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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734269/crime-scene-reconstruction-sex-prediction-from-blood-stained-foot-sole-impressions
#1
Nabanita Basu, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730502/establishment-of-11-linked-x-str-loci-within-1-1-mb-to-assist-with-kinship-testing
#2
James Chun-I Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Li-Chin Tsai, Yu-Jen Yu, Keng-Hsien Liao, Adrian Linacre, Hsing-Mei Hsieh
This report identifies and characterizes 10 novel short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome, all of which are within a range of 1.1 Mb. These newly characterized loci were developed to aid in kinship assignment when the X chromosome is specifically required. The repeat DNA sequences were identified initially using data in GenBank and are located immediately upstream and downstream from the previously described locus DXS6807. Only those loci with seven or more observed alleles were used for further study resulting in the identification of 10 new loci...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723164/differentiation-and-identification-of-cacha%C3%A3-a-wood-extracts-using-peptide-based-receptors-and-multivariate-data-analysis
#3
Eman Ghanem, Saazina Afsah, Parisa N Fallah, Alexandria Lawrence, Elise LeBovidge, Sneha Raghunathan, Dominic Rago, Michelle A Ramirez, Mitchell Telles, Michelle Winkler, Bailey Schumm, Kiran Makhnejia, David Portillo, Rafael C Vidal, Allison Hall, Debbie Yeh, Holly Judkins, Alexandre Ataide da Silva, Douglas W Franco, Eric V Anslyn
It is becoming increasingly important to differentiate complex mixtures, especially in forensics. Cachaça, the most popular alcoholic beverage in Brazil, is made from distilled and fermented sugar cane juice. It contains a mixture of naturally occurring polyphenols known as tannins, whose composition is dictated by the type of wood used to age the beverage. These tannins can be differentiated in an Indicator Displacement Assay (IDA) using peptide-based ternary sensing ensembles. This investigation demonstrates a technique for fingerprinting the identity of the woods used to age cachaças...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721987/evaluation-of-occlusal-groove-patterns-of-mandibular-first-and-second-molars-in-an-indian-population-a-forensic-anthropological-study
#4
Rashmi Gs Phulari, Rajendrasinh Rathore, Mili D Takvani, Shivani Jain
BACKGROUND: The study of dental morphological characteristics is important in anthropological research as it can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variations and diversities within a population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of six types of mandibular second molars in Gujarat state and the results can be used in both forensic anthropological researches and clinical aspects of dental sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive investigation was undertaken among 1000 students (13-25 years old) in high schools and dental institutes of Gujarat state...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719379/critical-evaluation-of-metallization-in-electric-injury
#5
Sigitas Laima, Jana Bytautaite, Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Dmitrij Fomin, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Arturas Jukna, Sandra Mazeikiene, Jurgita Stasiuniene
The article presents 3 forensic medicine cases in the field of electric injury. In addition to traditional findings in electric injury (electric mark and histological findings), the forensic medicine experts in Lithuania also perform an atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. This method confirms the effects of electric current to the body through the electric conductor. Typical macroscopic finding in the skin is electric mark. Histologically, the damaged skin possesses characteristic features of thermal burns...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718882/an-analysis-on-the-choice-of-alpha-level-in-the-osteometric-pair-matching-of-the-os-coxa-scapula-and-clavicle
#6
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study compares the use of 0.05 and 0.10 alpha levels with the updated osteometric pair-matching model on two samples of the os coxa, scapula, and clavicle. The samples include the Forensic Data Bank, and the osteometric sorting reference used within the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. Mixed-effects two-way analyses of variance were used to analyze bilateral asymmetry in the standard measurements. In total, 3,793,566 t-tests were conducted for osteometric pair-matching analysis. The results indicate high levels of exclusion power, and accuracy can be obtained with the os coxa and scapula...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714560/validation-and-reliability-of-the-sex-estimation-of-the-human-os-coxae-using-freely-available-dsp2-software-for-bioarchaeology-and-forensic-anthropology
#7
Jaroslav Brůžek, Frédéric Santos, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Murail, Eugenia Cunha
OBJECTIVES: A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713610/study-of-sexual-dimorphism-of-malaysian-crania-an-important-step-in-identification-of-the-skeletal-remains
#8
Abdelnasser Ibrahim, Aspalilah Alias, Faridah Mohd Nor, Mohamed Swarhib, Siti Noorain Abu Bakar, Srijit Das
Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712037/introduction-of-sample-tubes-with-sodium-azide-as-a-preservative-for-ethyl-glucuronide-in-urine
#9
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann, Ali Al-Ahmad
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#10
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707524/applicability-of-cameriere-s-and-drusini-s-age-estimation-methods-to-a-sample-of-turkish-adults
#11
Hatice Boyacioglu Dogru, Nihal Avcu, Nursel Akkaya, Humeyra Ozge Yilanci, Dincer Goksuluk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of Drusini's and Cameriere's methods to a sample of Turkish people. METHODS: Panoramic images of 200 individuals were allocated into two groups as study and test groups and examined by two observers. Tooth coronal indexes (TCI), which is the ratio between coronal pulp cavity height and crown height, were calculated in the mandibular first and second premolars and molars. Pulp/tooth area ratios (ARs) were calculated in the maxillary and mandibular canine teeth...
July 14, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#12
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#13
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697681/a-particularly-complex-case-of-matricide-by-means-of-plastic-bag-suffocation-case-report
#14
Arnaldo Stanislao Migliorini, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Andrea Piccinini, Riccardo Zoja
A rare case of homicide with plastic bag suffocation is presented in which forensic genetic investigations were carried out on the inner surface of a plastic bag placed over the head of an elderly woman, bedridden after a stroke. The results obtained suggested that she had been murdered and hinted at the perpetrator of the crime. In fact, it emerged that biological traces left by the victim matched those of her principal caregiver, her psychotic daughter, who later confessed to the crime. The old woman also had a son affected by a serious illness, whose genetic profile was found on the same bag...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697408/a-finding-in-genetic-polymorphism-analysis-study-a-case-of-non-mosaic-47-xxx-without-manifestations
#15
Xingyi Yang, Zilan Ye, Xiaofang Zhang, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46, XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome...
June 30, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696182/prediction-of-psychiatric-hospitalization-diagnoses-arrests-and-violent-behavior-through-scored-drawings-and-associations
#16
Frank J Dyer
The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven "projective technique" approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing protocols were scored according to preliminary test items developed from published handbooks, academic courses, and workshops on the use of drawings and related associations for assessment...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694208/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-minisequencing-in-hypervariable-regions-for-screening-of-thais
#17
Punlop Thongngam, Worraanong Leewattanapasuk, Tanin Bhoopat, Padchanee Sangthong
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has displayed an important role and been considered as a powerful tool in various fields of forensic science applications. Nowadays, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mtDNA have become additional DNA markers when conventional STR typing practically fails. mtDNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the hypervariable region I (HVRI) and II (HVRII) is the standard method of mtDNA analysis. However, mtDNA sequencing is rather expensive, time consuming and technically complex...
July 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693912/spheno-occipital-synchondrosis-examining-the-degree-of-fusion-in-a-south-african-black-skeletal-sample
#18
Trisha-Jean Mahon, Louise Jacqui Friedling, Guinevere Marianne Gordon
Estimating age-at-death is one of the many biological demographics that a forensic anthropologist needs to determine for a set of unknown skeletal remains. A useful skeletal developmental marker, which can aid in estimating age in sub-adult remains, is the state of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. This study aimed to determine the repeatability of a three-stage scoring method and the age at which the spheno-occipital synchondrosis begins and completes fusion in a Black South African sample. A total of 147 male and female skeletal individuals aged between 12-30 years from the Raymond A...
June 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691915/forensic-individual-age-estimation-with-dna-from-initial-approaches-to-methylation-tests
#19
REVIEW
A Freire-Aradas, C Phillips, M V Lareu
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690895/discrimination-between-drug-abuse-and-medical-therapy-case-report-of-a-tranylcypromine-overdose-related-fatality
#20
Maryam Akhgari, Farzaneh Jokar, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha, Ali Ghasemi
Tranylcypromine is an effective antidepressant from the class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and is structurally related to amphetamine. However, reports differ regarding the potential metabolism of tranylcypromine to amphetamine and methamphetamine within the human body. We report a 25-year-old woman with severe depression who died due to a fatal tranylcypromine overdose in 2016. She had been prescribed tranylcypromine one day previously and had no history of previous suicide attempts or substance abuse. The body was transferred to a forensic medicine department in Tehran, Iran for the autopsy...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
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