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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934125/optimized-mtdna-control-region-primer-extension-capture-analysis-for-forensically-relevant-samples-and-highly-compromised-mtdna-of-different-age-and-origin
#1
Mayra Eduardoff, Catarina Xavier, Christina Strobl, Andrea Casas-Vargas, Walther Parson
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933247/a-bayesian-decision-support-tool-for-child-sexual-abuse-assessment-and-investigation
#2
Alessandro Tadei, Johan Pensar, Jukka Corander, Katarina Finnilä, Pekka Santtila, Jan Antfolk
In assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA) allegations, informative background information is often overlooked or not used properly. We therefore created and tested an instrument that uses accessible background information to calculate the probability of a child being a CSA victim that can be used as a starting point in the following investigation. Studying 903 demographic and socioeconomic variables from over 11,000 Finnish children, we identified 42 features related to CSA. Using Bayesian logic to calculate the probability of abuse, our instrument-the Finnish Investigative Instrument of Child Sexual Abuse (FICSA)-has two separate profiles for boys and girls...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926701/forensic-sampling-and-analysis-from-a-single-substrate-for-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-followed-by-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#3
Patrick W Fedick, Brandon J Bills, Nicholas E Manicke, R Graham Cooks
Sample preparation is the most common bottle-neck in the analysis and processing of forensic evidence. Time-consuming steps in many forensic tests involve complex separations such as liquid and gas chromatography or various types of extraction techniques, typically coupled with mass spectrometry (e.g. LC-MS). Ambient ionization ameliorates these slow steps by reducing or even eliminating sample preparation. While some ambient ionization techniques have been adopted by the forensic community, there is significant resistance to discarding chromatography as most forensic analyses require both an identification and a confirmation technique...
September 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#4
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922649/determination-of-74-new-psychoactive-substances-in-serum-using-automated-in-line-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Sabrina Lehmann, Tobias Kieliba, Justus Beike, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
A detailed description is given of the development and validation of a fully automated in-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method capable of detecting 90 central-stimulating new psychoactive substances (NPS) and 5 conventional amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA), methamphetamine) in serum. The aim was to apply the validated method to forensic samples...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922010/detecting-memory-performance-validity-with-detects-a-computerized-performance-validity-test
#6
Rui Paulo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III...
September 18, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921557/accountability-collaboration-and-social-change-ethical-tensions-in-an-action-research-project-to-address-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#7
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918371/willems-method-of-dental-age-estimation-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
J S Sehrawat, Monika Singh
BACKGROUND: Age estimation from dental developmental stages is considered comparatively more accurate, reliable and precise than other methods used in forensic sciences. Willems method is the revised version of Demirjian method, based on modified dental maturity scores to estimate age of children in years for both the sexes. AIMS: To test the applicability and accuracy level of Willems method of dental age estimation in diverse population samples by quantifying the variations between the chronological and estimated ages of an individual...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918370/a-metric-study-of-insole-foot-impressions-in-footwear-of-identical-twins
#9
Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915346/a-review-of-chemical-spot-tests-a-presumptive-illicit-drug-identification-technique
#10
REVIEW
Morgan Philp, Shanlin Fu
Chemical 'spot' tests are a presumptive illicit drug identification technique commonly used by law enforcement, border security personnel, and forensic laboratories. The simplicity, low cost and rapid results afforded by these tests make them particularly attractive for presumptive identification globally. In this paper, we review the development of these long-established methods and discuss color test recommendations and guidelines. A search of the scientific literature revealed the chemical reactions occurring in many color tests are either not actively investigated or reported as unknown...
September 15, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912899/earwax-as-an-alternative-specimen-for-forensic-analysis
#11
Engy Shokry, Jair Gonzalez Marques, Paulo César Ragazzo, Naiara Zedes Pereira, Nelson Roberto Antoniosi Filho
In this work, we presented, for the first time, earwax as an alternative forensic specimen for detecting 12 neuropsychotic drugs employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes after straightforward extraction with methanol. The method was validated and standard curves were established by external calibration with correlation coefficients >0.99. All precision, accuracy, matrix effects, extraction recoveries, and carryover were within acceptable limits; limits of quantification were sufficiently low to quantify almost all the samples tested...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904546/evidence-based-draft-guideline-for-prevention-of-midwifery-malpractices-based-on-referred-cases-to-the-forensic-medicine-commission-and-the-medical-council-from-2006-2011
#12
Leila Asadi, Marjan Beigi, Mahbube Valiani, Fardin Mardani
BACKGROUND: Medical errors are the main concerns in health systems, which considering their ascending rate in the recent years, especially in the field of midwifery, have caused a medical crisis. Considering the importance of evidence-based health services as a way to improve health systems, the aim of this study was to suggest a guideline for preventing malpractice in midwifery services. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013, we investigated 206 cases that were referred to the Isfahan Legal Medicine Organization and Medical Council of Forensic Medicine from 2006-2011...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900075/-circulating-micrornas-in-the-identification-of-biological-fluids-a-new-approach-to-standardization-of-expression-based-diagnostics
#13
A S Bavykin
Molecular profiling of normal tissues is a regular and necessary step when developing systems for expression analyses in biological samples, including diagnostic panels for various diseases and conditions. Yet there are still no rigorous criteria to allow precise typing of normal tissues. A main problem is that the methods employed in diagnostic expression testing are difficult to standardize. While various technologies, instruments, and reagents are available, universal protocols of handling biological material are lacking, thus impairing the reproducibility of data from independent studies...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889870/the-use-of-handwriting-examinations-beyond-the-traditional-court-purpose
#14
REVIEW
Anna Agius, Kylie Jones, Rochelle Epple, Marie Morelato, Sébastien Moret, Scott Chadwick, Claude Roux
Traditionally, forensic science has predominantly focused its resources and objectives on addressing court related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one function and results in lost opportunities as investigative and intelligence roles are often overlooked. A change of perspective and expansion of the contributions of forensic science is required to take advantage of the benefits of abductive and inductive thought processes throughout the investigative and intelligence functions...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889867/an-investigation-into-the-effect-of-surveillance-drones-on-textile-evidence-at-crime-scenes
#15
Alistair Bucknell, Tom Bassindale
With increasing numbers of Police forces using drones for crime scene surveillance, the effect of the drones on trace evidence present needs evaluation. In this investigation the effect of flying a quadcopter drone at different heights over a controlled scene and taking off at different distances from the scene were measured. Yarn was placed on a range of floor surfaces and the number lost or moved from their original position was recorded. It was possible to estimate "safe" distances above and take off distance from the bath mat (2m and 1m respectively), and carpet tile (3m and 1m) which were the roughest surfaces...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889865/estimating-the-age-of-the-adult-stages-of-the-blow-flies-lucilia-sericata-and-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae-by-means-of-the-cuticular-hydrocarbon-n-pentacosane
#16
Victoria Bernhardt, Werner Pogoda, Marcel A Verhoff, Stefan W Toennes, Jens Amendt
Age estimation of insects like blow flies plays an important role in forensic entomology and can answer questions in regard to time of death. So far the focus is on the immature stages of these insects, but recently the adult fly became a target of interest. It has been established that the profile of specific cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) changes in a consistent pattern as adult insects age; thus, their analysis could be a promising tool for the age estimation of adult insects. We investigated the CHC n-pentacosane (nC25) on the legs of the adult blow flies Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889863/the-persistence-of-human-dna-in-soil-following-surface-decomposition
#17
Alexandra L Emmons, Jennifer M DeBruyn, Amy Z Mundorff, Kelly L Cobaugh, Graciela S Cabana
Though recent decades have seen a marked increase in research concerning the impact of human decomposition on the grave soil environment, the fate of human DNA in grave soil has been relatively understudied. With the purpose of supplementing the growing body of literature in forensic soil taphonomy, this study assessed the relative persistence of human DNA in soil over the course of decomposition. Endpoint PCR was used to assess the presence or absence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, while qPCR was used to evaluate the quantity of human DNA recovered from the soil beneath four cadavers at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility (ARF)...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889861/forensic-science-and-the-right-to-access-to-justice-testing-the-efficacy-of-self-examination-intimate-dna-swabs-to-enhance-victim-centred-responses-to-sexual-violence-in-low-resource-environments
#18
Lisa L Smith, Jon H Wetton, Gurdeep K M Lall, Heather D Flowe, Mark A Jobling
In developed countries, DNA profiling routinely forms part of the forensic strategy in the investigation of sexual violence. Medical examinations provide opportunities for recovering DNA evidence from intimate swabs, which can be particularly probative in cases where the identity of the perpetrator is unknown and proof of intercourse between two people is required. In low-resource environments, such as developing countries, remote geographic locations, conflict (and post-conflict) affected regions and displaced communities where access to medical examinations is lacking, DNA evidence is not available to support prosecutions and perpetrators are rarely identified and held accountable for crimes of sexual violence...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887423/forensic-human-identification-using-skin-microbiomes
#19
Sarah E Schmedes, August E Woerner, Bruce Budowle
The human microbiome contributes significantly to the genetic content of the human body. Genetic and environmental factors help shape the microbiome, and as such, the microbiome can be unique to an individual. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential to use microbiome profiling for forensic applications, however a method has yet to identify stable features of skin microbiomes that produce high classification accuracies for samples collected over reasonably long time intervals. A novel approach is described to classify skin microbiomes to their donors by comparing two features types, Propionibacterium acnes pangenome presence/absence features and nucleotide diversities of stable clade-specific markers...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874809/forensic-age-prediction-for-saliva-samples-using-methylation-sensitive-high-resolution-melting-exploratory-application-for-cigarette-butts
#20
Yuya Hamano, Sho Manabe, Chie Morimoto, Shuntaro Fujimoto, Keiji Tamaki
There is high demand for forensic age prediction in actual crime investigations. In this study, a novel age prediction model for saliva samples using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) was developed. The methylation profiles of ELOVL2 and EDARADD showed high correlations with age and were used to predict age with support vector regression. ELOVL2 was first reported as an age predictive marker for saliva samples. The prediction model showed high accuracy with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) from chronological age of 5...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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