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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449258/improve-toolmarks-impressions-in-soft-wax
#1
Nir Finkelstein, Nikolai Volkov, Tsadok Tsach
When the forensic toolmarks laboratory receives for examination and comparison a tool that is suspected of having been involved in a crime, the expert performs tests designed to determine whether or not the specific tool generates the same toolmarks as those found at the crime scene. This is performed by testing tool striation on a piece of soft metal, such as lead, and examining the marks left by the tool. Studies have shown that wax may be an optimal material for this purpose. This study examines the use of wax at different temperatures and shows that quality of results is better when the wax is cooled (recommended temperature is -18°C)...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446019/a-novel-fusion-bead-procedure-for-nuclear-forensics-employing-synthetic-enstatite-to-dissolve-uraniferous-and-other-challenging-materials-prior-to-la-icp-ms
#2
David G Reading, Ian W Croudace, Phillip Edward Warwick
There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via LA-ICP-MS...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445860/brephedrone-a-new-psychoactive-substance-seized-in-brazil
#3
Yuri Machado, José Coelho Neto, Paulo Eduardo Nunes Barbosa, Rogério Araújo Lordeiro, Rosemeire Brondi Alves
At the beginning of 2015, sixty-two capsules containing red-brown crystals seized in a historical city in Brazil were sent to this forensic laboratory for drug testing analysis. The material was identified as being Brephedrone, a new psychoactive substance and a bromine synthetic cathinone that is related to serotonin transportation. This substance was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, GC-MS, LC-MS, (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR. Brephedrone apprehensions have been previously reported in Finland, France and Spain. It was the first detection of this substance in the State of Minas Gerais...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442769/improved-phylogenetic-resolution-for-y-chromosome-haplogroup-o2a1c-002611
#4
Xiaotian Yao, Senwei Tang, Beilei Bian, Xiaoli Wu, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 is one of the dominant lineages of East Asians and Southeast Asians. However, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we genotyped 89 new highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 305 individuals with Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 identified from 2139 Han Chinese males. Two major branches were identified, O2a1c1-F18 and O2a1c2-L133.2 and the first was further divided into two main subclades, O2a1c1a-F11 and O2a1c1b-F449, accounting for 11...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434084/population-data-of-23-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-chinese-han-population-from-guangdong-province-in-southern-china
#5
Luyu Yang, Xiufeng Zhang, Lijuan Zhao, Yanan Sun, Jiajue Li, Renwu Huang, Liping Hu, Shengjie Nie
The genetic polymorphisms of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the HuaxiaTM Platinum kit were evaluated in 1533 unrelated healthy Guangdong Han individuals living in the Guangdong Province in southern China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Guangdong Han and other Chinese populations was also estimated. The combined discrimination power and the probability of excluding the paternity of 23 STR loci were 0...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433824/enfsi-collaborative-testing-programme-for-fingermarks-past-experiences-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
A Matte, J Fish, M Hilgert, T Lövby, M Svensson, J Vaughan, F Zampa
As early as 2004 the Fingerprint Working Group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) has organised proficiency tests (PT's) as well as collaborative exercises (CE's) as a way of raising standards within the fingerprint profession. Participation in PT's and CE's is a key element in the ISO/IEC accreditation process as they enable laboratories to monitor the quality of their analytical results. On the basis of the European Council Framework Decision 2009/905/JHA, of 30 November 2009, on Accreditation of forensic service providers carrying out laboratory activities[1], from November 15th of 2015, only accredited laboratories are allowed to exchange fingerprint data with other EU countries...
March 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433078/haplotype-counting-for-sensitive-chimerism-testing-potential-for-early-leukemia-relapse-detection
#7
Marija Debeljak, Evelina Mocci, Max C Morrison, Aparna Pallavajjalla, Katie Beierl, Marie Amiel, Michaël Noë, Laura D Wood, Ming-Tseh Lin, Christopher D Gocke, Alison P Klein, Ephraim J Fuchs, Richard J Jones, James R Eshleman
Fields of forensics, transplantation, and paternity rely on human identity testing. Currently, this is accomplished through amplification of microsatellites followed by capillary electrophoresis. An alternative and theoretically better approach uses multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within a small region of DNA, a method we initially developed using HLA-A and called haplotype counting. Herein, we validated seven additional polymorphic loci, sequenced a total of 45 individuals from three of the 1000 Genomes populations (15 from each), and determined the number of haplotypes, heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content for each locus...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#8
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431640/rapid-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse
#9
Joesph R Wiencek, Jennifer M Colby, James H Nichols
Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430826/geographic-origin-and-individual-assignment-of-shorea-platyclados-dipterocarpaceae-for-forensic-identification
#10
Chin Hong Ng, Soon Leong Lee, Lee Hong Tnah, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chai Ting Lee, Bibian Diway, Eyen Khoo
The development of timber tracking methods based on genetic markers can provide scientific evidence to verify the origin of timber products and fulfill the growing requirement for sustainable forestry practices. In this study, the origin of an important Dark Red Meranti wood, Shorea platyclados, was studied by using the combination of seven chloroplast DNA and 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) markers. A total of 27 natural populations of S. platyclados were sampled throughout Malaysia to establish population level and individual level identification databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416281/population-structure-of-han-nationality-in-central-southern-china
#11
Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Xin He, Yan-Wei Shi, Wei-Wei Wu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu
Knowledge of population structure is very important for forensic genetics. However, the population substructure in Central-Southern China Han nationality has still not been fully described. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 15 forensic autosomal STR loci from 6879 individuals in 12 Han populations subdivided by administrative provinces in Central-Southern China. The statistical analysis of genetic variation showed that genetic differentiation among these populations was very small with a Fst value of 0...
April 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414985/sharp-and-blunt-force-trauma-concealment-by-thermal-alteration-in-homicides-an-in-vitro-experiment-for-methodology-and-protocol-development-in-forensic-anthropological-analysis-of-burnt-bones
#12
Ioana Macoveciuc, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Ian Horsfall, Peter Zioupos
Burning of human remains is one method used by perpetrators to conceal fatal trauma and expert opinions regarding the degree of skeletal evidence concealment are often disparate. This experiment aimed to reduce this incongruence in forensic anthropological interpretation of burned human remains and implicitly contribute to the development of research methodologies sufficiently robust to withstand forensic scrutiny in the courtroom. We have tested the influence of thermal alteration on pre-existing sharp and blunt trauma on twenty juvenile sheep radii in the laboratory using an automated impact testing system and an electric furnace...
March 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407398/influence-of-bleaching-and-coloring-on-ethyl-glucuronide-content-in-human-hair
#13
Silvana Petzel-Witt, Werner Pogoda, Cora Wunder, Alexander Paulke, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with colored hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of coloring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13...
April 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405885/sudden-death-due-to-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-following-negative-stress-test-outcome-genetics-and-clinical-implications
#14
Cristian D'Ovidio, Aldo Carnevale, Vincenzo M Grassi, Enrica Rosato, Bernat Del Olmo, Monica Coll, Oscar Campuzano, Anna Iglesias, Ramon Brugada, Antonio Oliva
This paper discusses the case of a young boy who died suddenly during a football match. The victim's personal and family medical histories were negative for cardiac events. He had undergone a cardiological investigation some months before his death, enabling him to participate in competitive sports. Only post-mortem molecular analysis allowed for a clearer determination of the most plausible cause of death, which was identified as inherited arrhythmogenic heart disease, known as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405674/-new-developments-in-molecularbiological-diagnostic
#15
Christine Mannhalter
Today, we have access to excellent and advanced molecular methods that are already widely used. This requires rules to control the quality of the methods as well as the laboratory. Both aspects will be discussed in the article. Following the isolation of nucleic acids they are used for genotyping which allows to address several questions: diagnosis of inherited diseases, inherited predispositions, forensic analyses, identification and typing of bacteria or viruses, elucidation of evolutionary aspects. Importantly, it has to be realized that the type and heterogeneity of phenotypically relevant mutations determines the method used for testing...
April 13, 2017: Hämostaseologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404240/determination-of-the-post-mortem-interval-in-skeletal-remains-by-the-comparative-use-of-different-physico-chemical-methods-are-they-reliable-as-an-alternative-to-14-c
#16
Alberto Amadasi, Annalisa Cappella, Cristina Cattaneo, Pacifico Cofrancesco, Lucia Cucca, Daniele Merli, Chiara Milanese, Andrea Pinto, Antonella Profumo, Valentina Scarpulla, Emanuela Sguazza
The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a challenging aspect in the forensic field. Previous studies focused their attention on different macroscopic and morphological aspects but a thorough and complete evaluation of the potential of chemical and physical analyses in this field of research has not been performed. In addition to luminol test and Oxford histology index (OHI) reported in a recent paper, widely spread and accessible methods based on physical aspect and chemical characteristics of skeletal remains have been investigated as potential alternatives to dating by determination of (14)C...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401303/evaluation-of-forensic-genetic-parameters-of-12-str-loci-in-the-korean-population-using-the-investigator-%C3%A2-hdplex-kit
#17
Ju Yeon Jung, Eun Hye Kim, Yu-Li Oh, Hyun-Chul Park, Jung Ho Hwang, Si-Keun Lim
We genotyped and calculated the forensic parameters of 10 non-CODIS loci and 2 CODIS loci of 990 Korean individuals using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) or genetic linkage disequilibrium were observed. The calculated matching probability and power of discrimination ranged from 0.0080 to 0.2014, and 0.7986 to 0.9920, respectively. We conclude that the markers of the kit are highly informative corroborative tools for forensic DNA analysis...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397234/-analysis-of-genetic-polymorphisms-and-mutations-of-20-frequently-used-str-loci-among-ethnic-hans-from-henan
#18
Hongdan Wang, Bing Kang, Yue Gao, Xiaodong Huo, Tao Li, Qiannan Guo, Bofeng Zhu, Shixiu Liao
OBJECTIVE: To study the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 20 frequently used autosomal microsatellites among ethnic Hans from Henan. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples of 2604 individuals were collected. DNA was amplified and genotyped using a PowerPlex(TM) 21 system. The frequencies, forensic parameters and mutation rates of the 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 323 alleles were found in this population and the allelic frequencies have ranged from 0...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391405/postmortem-genetic-testing-should-be-recommended-in-sudden-cardiac-death-cases-due-to-thoracic-aortic-dissection
#19
Marina Gago-Díaz, Eva Ramos-Luis, Silvia Zoppis, Esther Zorio, Pilar Molina, Aitana Braza-Boïls, Juan Giner, Beatriz Sobrino, Jorge Amigo, Alejandro Blanco-Verea, Ángel Carracedo, María Brion
BACKGROUND: Acute thoracic aortic dissections and ruptures, the main life-threatening complications of the corresponding aneurysms, are an important cause of sudden cardiac death. Despite the usefulness of the molecular diagnosis of these conditions in the clinical setting, the corresponding forensic field remains largely unexplored. The main goal of this study was to explore and validate a new massive parallel sequencing candidate gene​ assay as a diagnostic tool for acute thoracic aortic dissection autopsy cases...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390021/pharmaceuticals-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-samples-in-north-eastern-tunisia
#20
Bilel Moslah, Evroula Hapeshi, Amel Jrad, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Abderrazek Hedhili
Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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