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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810732/tracking-radionuclide-fractionation-in-the-first-atomic-explosion-using-stable-elements
#1
Chloe E Bonamici, Richard L Hervig, William S Kinman
Compositional analysis of post-detonation fallout is a tool for forensic identification of nuclear devices. However, the relationship between device composition and fallout composition is difficult to interpret because of the complex combination of physical mixing, nuclear reactions, and chemical fractionations that occur in the chaotic nuclear fireball. Using a combination of in situ microanalytical techniques - electron microprobe analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry - we show that some heavy stable elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Lu, U, Th) in glassy fallout from the first nuclear test, Trinity, are reliable chemical proxies for radionuclides generated during the explosion...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810069/homicide-rates-in-lithuania
#2
Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Sigitas Laima, Gerda Andriuskeviciute, Eleonora Jurolaic, Algimantas Jasulaitis
Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806636/blood-or-not-blood-that-is-the-question-a-non-destructive-method-for-the-detection-of-blood-contaminated-fingermarks
#3
Alfonso Bentolila, Ira Hartman, Michal Levin-Elad
Working in crime scenes presents a challenge to the forensic scientist, as some surfaces, such as floors and walls, cannot be transferred to the lab for further development and must, therefore, be processed at the crime scene itself. Two main types of latent fingermarks may be encountered in crime scenes: amino acids based and blood contaminated. One of the most common reagents, which are able to develop both types of fingermarks on porous surfaces, is ninhydrin. As blood contaminated fingermarks may be crucial in connecting the suspect to the crime it is important to be able to distinguish between them and natural fingermarks...
August 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#4
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802982/reducing-of-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-by-using-bovine-serum-albumin-and-calcium-chloride-for-forensic-saliva-screening
#5
Jun Ohta, Masako Ohmura
Inhibiting salivary α-amylase is a critical issue of forensic saliva identification using the catalytic method. This study aims to identify human α-amylase inhibitors in forensic saliva screening by using a blue starch amylase test and to measure the extent of enzyme inhibition. Thus, in order to demonstrate the presence of inhibitors, we prepared positively charged metal ion sources or chelators that were mixed into the saliva stains. The results of this study show that ferric chloride (FeCl3), magnesium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and citric acid significantly decrease the α-amylase activity of saliva stains...
July 25, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802950/application-of-dye-analysis-in-forensic-fibre-and-textile-examination-case-examples
#6
Tom G Schotman, Xiaoma Xu, Nicole Rodewijk, Jaap van der Weerd
Seven cases and a quality assurance test are presented. In these cases, fibres or textiles submitted for investigation were analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS to identify the dyes present. The cases presented illustrate that it is possible to identify textile dyes in fibre traces recovered for forensic analysis. The results show that a mixture of dyes is present in all textiles investigated, except one sample that was taken from a manufacturer dye shade card. It is concluded that dye analyses improves the evidential value of forensic fibre examinations, as it becomes possible to distinguish textiles that are different in dye chemistry, but have a similar colour...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792614/mutation-rates-in-21-autosomal-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-population-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil
#7
Thaís Cidália Vieira, Marc Alexandre Duarte Gigonzac, Ricardo Goulart Rodovalho, Luana Morais Cavalcanti, Lysa Bernardes Minasi, Flávia Melo Rodrigues, Aparecido Divino da Cruz
The appearance of new mutations in polymorphic markers plays a central role in a range of genetic applications, including dating phylogenetic events, informing disease studies, and evaluating forensic evidence. The present study estimated the mutation rates of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a population from Central Brazil. We studied 15,046 paternity cases from Goiás, Brazil from August 2012 to February 2015. We identified 262 mutations in the 21 loci. The loci that presented more mutations were FGA and D18S51, with a total of 46 and 28 mutations, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776465/dna-testing-in-homicide-investigations
#8
Joseph A Prahlow, Thomas Cameron, Alexander Arendt, Kenneth Cornelis, Anthony Bontrager, Michael S Suth, Lisa Black, Rebbecca Tobey, Sharon Pollock, Shawn Stur, Kenneth Cotter, Joel Gabrielse
Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death investigators, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide investigations in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770383/age-estimation-at-death-using-pubic-bone-analysis-of-a-virtual-reference-sample
#9
Frédéric Savall, Fabrice Hérin, Pierre Antoine Peyron, Daniel Rougé, Eric Baccino, Pauline Saint-Martin, Norbert Telmon
Age at death estimation is a major part of forensic anthropology, but is often poor in the latter decades of life and should benefit from specific population standards. The aim of this study was to test a virtual reference sample with a uniform age distribution in order to improve the accuracy of age estimation for individuals over 40 years of age. We retrospectively built a random virtual reference sample of pubic symphyses from 1100 clinical cases using computed tomography at two French hospitals; this was compared with a test sample (pubic symphyses from 75 corpses undergoing post-mortem computed tomography at a French forensic department) and with the sample originally used in the Suchey-Brooks (SB) system...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764298/index-ring-finger-ratio-hand-and-foot-index-gender-estimation-tools
#10
Sonia Gupta, Vineeta Gupta, Nutan Tyagi, Ettishree, Sinthia Bhagat, Mohit Dadu, Nishita Anthwal, Tahira Ashraf
INTRODUCTION: Gender estimation from dismembered human body parts and skeletal remains in cases of mass disasters, explosions, and assaults cases is an imperative element of any medico-legal investigations and has been a major challenge for forensic scientists. AIM: The aim of the present study was to estimate the gender by using index and ring finger length ratio, hand and foot index along with the correlation of both the hand and foot index to determine the vital role of all the indices in establishing gender identity...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760153/an-overview-of-forensic-drug-testing-methods-and-their-suitability-for-harm-reduction-point-of-care-services
#12
REVIEW
Lane Harper, Jeff Powell, Em M Pijl
Given the current opioid crisis around the world, harm reduction agencies are seeking to help people who use drugs to do so more safely. Many harm reduction agencies are exploring techniques to test illicit drugs to identify and, where possible, quantify their constituents allowing their users to make informed decisions. While these technologies have been used for years in Europe (Nightlife Empowerment & Well-being Implementation Project, Drug Checking Service: Good Practice Standards; Trans European Drugs Information (TEDI) Workgroup, Factsheet on Drug Checking in Europe, 2011; European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, An Inventory of On-site Pill-Testing Interventions in the EU: Fact Files, 2001), they are only now starting to be utilized in this context in North America...
July 31, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759777/color-stability-of-dental-restorative-materials-submitted-to-cold-temperatures-for-forensic-purposes
#13
Roberto Cesar Biancalana, Sergio Augusto Freitas Vincenti, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Fernanda Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza
In the post-mortem examination of the dental arches of accident victims in cold locations, dental restorative materials can be found. Cold temperatures can be capable of causing color changes of aesthetic materials, such as composite resin (CR) and glass ionomer cement (GIC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cold action on the color stability of CR and GIC restorations, in order to discriminate them and enable the adequate comparison between antemortem and post-mortem data. Sixty bovine teeth (30 CR and 30 GIC) were prepared (6 × 6 × 2 mm) and separated into groups (n = 10)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756305/age-assessment-in-canine-and-premolar-by-cervical-axial-sections-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#14
Hichem Nemsi, Nidhal Haj Salem, Ines Bouanene, Sami Ben Jomaa, Meriem Belhadj, Mohamed Amin Mosrati, Abir Aissaoui, Faten Ben Amor, Ali Chadly
Age estimation in adults is a challenge in both anthropological and forensic situations compared to sub-adults age estimation. The present study explored, for the first time, the cervical zone of single rooted teeth. The deposition of secondary dentin is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging, and therefore is often used as an age indicator. The current study aimed at estimating the chronological age among adults by measuring the pulp/dentin area ratio (physiological ratio) by axial sections at cervical region of maxillary canine and mandibular second premolar...
July 21, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756170/confirmation-of-metabolites-of-the-neuroleptic-drug-prothipendyl-using-human-liver-microsomes-specific-cyp-enzymes-and-authentic-forensic-samples-benefit-for-routine-drug-testing
#15
M Krämer, S Broecker, B Madea, C Hess
Metabolism of the tricyclic azaphenothiazine neuroleptic drug prothipendyl was investigated with in vitro studies using human liver microsomes but also specific isoforms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Identification and analysis of metabolites was done by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) as well as triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS). Results of the herein presented study revealed the proof of various demethylated and oxidized metabolites (-CH2, -C2H4, four derivatives of prothipendyl +O and three derivatives of prothipendyl -CH2+O)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752200/retrospective-analysis-of-769-cases-of-sudden-cardiac-death-from-2006-to-2015-a-forensic-experience-in-china
#16
Zijiao Ding, Mingzhen Yang, Yunyun Wang, Shifan Wu, Xingang Qiu, Qian Liu
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health challenge. The records of 769 autopsy cases of SCD examined at Tongji Medicolegal Expertise Center from January 2006 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the cases was 46 years, excluding 27 victims in whom the exact age could not be confirmed. The highest incidence of SCD occurred among the 40- to 60-year-old group (45.0%). Male preponderance was observed in SCD cases (male: female ratio: 5.0:1), and this preponderance was even higher (8...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750309/ultraviolet-resonance-raman-spectroscopy-for-the-detection-of-cocaine-in-oral-fluid
#17
Valentina D'Elia, Gemma Montalvo, Carmen García Ruiz, Vladimir V Ermolenkov, Yasmine Ahmed, Igor K Lednev
Detecting and quantifying cocaine in oral fluid is of significant importance for practical forensics. Up to date, mainly destructive methods or biochemical tests have been used, while spectroscopic methods were only applied to pretreated samples. In this work, the possibility of using resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect cocaine in oral fluid without pretreating samples was tested. It was found that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy with 239-nm excitation allows for the detection of cocaine in oral fluid at 10μg/mL level...
July 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741393/psychometric-properties-in-forensic-application-of-the-screening-version-of-the-psychopathy-checklist
#18
Tamsin Higgs, Ruth J Tully, Kevin D Browne
The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) is a short form of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), an expert-rated assessment that measures psychopathic personality traits in research, clinical, and community settings. The PCL-R is an extensively relied upon tool in psycho-legal contexts. The screening version is also widely used; however, it has received far less empirical attention than the PCL-R. This review examines the psychometric properties of the PCL: SV, specifically in relation to forensic samples, and evaluates its comparability with the full PCL-R...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738558/elemental-source-attribution-signatures-for-calcium-ammonium-nitrate-can-fertilizers-used-in-homemade-explosives
#19
Carlos G Fraga, Alexander V Mitroshkov, Nikhil S Mirjankar, Brian P Dockendorff, Angie M Melville
Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a widely available fertilizer composed of ammonium nitrate (AN) mixed with some form of calcium carbonate such as limestone or dolomite. CAN is also frequently used to make homemade explosives. The potential of using elemental profiling and chemometrics to match both pristine and reprocessed CAN fertilizers to their factories of origin for use in future forensic investigations was examined. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of 64 elements in 125 samples from 11 CAN stocks from 6 different CAN factories...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734269/crime-scene-reconstruction-sex-prediction-from-blood-stained-foot-sole-impressions
#20
Nabanita Basu, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
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