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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454382/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-among-women-infected-with-hiv-in-manaus-amazonas
#1
Monique Figueiredo Teixeira, Meritxell Sabidó, André Luiz Leturiondo, Cynthia de Oliveira Ferreira, Kátia Luz Torres, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. METHODS: We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital...
February 17, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451838/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-potential-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Kaile Chen, Xiyan Zhang, Wei Shan, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) was licensed for optional use in mainland China since 2017, but the uptake is low. To update the research evidence for the pneumococcal serotype distribution of pre-PCV era and to estimate the potential impact of PCVs, we performed a meta-analysis on the relevant publications concerning the Chinese population. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the pneumococcal serotype distribution publications in mainland China from 2000 to 2016...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#3
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447357/analysis-of-cluster-randomized-test-negative-designs-cluster-level-methods
#4
Nicholas P Jewell, Suzanne Dufault, Zoe Cutcher, Cameron P Simmons, Katherine L Anders
Intervention trials of vector control methods often require community level randomization with appropriate inferential methods. For many interventions, the possibility of confounding due to the effects of health-care seeking behavior on disease ascertainment remains a concern. The test-negative design, a variant of the case-control method, was introduced to mitigate this issue in the assessment of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (measured at an individual level) on influenza infection. Here, we introduce a cluster-randomized test-negative design that includes randomization of the intervention at a group level...
February 12, 2018: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447353/association-of-strategic-management-with-vaccination-in-the-terms-of-globalization
#5
Mihajo Rabrenovic, Marija Cukanovic Karavidic, Ivana Stosic
Globalization is having an ever growing impact on the field of vaccine production and distribution in the world and domestically. In this article we examine the impact of taking a strategic approach to vaccination programmes by all the relevant actors: WHO, UNICEF, national immunization programmes, and vaccine manufacturers and distributors. The review of the relevant literature indicates that there are commonalities to the worldwide vaccination programmes. A comparative analysis of various vaccination strategies recommended by WHO and the immunization calendars of certain European countriesis made as well as an analysis of the Serbian vaccination programme...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447169/occurrence-of-measles-in-a-country-with-elimination-status-amplifying-measles-infection-in-hospitalized-children-due-to-imported-virus
#6
HyeEun Eom, YoungJoon Park, JooWhee Kim, Jeong-Sun Yang, HaeJi Kang, Kisoon Kim, Byung Chul Chun, Ok Park, Jeong Ik Hong
The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. We utilized surveillance data, epidemiological data, immunization registry data, and genetic information. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of all measles case patients (sex, age distribution, vaccination status, sources of infection) as well as details of the outbreak (the pattern of transmission, duration, mean age of patients, and generation time)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446176/meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-safety-surveillance-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink-using-a-tree-temporal-scan-data-mining-method
#7
Rongxia Li, Eric Weintraub, Michael M McNeil, Martin Kulldorff, Edwin M Lewis, Jennifer Nelson, Stanley Xu, Lei Qian, Nicola P Klein, Frank Destefano
PURPOSE: The objective of our study was to conduct a data mining analysis to identify potential adverse events (AEs) following MENACWY-D using the tree-temporal scan statistic in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population and demonstrate the feasibility of this method in a large distributed safety data setting. METHODS: Traditional pharmacovigilance techniques used in vaccine safety are generally geared to detecting AEs based on pre-defined sets of conditions or diagnoses...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445929/prevalence-of-leptospira-serogroup-specific-antibodies-in-cattle-associated-with-reproductive-problems-in-endemic-states-of-india
#8
Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Anusha Alamuri, K Bharathkumar, Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Mohandoss Nagalingam, Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy, Habibur Rahman, Bibek Ranjan Shome
In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals...
February 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444993/a-novel-method-for-qualification-of-a-potency-assay-through-partial-computer-simulation
#9
Steven Novick, Perceval Sondag, Tim Schofield, Kenneth Miller
For biotherapeutics and vaccines, potency is measured in a bioassay which compares the concentration-response curves of a new batch to that of a reference standard. Acceptable accuracy and precision of potency measurement is critical to the manufacturing of these products. These characteristics of a bioassay are typically assessed in a procedure which is carried out with samples spanning the acceptable range for the product. During early development, however, a full validation study such as that which is carried out in late development can be costly as it relates to the likelihood of eventual program success...
February 14, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442226/molecular-evolution-and-phylodynamics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-circulating-in-iran
#10
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyed Amir Malekpour, Mehdi Norouzi, Fatemeh Ramezani, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Vahdat Poortahmasebi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Azam Ghaziasadi, Hadi Karimzadeh, Reza Malekzadeh, Masood Ziaee, Farshid Abedi, Behrooz Ataei, Majid Yaran, Babak Sayad, Hamid Reza Jahantigh, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Gholamreza Sarizadeh, Ismail Sanei-Moghaddam, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Hossein Keyvani, Ebrahim Kalantari, Zahra Fakhari, Babak Geravand, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439702/bcg-vaccination-in-southern-rural-mozambique-an-overview-of-coverage-and-its-determinants-based-on-data-from-the-demographic-and-health-surveillance-system-in-the-district-of-manhi%C3%A3-a
#11
Elena Marbán-Castro, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Orvalho Augusto, Edgar Jamisse, Elisa López-Varela, Aina Casellas, John J Aponte, Quique Bassat, Betuel Sigauque, Eusebio Macete, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro
BACKGROUND: Over the past four decades, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to foster universal access to all relevant vaccines for all children at risk. The success of this program has been undeniable, but requires periodic monitoring to ensure that coverage rates remain high. The aim of this study was to measure the BCG vaccination coverage in Manhiça district, a high TB burden rural area of Southern Mozambique and to investigate factors that may be associated with BCG vaccination...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437291/much-ado-about-flu-a-mixed-methods-study-of-parental-perceptions-trust-and-information-seeking-in-a-pandemic
#12
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432666/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-hospitalization-rates-among-a-resource-limited-rural-population-in-mbita-western-kenya
#13
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, James Nyangao, Amina Galata, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Sora Guyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Satoshi Komoto, Yoshio Ichinose
OBJECTIVES: A two-dose oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the Kenyan National Immunization Program in July 2014. We assessed trends in hospitalization for rotavirus-specific acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and strain distribution among children <5 years in a rural, resource-limited setting in Kenya before and after the nationwide implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from a five-year hospital-based surveillance...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431387/herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia-prevention-and-management
#14
Aaron Saguil, Shawn Kane, Michael Mercado, Rebecca Lauters
Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 to 100 times more likely to develop herpes zoster. Patients may present with malaise, headache, low-grade fever, and abnormal skin sensations for two to three days before the classic maculopapular rash appears. The rash is usually unilateral, confined to a single dermatome, and typically progresses to clear vesicles that become cloudy and crust over in seven to 10 days...
November 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429811/hospital-based-surveillance-for-rotavirus-diarrhea-in-ulaanbaatar-mongolia-april-2009-through-march-2016
#15
Altanchimeg Samdan, Sarangua Ganbold, Oyunchimeg Guntev, Solongo Orosoo, Narmandakh Javzandorj, Amar Gongor, Altansukh Enkhtuvshin, Sodbayar Demberelsuren, Wajid Abdul, Youngmee Jee, Varja Grabovac, Carl Kirkwood, Kimberley Fox, Batmunkh Nyambat
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is one of the leading causes of illness and death in young children in the world, especially the developing countries. Diarrheal disease results in about half a million childhood death per year, ranking second among all causes worldwide. Diarrheal disease due to rotavirus infection is currently the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Rotavirus immunization of infants is a safe and effective public health intervention for rotavirus infection control and expected to lead to a reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429281/-physiological-characteristics-of-echinococcus-and-their-association-with-interventions-against-echinococcosis
#16
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429063/the-moral-obligation-to-be-vaccinated-utilitarianism-contractualism-and-collective-easy-rescue
#17
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Julian Savulescu
We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (both for adults and for children) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies...
February 10, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427768/cost-savings-through-implementation-of-an-integrated-home-based-record-a-case-study-in%C3%A2-vietnam
#18
Hirotsugu Aiga, Tuan Kiet Pham Huy, Vinh Duc Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: In Vietnam, there are three major home-based records (HBRs) for maternal and child health (MCH) that have been already nationally scaled up, i.e., Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCH Handbook), Child Vaccination Handbook, and Child Growth Monitoring Chart. The MCH Handbook covers all the essential recording items that are included in the other two. This overlapping of recording items between the HBRs is likely to result in inefficient use of both financial and human resources...
February 7, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427763/global-distribution-of-na1-genotype-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-its-evolutionary-dynamics-assessed-from-the-past-11%C3%A2-years
#19
Md Shakir Hussain Haider, Farah Deeba, Wajihul Hasan Khan, Irshad H Naqvi, Sher Ali, Anwar Ahmed, Shobha Broor, Hytham A Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy, Shama Parveen
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potent pathogen having global distribution. The main purpose of this study was to gain an insight into distribution pattern of the NA1 genotype of group A RSV across the globe together with its evolutionary dynamics. We focused on the second hypervariable region of the G protein gene and used the same for Phylogenetic, Bayesian and Network analyses. Eighteen percent of the samples collected from 500 symptomatic pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) were found to be positive for RSV during 2011-15 from New Delhi, India...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424324/nano-medicine-as-a-newly-emerging-approach-to-combat-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#20
Muthupandian Saravanan, Tsehaye Asmalash, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Tadele Araya, Haftamu Hilekiros, Hamed Barabadi, Kumaresan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
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