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forensic test

Claire K Muro, Igor K Lednev
Traces of body fluids can be present at a variety of crime scenes. It is important that forensic investigators have a reliable and nondestructive method of identifying these traces. Of equal importance is establishing the limitations of any method in use, including its detection limit. We have previously reported on the use of Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to identify and differentiate body fluids. While many studies use serial dilutions to establish limits of detection, we utilized a different approach and demonstrated that a single red blood cell is sufficient to be correctly identified as blood...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lakshmi Chaitanya, Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Susan Walsh, Jože Balažic, Tomaž Zupanc, Manfred Kayser
Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Chang Chen, Ariane Wohlfarth, Hui Xu, Dan Su, Xin Wang, Hongliang Jiang, Yulin Feng, Mingshe Zhu
A novel analytical workflow was developed and applied for the detection and identification of unknown xenobiotics in biological samples. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based data-independent MS(E) acquisition was employed to record full scan MS and fragment spectral datasets of test and control samples. Then, an untargeted data-mining technique, background subtraction, was utilized to find xenobiotics present only in test samples. Structural elucidation of the detected xenobiotics was accomplished by database search, spectral interpretation, and/or comparison with reference standards...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Margaret E Hunter, Robert M Dorazio, John S S Butterfield, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Leo G Nico, Jason A Ferrante
A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species' presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Josip Crnjac, Petar Ozretić, Siniša Merkaš, Martina Ratko, Mateja Lozančić, Marina Korolija, Maja Popović, Gordan Mršić
X chromosome STR typing has emerged recently as a powerful tool, complementary to autosomal STR typing, in solving complex forensic and missing person cases. Investigator® Argus X-12 is a commercial product that allows co-amplification of 12 X chromosomal markers belonging to four linkage groups (LGs). In this study, we analyzed by capillary electrophoresis blood samples from 100 females and 102 males from a population of northern Croatia. Statistical analysis included calculation of allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as forensic parameters...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Conor O'Neill, Damian Smith, Martin Caddow, Fergal Duffy, Philip Hickey, Mary Fitzpatrick, Fintan Caddow, Tom Cronin, Mark Joynt, Zetti Azvee, Bronagh Gallagher, Claire Kehoe, Catherine Maddock, Benjamin O'Keeffe, Louise Brennan, Mary Davoren, Elizabeth Owens, Ronan Mullaney, Laurence Keevans, Ronan Maher, Harry G Kennedy
BACKGROUND: People with major mental illness are over-represented in prison populations however there are few longitudinal studies of prison in-reach services leading to appropriate healthcare over extended periods. AIMS: We aimed to examine measures of the clinical efficiency and effectiveness of a prison in-reach, court diversion and liaison service over a 3 year period. Secondly, we aimed to compare rates of identification of psychosis and diversion with rates previously reported for the same setting in the 6 years previously...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
David A Selck, Rustem F Ismagilov
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification...
2016: PloS One
Yuttamol Muangkram, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Akira Amano, Manakorn Sukmak
We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
P Duangto, A Iamaroon, S Prasitwattanaseree, P Mahakkanukrauh, A Janhom
Age estimation using developing third molar teeth is considered an important and accurate technique for both clinical and forensic practices. The aims of this study were to establish population-specific reference data, to develop age prediction models using mandibular third molar development, to test the accuracy of the resulting models, and to find the probability of persons being at the age thresholds of legal relevance in a Thai population. A total of 1867 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals aged between 8 and 23 years was selected to assess dental age...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Thitika Kitpipit, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Chutamas Satasook, Adrian Linacre
Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test...
October 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
Pierre M Geyer, Matthew C Hulme, Joseph P B Irving, Paul D Thompson, Ryan N Ashton, Robert J Lee, Lucy Johnson, Jack Marron, Craig E Banks, Oliver B Sutcliffe
The prevalence of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in forensic casework has increased prominently in recent years. This has given rise to significant legal and analytical challenges in the identification of these substances. The requirement for validated, robust and rapid testing methodologies for these compounds is obvious. This study details the analysis of 13 synthesised diphenidine derivatives encountered in casework using presumptive testing, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
Rebecca A Weiss, Barry Rosenfeld
As the populations of Western countries become more diverse, the risk of inaccurately generalizing knowledge from majority ethnic groups to minority groups is increasing. However, few of the measures used in forensic assessment are based on normative samples that represent the considerable diversity present in forensic settings. This study examined 4 commonly used measures of feigning: the Dot Counting Test (DCT; Boone, Lu, & Herzberg, 2002); the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms (M-FAST; Miller, 2001); the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996); and a validity scale (atypical responding; ATR) on the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (Briere, 2011)...
August 15, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Shweta Thakare, Amit Mhapuskar, Darshan Hiremutt, Versha R Giroh, Kedarnath Kalyanpur, K R Alpana
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Abdu Subaihi, Laila Almanqur, Howbeer Muhamadali, Najla Almasoud, David I Ellis, Drupad K Trivedi, Katherine A Hollywood, Yun Xu, Royston Goodacre
There has been an increasing demand for rapid and sensitive techniques for the identification and quantification of pharmaceutical compounds in human biofluids during the last few decades and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of a number of physicochemical techniques with the potential to meet these demands. In this study we have developed a SERS-based analytical approach for the assessment of human biofluids in combination with chemometrics. This novel approach has enabled the detection and quantification of the β-blocker propranolol spiked into human serum, plasma and urine at physiologically relevant concentrations...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Pablo W Trinks, María Belén Grifo, Fernando Pari, Mariano Ar Amer, Gabriel A Sánchez
The third molar is a tooth of anatomical, surgical, prosthetic and forensic dental interest. However, there is currently a lack of updated data regarding its morphology. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric features of third molars and their predictive capability as regards dental arch and side. Two calibrated operators (ƙ = 0.83) determined the cervicalocclusalvestibular (COV), cervicalocclusalpalatal (COP) and occlusalapical (OA) distances, mesiodistal (MD), and vestibularpalatal (VP) diameters, number of roots (R) and number of cusps (C) of 961 cadaveric third molars, both upper (n = 462) and lower (n = 499), using a CONCOR 050 thin mandible caliper (resolution 0...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Graham McBride, Brent Gilpin
In environmental microbial forensics, as in other pursuits, statistical calculations are sometimes inappropriately applied, giving rise to the appearance of support for a particular conclusion or failing to support an innately obvious conclusion. This is a reflection of issues related to dealing with sample sizes, the methodologies involved, and the difficulty of communicating uncertainties. In this brief review, we attempt to illustrate ways to minimize such problems. In doing so, we consider one of the most common applications of environmental microbial forensics-the use of genotyping in food and water and disease investigations...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Alexey V Orlov, Sergey L Znoyko, Vladimir R Cherkasov, Maxim Petrovich Nikitin, Petr I Nikitin
We present a multiplex quantitative lateral flow (LF) assay for simultaneous on-site detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types A, B and E in complex matrices, which is innovative by virtually no sacrifice in performance while transition from the single-plex assays and by characteristics on the level of laboratory quantitative methods. The novel approach to easy multiplexing is realized via joining an on-demand set of single-plex LF strips, which employ magnetic nanolabels, into a miniature cylinder cartridge that mimics LF strip during all assay stages...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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