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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936426/statistical-comparison-of-mass-spectra-for-identification-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants
#1
Melissa A Bodnar Willard, Victoria L McGuffin, Ruth Waddell Smith
A method for the statistical comparison of mass spectral data is demonstrated for applications in controlled substance analysis. The method uses an unequal variance t-test at each mass-to-charge ratio in the scan range to determine if two spectra are statistically associated or discriminated. If the two spectra are associated, a random-match probability is calculated to estimate the likelihood that the mass spectral fragmentation pattern in question occurs by random chance alone. If the two spectra are discriminated, the fragment ions responsible for the discrimination are determined...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933412/genetic-diversity-study-on-12-x-str-loci-of-investigator%C3%A2-argus-x-str-kit-in-bangladeshi-population
#2
Abu Sufian, Md Ismail Hosen, Kaniz Fatema, Tania Hossain, Md Mahamud Hasan, Ashish Kumar Mazumder, Sharif Akhteruzzaman
The X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci are of particular interest for solving complex kinship and paternity cases. Here, we report the genetic data from 209 unrelated Bangladeshi individuals (102 males and 107 females) that were genotyped using the 12 X-chromosomal STR markers included in the Investigator® Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen). The 12 X-STR markers are located in four linkage groups (linkage group I: DXS10135, DXS10148, and DXS8378; linkage group II: DXS7132, DXS10079, and DXS10074; linkage group III: DXS10103, HPRTB, and DXS10101; and linkage group IV: DXS10146, DXS10134, and DXS7423)...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933251/robust-image-hashing-using-ring-partition-pgnmf-and-local-features
#3
Ram Kumar Karsh, R H Laskar, Bhanu Bhai Richhariya
BACKGROUND: Image authentication is one of the challenging research areas in the multimedia technology due to the availability of image editing tools. Image hash may be used for image authentication which should be invariant to perceptually similar image and sensitive to content changes. The challenging issue in image hashing is to design a system which simultaneously provides rotation robustness, desirable discrimination, sensitivity and localization of forged area with minimum hash length...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932048/fatal-intravenous-injection-of-potassium-is-postmortem-biochemistry-useful-for-the-diagnosis
#4
Cristian Palmiere, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Vincent Varlet, Pia Baumann, Katarzyna Michaud, Marc Augsburger
Fatal cases of potassium overdoses have traditionally been considered indemonstrable due postmortem biochemical investigation limits (mainly potassium determination in postmortem serum and vitreous humor). Nevertheless, some authors have expressed a divergent opinion over the years based on the results of their own investigations. In this study, we investigated left vitreous, right vitreous, postmortem serum from peripheral blood, postmortem serum from cardiac blood, urine, pericardial and cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentrations in 21 forensic autopsy cases...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931869/a-genetic-overview-of-atlantic-coastal-populations-from-europe-and-north-west-africa-based-on-a-17-x-str-panel
#5
Endika Prieto-Fernández, Ana Díaz-de Usera, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Faiza Chbel, Sellama Nadifi, Karen Rouault, Claude Férec, Orla Hardiman, Fátima Pinheiro, Marian M de Pancorbo
The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924949/genetic-evidence-for-an-east-asian-origin-of-chinese-muslim-populations-dongxiang-and-hui
#6
Hong-Bing Yao, Chuan-Chao Wang, Xiaolan Tao, Lei Shang, Shao-Qing Wen, Bofeng Zhu, Longli Kang, Li Jin, Hui Li
There is a long-going debate on the genetic origin of Chinese Muslim populations, such as Uygur, Dongxiang, and Hui. However, genetic information for those Muslim populations except Uygur is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and ancestry of Chinese Muslims by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats in 652 individuals from Dongxiang, Hui, and Han Chinese populations in Gansu province. Both genetic distance and Bayesian-clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between the two Muslim populations and East Asian populations, suggesting a common genetic ancestry...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924404/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-distal-radial-epiphysis-a-new-criterion-of-maturity-for-determining-whether-the-age-of-18-has-been-completed
#7
M Timme, C Ottow, R Schulz, H Pfeiffer, W Heindel, V Vieth, A Schmeling, S Schmidt
To improve the accuracy of forensic age estimation where there is no legal basis for carrying out x-ray examinations, it would be useful to establish non-x-ray imaging techniques. The objective of this study was to provide reference data for the magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluation of the ossification stage of the distal radius. Furthermore, we tested a new criterion of the maturity of the distal radial epiphysis for determining whether an individual has completed the age of 18. We investigated 668 MRI scans of the distal radial epiphysis from 333 female and 335 male subjects ranging in age from 12 to 24...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914554/comparative-performance-of-ampflstr%C3%A2-identifiler%C3%A2-plus-pcr-amplification-kit-and-qiagen%C3%A2-investigator%C3%A2-idplex-plus-kit
#8
Dalad Mattayat, Thitika Kitpipit, Sukanya Phetpeng, Watee Asawutmangkul, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai
Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913880/forensic-3d-documentation-of-skin-injuries
#9
Chiara Villa
An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible to create 3D detailed, to-scale, true-color documentation of skin injuries from 2D pictures. A comparison between the measurements of 165 lesions taken during autopsies and on photogrammetrically processed pictures was performed...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913598/describing-visible-acute-injuries-development-of-a-comprehensive-taxonomy-for-research-and-practice
#10
Tony Rosen, Christopher Reisig, Veronica M LoFaso, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Sunday Clark, Thomas J McCarthy, Estomih P Mtui, Neal E Flomenbaum, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: Little literature exists classifying and comprehensively describing intentional and unintentional acute injuries, which would be valuable for research and practice. In preparation for a study of injury patterns in elder abuse, our goal was to develop a comprehensive taxonomy of relevant types and characteristics of visible acute injuries and evaluate it in geriatric patients. METHODS: We conducted an exhaustive review of the medical and forensic literature focusing on injury types, descriptions, patterns and analyses...
December 2, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909867/developmental-validation-of-the-homygene19-14y-system
#11
Weian Du, Ling Chen, Hong Liu, Pingming Qiu, Fayuan Li, Jing Gao, Yu Zhou, Bangchao Wang, Chao Liu
The HomyGene19+14Y System (HG19+14Y) is a PCR-based amplification kit that enables typing of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (i.e., CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, Penta E, TPOX, TH01, vWA), 14 widely used Y chromosome STR (Y-STR) loci (Y_GATA_H4, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635), and amelogenin. This multiplex system was designed for the simultaneous analysis of amelogenin-Y allele mutation, single-source searches, kinship (including familial searching), mixture profiles, international data sharing, and other forensic applications...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907233/forensic-comparison-of-soil-samples-using-nondestructive-elemental-analysis
#12
Stefan Uitdehaag, Wim Wiarda, Timme Donders, Irene Kuiper
Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (Cllr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#13
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907229/inferring-the-number-of-contributors-to-complex-dna-mixtures-using-three-methods-exploring-the-limits-of-low-template-dna-interpretation
#14
Lauren E Alfonse, Genesis Tejada, Harish Swaminathan, Desmond S Lun, Catherine M Grgicak
In forensic DNA casework, the interpretation of an evidentiary profile may be dependent upon the assumption on the number of individuals from whom the evidence arose. Three methods of inferring the number of contributors-NOCIt, maximum likelihood estimator, and maximum allele count, were evaluated using 100 test samples consisting of one to five contributors and 0.5-0.016 ng template DNA amplified with Identifiler(®) Plus and PowerPlex(®) 16 HS. Results indicate that NOCIt was the most accurate method of the three, requiring 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904428/a-cross-sectional-anthropometric-study-of-cranial-capacity-among-ukwuani-people-of-south-nigeria
#15
Dennis Erhisenebe Eboh, Ewaen Churchill Okoro, Kingsley Afoke Iteire
BACKGROUND: Cranial capacity is used as a measure of brain volume and has a relationship with age and gender. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data and population-, age- and gender-specific regression formulae related to cranial capacity using head dimensions among the Ukwuani people of Nigeria. METHODS: This study included 605 subjects grouped according to age as follows: 6-12 years, 13-19 years and ≥20 years. A cross-sectional study design using multistage sampling technique was adopted...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902658/understanding-negative-predictive-value-of-diagnostic-tests-used-in-clinical-practice
#16
Reba A Umberger, Linda A Hatfield, Patricia M Speck
Nurses review, evaluate, and use diagnostic test results on a routine basis. However, the skills necessary to evaluate a particular test using statistical outcome measures is often lacking. The purpose of this article is to examine and interpret the underlying principles for use of the statistical outcomes of diagnostic screening tests (sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, with a discussion about use of SpPIn [Specificity, Positive test = rule in], and SnNOut [Sensitivity, Negative test = rule out]) in advanced nursing clinical practice...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900264/a-genomic-study-on-distribution-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-a-and-hla-b-alleles-in-lak-population-of-iran
#17
Farhad Shahsavar, Ali-Mohammad Varzi, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi
Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890109/ascorbic-acid-and-vitamin-c-containing-beverages-delay-the-leucomalachite-green-reaction-to-detect-latent-bloodstains
#18
Haeyong Lee, Myung Jin Park, Seol Hee Sun, Dong-Ho Choi, Yang-Han Lee, Ki-Won Park, Byung Won Chun
The leucomalachite green (LMG) test is one of catalytic tests for the detection of latent bloodstains and generally used in forensic field because of convenience and cost/time-effectiveness. However, contamination of latent bloodstains at crime scenes can interfere with the LMG reaction, resulting in false-negative or false-positive decisions. Herein, we examined if ascorbic acid and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid or ascorbate)-containing beverages affect the LMG reaction. Ascorbic acid showed the inhibitory activities on the LMG reaction in a dose-dependent manner...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890101/genetic-polymorphism-studies-on-22-autosomal-str-loci-of-the-powerplex-fusion-system-in-bangladeshi-population
#19
Tania Hossain, Mahamud Hasan, Ashish K Mazumder, Pilu Momtaz, Abu Sufian, Jabedul Alam Khandaker, Sharif Akhteruzzaman
Genetic polymorphism of 22 autosomal STR loci included in PowerPlex® Fusion System (D3S1358, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, FGA and D22S1045) was studied in 188 unrelated Bangladeshi Bengali individuals. Allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters such as, the power of discrimination (PD), observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho & He), polymorphism information content (PIC), probability of match (PM), power of exclusion (PE) and typical paternity index was calculated for the loci...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890100/sex-and-ancestry-assessment-of-brazilian-crania-using-semi-automatic-mesh-processing-tools
#20
Mikoláš Jurda, Petra Urbanová
The present paper aims to test performances of semi-automatic tools for mesh-to-mesh processing while assessing sex and ancestry in documented human crania. The studied sample of 80 human crania, which originated in two documented Brazilian collections (São Paulo, Brazil) was digitized using photogrammetry and laser scanning. 3D cranial morphology was quantified by computing inter-mesh dissimilarity measures using in-house freeware FIDENTIS Analyst (www.fidentis.com). Numerical outputs were further processed using Discriminant Function Analysis and Canonical Variant Analysis in order to classify models into sex and ancestry groups...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
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