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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436888/neuromorphic-hardware-architecture-using-the-neural-engineering-framework-for-pattern-recognition
#1
Runchun Wang, Chetan Singh Thakur, Gregory Cohen, Tara Julia Hamilton, Jonathan Tapson, Andre van Schaik
We present a hardware architecture that uses the neural engineering framework (NEF) to implement large-scale neural networks on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for performing massively parallel real-time pattern recognition. NEF is a framework that is capable of synthesising large-scale cognitive systems from subnetworks and we have previously presented an FPGA implementation of the NEF that successfully performs nonlinear mathematical computations. That work was developed based on a compact digital neural core, which consists of 64 neurons that are instantiated by a single physical neuron using a time-multiplexing approach...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412946/big-data-and-data-repurposing-using-existing-data-to-answer-new-questions-in-vascular-dementia-research
#2
Fergus N Doubal, Myzoon Ali, G David Batty, Andreas Charidimou, Maria Eriksdotter, Martin Hofmann-Apitius, Yun-Hee Kim, Deborah A Levine, Gillian Mead, Hermann A M Mucke, Craig W Ritchie, Charlotte J Roberts, Tom C Russ, Robert Stewart, William Whiteley, Terence J Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. METHODS: We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing...
April 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386403/clinical-benefits-referral-practice-and-cost-implications-of-an-in-hospital-pain-service-results-of-a-service-evaluation-in-a-london-teaching-hospital
#3
Maya Sussman, Elizabeth Goodier, Izabella Fabri, Jessica Borrowman, Sarah Thomas, Charlotte Guest, Carsten Bantel
BACKGROUND: In-hospital pain services (IPS) are commonplace, but evidence of efficacy is inadequate, and patients' pain management in any hospital ward remains problematic. This service evaluation aimed to measure the effect of a contemporary IPS, its appropriate use and cost-efficacy. METHODS: Records of 249 adults reviewed by the IPS in an inner London Teaching Hospital over an 8-month period were analysed for demographic data, interventions, workload and change in pain intensity measured by numerical rating scale (NRS)...
February 2017: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376293/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficient-infants-enzyme-activity-and-gene-variants-as-risk-factors-for-phototherapy-in-the-first-week-of-life
#4
Fei-Liang Wong, Azlin Ithnin, Ainoon Othman, Fook-Choe Cheah
AIM: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a recognised cause of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and identifying which infants are at risk could optimise care and resources. In this study, we determined if G6PD enzyme activity (EA) and certain gene variants were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy during the first week after birth. METHODS: Newborn infants with G6PD deficiency and a group with normal results obtained by the fluorescent spot test were selected for analyses of G6PD EA and the 10 commonly encountered G6PD mutations in this region, relating these with whether the infants required phototherapy before discharge from the hospital in the first week...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373247/practices-and-attitudes-of-doctors-and-patients-to-downward-referral-in-shanghai-china
#5
Wenya Yu, Meina Li, Xin Nong, Tao Ding, Feng Ye, Jiazhen Liu, Zhixing Dai, Lulu Zhang
OBJECTIVES: In China, the rate of downward referral is relatively low, as most people are unwilling to be referred from hospitals to community health systems (CHSs). The aim of this study was to explore the effect of doctors' and patients' practices and attitudes on their willingness for downward referral and the relationship between downward referral and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Doctors and patients of 13 tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were stratified through random sampling...
April 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364649/biochar-and-enhanced-phosphate-capture-mapping-mechanisms-to-functional-properties
#6
Jessica G Shepherd, Stephen Joseph, Saran P Sohi, Kate V Heal
A multi-technique analysis was performed on a range of biochar materials derived from secondary organic resources and aimed at sustainable recovery and re-use of wastewater phosphorus (P). Our purpose was to identify mechanisms of P capture in biochar and thereby inform its future optimisation as a sustainable P fertiliser. The biochar feedstock comprised pellets of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (PAD) or pellets of the same blended in the ratio 9:1 with ochre sourced from minewater treatment (POCAD), components which have limited alternative economic value...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345977/spinal-cord-injuries-overcoming-barriers-to-seamless-care-for-patients
#7
Lorraine Donovan, Lee Francis, Paula Muter, Sheila Nevin, Rebecca Warren
Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often have complex needs that require multidisciplinary support in specialist centres. Optimal management depends on seamless transitions between service providers. Delays at any point potentially compromise clinical outcomes and efficient resource utilisation. The Spinal Advisory Working Group aims to develop and implement practical initiatives to improve SCI care, initially focusing on admission and discharge. A literature review identified few relevant papers. In addition, the generalisability of the findings of these papers to SCI centres in the UK is unclear...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343451/the-association-between-the-day-of-the-week-of-milestones-in-the-care-pathway-of-patients-with-hip-fracture-and-30-day-mortality-findings-from-a-prospective-national-registry-the-national-hip-fracture-database-of-england-and-wales
#8
Adrian Sayers, Michael R Whitehouse, James R Berstock, Karen A Harding, Michael B Kelly, Timothy J Chesser
BACKGROUND: Recent publications indicate increased mortality in patients admitted to hospital at the weekend, but these findings may be subject to inadequate adjustment for case-mix and the complexities of resource provision. Hip fractures generally occur in a frail comorbid population with a consistent diagnosis precipitating admission as an emergency. We therefore aimed to examine the association between the day of the week of milestones in the care pathway and 30-day mortality in this population...
March 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340619/operational-and-implementation-research-within-global-fund-to-fight-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-grants-a-situation-analysis-in-six-countries
#9
Sabine Kiefer, Astrid M Knoblauch, Peter Steinmann, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Mahnaz Vahedi, Dermot Maher, Jürg Utzinger, Kaspar Wyss
BACKGROUND: Operational/implementation research (OR/IR) is a key activity to improve disease control programme performance. We assessed the extent to which malaria and tuberculosis (TB) grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria ("Global Fund") include support for OR/IR, and discuss the implications of the current Global Fund operating mechanisms for OR/IR support. METHODS: The situation analysis focussed on malaria and TB, while HIV was excluded...
March 24, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337813/health-care-experiences-among-women-diagnosed-with-gestational-breast-cancer
#10
K Hammarberg, E Sullivan, N Javid, G Duncombe, L Halliday, F Boyle, C Saunders, A Ives, J E Dickinson, J Fisher
Gestational breast cancer (GBC) presents many challenges for women and the clinicians who care for them. The aim of this study was to explore the health care experiences of women diagnosed with GBC to inform and improve clinical care of women in this predicament. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 women who had been diagnosed with GBC in the previous 5 years. The overarching themes for perceived quality of care were "communication" and "comprehensive care." "Communication" had two sub themes: "interdisciplinary communication" (the way health professionals from different disciplines communicated with each other about the management of the woman's care) and "patient communication" (how they communicated this to the woman)...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318522/prognostic-stratification-and-healthcare-approach-in-patients-with-multiple-pathologies
#11
M Bernabeu-Wittel, B Barón-Franco, D Nieto-Martín, L Moreno-Gaviño, N Ramírez-Duque, M Ollero-Baturone
Polypathological patients constitute a prevalent, fairly homogeneous population, which is characterised by high clinical complexity, substantial vulnerability and significant resource consumption, in addition to high mortality and the need for comprehensive, coordinated care. It is particularly important to establish a reliable prognosis in these patients. It is also extremely useful for professionals involved in the decision-making process for patients and their families in vital planning and their preferences, for strategic health planning in management fields, and for clinical research, by facilitating their incorporation into clinical trials and other intervention studies...
March 16, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304127/molecular-regulation-of-sucrose-catabolism-and-sugar-transport-for-development-defence-and-phloem-function
#12
REVIEW
Jun Li, Limin Wu, Ryan Foster, Yong-Ling Ruan
Sucrose (Suc) is the major end product of photosynthesis in mesophyll cells of most vascular plants. It is loaded into phloem of mature leaves for long-distance translocation to non-photosynthetic organs where it is unloaded for diverse uses. Clearly, Suc transport and metabolism is central to plant growth and development and the functionality of the entire vascular system. Despite of vast information in the literature about the physiological roles of individual sugar metabolic enzymes and transporters, there is a lack of systematic evaluation about their molecular regulation from transcriptional to post-translational levels...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300343/medical-student-use-of-digital-learning-resources
#13
Karen Scott, Anne Morris, Ben Marais
BACKGROUND: University students expect to use technology as part of their studies, yet health professional teachers can struggle with the change in student learning habits fuelled by technology. Our research aimed to document the learning habits of contemporary medical students during a clinical rotation by exploring the use of locally and externally developed digital and print self-directed learning resources, and study groups. METHODS: We investigated the learning habits of final-stage medical students during their clinical paediatric rotation using mixed methods, involving learning analytics and a student questionnaire...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298238/biofed-federated-query-processing-over-life-sciences-linked-open-data
#14
Ali Hasnain, Qaiser Mehmood, Syeda Sana E Zainab, Muhammad Saleem, Claude Warren, Durre Zehra, Stefan Decker, Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann
BACKGROUND: Biomedical data, e.g. from knowledge bases and ontologies, is increasingly made available following open linked data principles, at best as RDF triple data. This is a necessary step towards unified access to biological data sets, but this still requires solutions to query multiple endpoints for their heterogeneous data to eventually retrieve all the meaningful information. Suggested solutions are based on query federation approaches, which require the submission of SPARQL queries to endpoints...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290273/from-the-ebm-pyramid-to-the-greek-temple-a-new-conceptual-approach-to-guidelines-as-implementation-tools-in-mental-health
#15
L Salvador-Carulla, S Lukersmith, W Sullivan
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286357/pastoralists-as-optimal-foragers-reoccupation-and-site-selection-in-the-deserts-of-post-soviet-kazakhstan
#16
S Robinson, C Kerven, R Behnke, K Kushenov, E J Milner-Gulland
This study explores the drivers of site selection amongst livestock owners under conditions of increasing animal numbers following a low point in the 1990s. Our major goal was to understand whether livestock owners are acting as 'optimal foragers,' targeting areas of highest forage availability as they colonise previously empty areas. The results presented here suggest that they do not. Initially, distance from home settlement was the dominant determinant of site occupancy, with closer sites occupied earlier regardless of other characteristics...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283293/linking-energy-sanitation-agriculture-intersectional-resource-management-in-smallholder-households-in-tanzania
#17
Ariane Krause, Vera Susanne Rotter
In order to create sustainable systems for resource management, residues from cooking and ecological sanitation (EcoSan) can be employed in recycling-driven soil fertility management. However, the link between energy, sanitation, and agricultural productivity is often neglected. Hence, the potential self-sufficient nature of many smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa is underexploited. OBJECTIVE: To compare those cooking and sanitation technologies most commonly used in north-western Tanzania with locally developed alternatives, with respect to (i) resource consumption, (ii) potential to recover resources, and (iii) environmental emissions...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263059/postexposure-recovery-and-analysis-of-biological-agent-in-a-simulated-biothreat-scenario-using-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Sakshi Rajoria, Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Pallavi Gupta, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Some pathogens and toxins have the potential to be used as weapons of mass destruction and instigate population-based fear. Rapid, sensitive, and unambiguous identification of biothreat agents is of paramount importance for confirmation of the event and to mitigate the direct and indirect damages to public health and resources. Although there are several potential dissemination scenarios to describe an attack with a biological weapon, artificially generated bioaerosol is of the greatest concern from a bioterrorism or warfare perspective, potentially capable of causing mass destruction to a civilian or military population by inhalation of toxic bioaerosol...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253883/systematic-development-and-implementation-of-interventions-to-optimise-health-literacy-and-access-ophelia
#19
Alison Beauchamp, Roy W Batterham, Sarity Dodson, Brad Astbury, Gerald R Elsworth, Crystal McPhee, Jeanine Jacobson, Rachelle Buchbinder, Richard H Osborne
BACKGROUND: The need for healthcare strengthening to enhance equity is critical, requiring systematic approaches that focus on those experiencing lesser access and outcomes. This project developed and tested the Ophelia (OPtimising HEalth LIteracy and Access) approach for co-design of interventions to improve health literacy and equity of access. Eight principles guided this development: Outcomes focused; Equity driven, Needs diagnosis, Co-design, Driven by local wisdom, Sustainable, Responsive and Systematically applied...
March 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249568/by-more-ways-than-one-rapid-convergence-at-hydrothermal-vents-shown-by-3d-anatomical-reconstruction-of-gigantopelta-mollusca-neomphalina
#20
Chong Chen, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Katrin Linse, Julia D Sigwart
BACKGROUND: Extreme environments prompt the evolution of characteristic adaptations. Yet questions remain about whether radiations in extreme environments originate from a single lineage that masters a key adaptive pathway, or if the same features can arise in parallel through convergence. Species endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents must accommodate high temperature and low pH. The most successful vent species share a constrained pathway to successful energy exploitation: hosting symbionts...
March 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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