investigation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP3 HVD interactions with host factors and their roles in viral replication in vertebrate and mosquito cells...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Willie D Taylor, Gregory L Langham, James L Weed, Thomas Rowe, Wei Song, Kristin A Isenberg, Xiyan Xu, David E Wentworth, George Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell
Seasonal influenza is a contagious respiratory illness that annually affects millions of people worldwide. To identify currently circulating influenza virus subtypes, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's International Reagent Resource distributes the World Health Organization (WHO) influenza reagent kits, which are used globally by testing laboratories for influenza surveillance. The data generated by the kits aid in strain selection for the influenza vaccine each season. The use of animals to produce high quality and quantities of antibodies is critical to the production of these kits...
2018: PloS One
Jing Huang, Jingcheng Du, Rui Duan, Xinyuan Zhang, Cui Tao, Yong Chen
Data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) contain spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) from the public. It has been a major data source for detecting AEs and monitoring vaccine safety. As one major limitation of spontaneous surveillance systems, the VAERS reports by themselves sometimes do not provide enough information to answer certain research questions. For example, patient level demographics are very limited in VAERS due to the protection of patient privacy, such that investigation of differential AE rates across race/ethnicity groups cannot be conducted using VAERS data only...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ana María Correa, María Ángeles Onieva-García, Inma López, Natalia Montiel, José Alberto Maldonado Segura
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive and noninvasive diseases. Invasive pneumococcal disease causes infections in tissues, organs and fluids that are normally sterile and is associated with severe clinical processes generally. The aim of this study was to characterize ENI episodes as well as to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of serotypes (vaccinal and non-vacunal) of S. pneumoniae strains isolated in blood cultures of patients treated at the Hospital Costa del Sol between September 2012 and January 2017...
June 14, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Stefano Menzo, Claudia Minosse, Donatella Vincenti, Laura Vincenzi, Fabio Iacomi, Paola Zaccaro, Gianpiero D'Offizi, Maria R Capobianchi
Acute hepatitis B infection (AHB) is still a common viral acute hepatitis worldwide. As vaccination, antiviral treatment, and immigration are bound to affect the epidemiological landscape of HBV infections, and some of its aspects need to be investigated: (1) the circulation of vaccine escape mutants and of primary drug resistant strains; (2) the change in HBV genotype prevalence; and (3) the clinical implications of AHB and the probability of chronification. The serological, virological, and clinical parameters of 75 patients, acutely infected by HBV, were gathered for a retrospective study...
June 12, 2018: Genes
Claudia Mroz, Kristina M Schmidt, Sven Reiche, Martin H Groschup, Martin Eiden
Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne virus which is associated with acute hemorrhagic fever leading to large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV circulates between mosquitoes, ruminants, camels and humans, which requires divergent amplification and maintenance strategies that have not been fully explored on the cellular and molecular level. We therefore assessed monoclonal antibodies for their applicability to monitor the expression pattern and kinetics of viral proteins in different RVFV infected cell species...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Fana Alem Kidane, Taniya Mitra, Patricia Wernsdorf, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of gallinaceous birds characterized by necrotic lesions in cacum and liver that usually turns fatal in turkeys while it is less severe in chickens. Vaccination using in vitro attenuated Histomonas meleagridis has been experimentally shown to confer protection against histomonosis. The protective mechanisms that underpin the vaccine-induced immune response are not resolved so far. Therefore, the actual study aimed to evaluate the location and quantitative distribution patterns of signature cytokines of type 1 [interferon gamma (IFN-γ)] or type 2 [interleukin (IL)-13] immune responses in vaccinated or infected hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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