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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633473/experimental-evolution-and-the-adjustment-of-metabolic-strategies-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#1
Herwig Bachmann, Douwe Molenaar, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Bas Teusink
Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment...
June 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612928/the-cost-effectiveness-implications-of-suboptimal-treatment-for-different-severities-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-uk
#3
Darshan Zala, Dennis Chan, Paul McCrone
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the impact of suboptimal treatment, defined in terms of lower population coverage (percentage of total patient population receiving optimal treatment) and delay to treatment on the cost-effectiveness of pharmacological therapies approved for the treatment of different severities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the UK. METHODS: A 5-year Markov model was used to simulate transition to full-time care, as delay and coverage were varied for AD patients with mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe dementia...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609599/assessment-and-management-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-australian-general-practice
#4
Helen K Reddel, Lisa Valenti, Kylie L Easton, Julie Gordon, Clare Bayram, Graeme C Miller
BACKGROUND: Dispensing data suggest potential issues with the quality use of medicines for airways disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to describe the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in general practice, and investigate the appropriateness of prescribing. METHODS: The method used for this study consisted of a national cross‑sectional survey of 91 Australian general practitioners (GPs) participating in the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) program...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#5
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588958/women-s-health-a-new-global-agenda
#6
Sanne A E Peters, Mark Woodward, Vivekanand Jha, Stephen Kennedy, Robyn Norton
Global efforts to improve the health of women largely focus on improving sexual and reproductive health. However, the global burden of disease has changed significantly over the past decades. Currently, the greatest burden of death and disability among women is attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), most notably cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, dementia, depression and musculoskeletal disorders. Hence, to improve the health of women most efficiently, adequate resources need to be allocated to the prevention, management and treatment of NCDs in women...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560731/vaccine-discussions-with-parents-the-experience-of-australian-paediatricians
#7
Jessica Costa-Pinto, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask, Nicholas Wood, Helen Marshall, Margie Danchin
AIM: Health-care providers are crucial in maintaining parental confidence in vaccination. Health-care providers are the most commonly accessed resource by parents for vaccine-related information and are highly trusted. We investigated paediatricians' (i) frequency of vaccine discussions; (ii) specific vaccine-related topics discussed; (iii) perceived role in childhood vaccination; (iv) challenges faced when having discussions; (v) confidence in vaccine-related knowledge and communication skills; and (vi) interest in online education and training...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558737/improving-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-informing-innovative-implementation-approaches-in-the-context-of-the-kharitode-trial-through-formative-research
#8
Deanna Kerrigan, Nora West, Carrie Tudor, Colleen F Hanrahan, Limakatso Lebina, Reginah Msandiwa, Lesego Mmolawa, Neil Martinson, David Dowdy
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious killer worldwide, with approximately 1.8 million deaths in 2015. While effective treatment exists, implementation of active case finding (ACF) methods to identify persons with active TB in a timely and cost-effective manner continues to be a major challenge in resource-constrained settings. Limited qualitative work has been conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of implementation barriers. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted to inform the development of three ACF strategies for TB to be evaluated as part of the Kharitode cluster-randomised trial being conducted in a rural province of South Africa...
May 30, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532509/barriers-and-facilitators-to-healthcare-professional-behaviour-change-in-clinical-trials-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-a-case-study-of-a-trial-of-individualized-temperature-reduced-haemodialysis
#9
Justin Presseau, Brittany Mutsaers, Ahmed A Al-Jaishi, Janet Squires, Christopher W McIntyre, Amit X Garg, Manish M Sood, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Implementing the treatment arm of a clinical trial often requires changes to healthcare practices. Barriers to such changes may undermine the delivery of the treatment making it more likely that the trial will demonstrate no treatment effect. The 'Major outcomes with personalized dialysate temperature' (MyTEMP) is a cluster-randomised trial to be conducted in 84 haemodialysis centres across Ontario, Canada to investigate whether there is a difference in major outcomes with an individualized dialysis temperature (IDT) of 0...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517992/equity-and-value-in-precision-medicine
#10
Muir Gray, Tyra Lagerberg, Viktor Dombrádi
Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515182/health-assets-in-older-age-a-systematic-review
#11
Yvonne Claire Hornby-Turner, Nancye May Peel, Ruth Eleanor Hubbard
BACKGROUND: Finding ways to optimise health in older age is key to reducing the impact of population ageing on health and social care systems. A salutogenic approach takes into account an individual's health assets-internal or external strengths or accessible resources which improve and preserve physical, social and mental wellness, independence and quality of life. The aim of this narrative systematic review was to provide a summary and appraisal of the evidence for factors that act as health assets within personal, social, economic and environmental domains...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496219/the-flipped-classroom-for-pre-clinical-dental-skills-teaching-a-reflective-commentary
#12
A J Crothers, J Bagg, R McKenzie
A Flipped Classroom method for teaching of adult practical pre-clinical dental skills was introduced to the BDS curriculum in Glasgow during the 2015/2016 academic session. This report provides a commentary of the first year of employing this method - from the identification of the need to optimise teaching resources, through the planning, implementation and development of the method, with an early indication of performance.
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490484/developing-a-decision-rule-to-optimise-clinical-pharmacist-resources-for-medication-reconciliation-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Sabrina De Winter, Peter Vanbrabant, Pieter Laeremans, Veerle Foulon, Ludo Willems, Sandra Verelst, Isabel Spriet
BACKGROUND: The process of obtaining a complete medication history for patients admitted to the hospital from the ED at hospital admission, without discrepancies, is error prone and time consuming. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was the development of a clinical decision rule (CDR) with a high positive predictive value in detecting ED patients admitted to hospital at risk of at least one discrepancy during regular medication history acquisition, along with favourable feasibility considering time and budget constraints...
May 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488507/how-to-assist-patients-with-sit-stand-transfers
#14
Janice Taylor
Rationale and key points This article discusses optimal methods for assisting patients with sit-stand transfers where moving-and-handling equipment is not required. The article explains the importance of effective mobility care in optimising patients' rehabilitation and enhancing their independence. » The term 'assistance' is used in this article to refer to the support nurses can provide to patients during sit-stand transfers, but excludes manual assistance. Nurses should attempt various 'hands-off' mobility-enhancing strategies to assist the patient, such as the use of verbal, visual or light manual cues...
May 10, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486846/optimisation-of-chemical-oxygen-demand-removal-from-landfill-leachate-by-sonocatalytic-degradation-in-the-presence-of-cupric-oxide-nanoparticles
#15
Paria Amirian, Edris Bazrafshan, Abolfazl Payandeh
Leachate is the liquid formed when waste breaks down in the landfill and water filters through that waste. This liquid is very toxic and can pollute the land, ground water, and water resources. In most countries, it is mandatory for landfills to be protected against leachate. In addition to all other harms to the environment, disposal of raw landfill leachate can be a major source of hazard to closed water bodies. Hence, treatment of landfill leachate is considered an essential step prior to its discharge from source...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479283/web-based-platform-for-patient-dose-surveys-in-diagnostic-and-interventional-radiology-in-bulgaria-functionality-testing-and-optimisation
#16
F Simeonov, N Palov, D Ivanova, D Kostova-Lefterova, E Georgiev, A Zagorska, R Madzharova, J Vassileva
In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors...
May 4, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476988/plants-used-in-folkloric-medicine-of-iran-are-exquisite-bio-resources-in-production-of-silver-nanoparticles
#17
Mohadeseh Hassani Sadi, Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar
This study reports screening of 102 Iranian medicinal plant species belonging to 49 families for the biosynthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Among tested plants, 37 species in 19 plant families are new bio-resources in this regard. Water extracts of macerated plant parts are used in this survey. Six of the bioactive plants are selected for further analysis. They produced amorphous spherical 40-70 nm AgNPs. Biosynthesised colloidal AgNPs are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469833/use-of-electronic-medical-records-and-biomarkers-to-manage-risk-and-resource-efficiencies
#18
Dermot Ryan, John Blakey, Alison Chisholm, David Price, Mike Thomas, Björn Ställberg, Karin Lisspers, Janwillem W H Kocks
The migration from paper to electronic medical records (EMRs) was motivated by the administrative need to record, retrieve and process increasing amounts of clinical data in the 1980s. In the intervening period, there has been growing recognition of the potential of such records for achieving care efficiencies, informing clinical decision making and real-life research. EMRs can be used to characterise patient groups, management approaches and differential outcomes. Characterisation can also help with identification of potential biomarkers for future risk determination and likely treatment response...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458122/impact-of-social-prescribing-on-general-practice-workload-and-polypharmacy
#19
A M Loftus, F McCauley, M O McCarron
OBJECTIVES: Social prescribing has emerged as a useful tool for helping patients overcome some of the social and behavioural determinants of poor health. There has been little research on the impact of social prescribing on use of primary healthcare resources. This study sought to determine whether social prescribing activities influenced patient-general practitioner (GP) contacts and polypharmacy. STUDY DESIGN: Quality-improvement design with social prescribing activity interventions from an urban general practice in Northern Ireland...
July 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449648/development-and-evaluation-of-training-resources-to-prepare-health-professionals-for-counselling-pregnant-women-about-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-down-syndrome-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Kerry Oxenford, Rebecca Daley, Celine Lewis, Melissa Hill, Lyn S Chitty
BACKGROUND: The availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidies is expanding rapidly throughout the world. Training health professionals to offer NIPT in a way that supports informed choice is essential for implementation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a training package for health professionals to support the introduction of NIPT into clinical practice. METHODS: Training on NIPT was offered to health professionals, primarily midwives, involved in Down syndrome screening and testing in eight hospitals located in England and Scotland as part of a research study evaluating the implementation of NIPT in the UK National Health Service...
April 27, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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