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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143327/location-of-artifacts-deposited-by-the-blow-fly-lucilia-cuprina-after-feeding-on-human-blood-at-simulated-indoor-crime-scenes
#1
Annalisa Durdle, Timothy J Verdon, Robert John Mitchell, Roland A H van Oorschot
Human DNA profiles can be obtained from fly artifacts (feces and regurgitant) when a fly has been feeding on biological material, sometimes 2 years after deposition. Morphological similarity between artifacts and spots of unaltered biological material make it difficult to distinguish between them, and presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests are unreliable in making the distinction. Knowing possible artifact locations will assist investigators in recognizing where DNA contamination might occur. Flies were released into a house with human blood available under a variety of different climatic and lighting conditions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136920/forensic-utility-of-a-nitrogen-and-oxygen-isotope-ratio-time-series-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-its-isolated-ions
#2
Brittany L Grimm, Libby A Stern, Alexander J Lowe
Ammonium nitrate (AN) based fertilizers are inexpensive and easily obtained, characteristics that often lead to their use in homemade explosive devices. The stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, expressed as δ(15)N and δ(18)O) of AN have the potential to aid in forensic investigations by providing supplemental properties for sample-to-sample comparison in materials which are otherwise chemically identical. The forensic utility of stable isotope analyses depends on demonstrated variation between different sources and minimal variation within a source...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136877/qspr-in-forensic-analysis-the-prediction-of-retention-time-of-pesticide-residues-based-on-the-monte-carlo-method
#3
Miodrag Zdravković, Aleksandra Antović, Jovana B Veselinović, Dušan Sokolović, Aleksandar M Veselinović
A method for the prediction of retention indices of pesticides using the Monte Carlo method and with optimal molecular descriptors based on local graph invariants and the SMILES notation of studied compounds has been presented. Quite satisfactory results were obtained with the proposed method, since a robust model with good statistical quality was developed. The predictive potential of the applied approach was tested and the robustness of the model was proven with different methods. The best calculated QSPR model had following statistical parameters: r(2) = 0...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136574/are-we-using-the-appropriate-reference-samples-to-develop-juvenile-age-estimation-methods-based-on-bone-size-an-exploration-of-growth-differences-between-average-children-and-those-who-become-victims-of-homicide
#4
Laure Spake, Hugo F V Cardoso
The population on which forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods are applied has not been critically considered. Previous research suggests that child victims of homicide tend to be from socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts, and that these contexts impair linear growth. This study investigates whether juvenile skeletal remains examined by forensic anthropologists are short for age compared to their normal healthy peers. Cadaver lengths were obtained from records of autopsies of 1256 individuals, aged birth to eighteen years at death, conducted between 2000 and 2015 in Australia, New Zealand, and the U...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129975/forensic-age-estimation-of-chinese-malaysian-adults-by-evaluating-occlusal-tooth-wear-using-modified-kim-s-index
#5
Chai Kit Lu, Margaret Chia Soo Yee, Spoorthi Banavar Ravi, Rohit Pandurangappa
Background and Objective: Evaluation of dental attrition is an easy and relatively accurate approach to estimating the age of an adult either ante- or postmortem for some specific population. Dental attrition represents a progressive physiological age change that can be measured using variety of indices to aid as an adjunct in forensic age estimation. Some of the previously proposed indices have their own practical limitations. This paper focuses on using modified Kim's criteria to score dental attrition to estimate the age of Chinese Malaysian adults and validate it...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129342/stature-estimation-using-measurements-of-the-cranium-for-populations-in-the-united-states
#6
Kelsey M Kyllonen, Terrie Simmons-Ehrhardt, Keith L Monson
Stature estimation is an important component of the biological profile. Human crania are sometimes recovered in the absence of other skeletal material in forensic casework, and stature estimation equations using cranial measurements have not been developed for populations in the United States. Both simple and multiple regression equations for estimating stature were developed from standard cranial measurements taken from both a cranial CT dataset and the Forensic Data Bank, and the resulting equations were tested using a separate dataset...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128654/kastle-meyer-blood-test-reagents-are-deleterious-to-dna
#7
James Sloots, Wendy Lalonde, Barbara Reid, Jonathan Millman
The Kastle-Meyer (KM) test is a quick and easy chemical test for blood used in forensic analyses. Two practical variations of this test are the KM-rub (indirect) test and the more sensitive KM-direct test, the latter of which is performed by applying reagents directly to a suspected blood stain. This study found that sodium hydroxide present in the KM reagents eliminated the potential to generate a DNA profile when applied directly to small quantities of blood. A modified approach to the KM-rub test that increases its sensitivity is presented as a method to replace destructive KM-direct testing...
October 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127894/detection-and-localization-of-copy-paste-forgeries-in-digital-videos
#8
Raahat Devender Singh, Naveen Aggarwal
Amidst the continual march of technology, we find ourselves relying on digital videos to proffer visual evidence in several highly sensitive areas such as journalism, politics, civil and criminal litigation, and military and intelligence operations. However, despite being an indispensable source of information with high evidentiary value, digital videos are also extremely vulnerable to conscious manipulations. Therefore, in a situation where dependence on video evidence is unavoidable, it becomes crucial to authenticate the contents of this evidence before accepting them as an accurate depiction of reality...
October 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126606/balance-study-in-asymptomatic-subjects-determination-of-significant-variables-and-reference-patterns-to-improve-clinical-application
#9
Juan de la Torre, Javier Marin, Jose J Marin, Jose M Auria, Maria B Sanchez-Valverde
Postural control is essential when carrying out everyday activities and its possible disorders have a very significant impact on personal autonomy. To provide the means to accurately measure postural control in the clinical environment, this study checks and discusses the suitability of procedures for a new balance assessment system with a stabilometric platform (MoveHuman-Dyna © UZ-IDERGO), which meets the criteria of clinical stabilometric standardisation established by the International Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) at the Bologna meeting (2009)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126000/direct-pcr-amplification-of-dna-from-human-bloodstains-saliva-and-touch-samples-collected-with-microfloq-%C3%A2-swabs
#10
Angie Ambers, Rachel Wiley, Nicole Novroski, Bruce Budowle
Previous studies have shown that nylon flocked swabs outperform traditional fiber swabs in DNA recovery due to their innovative design and lack of internal absorbent core to entrap cellular materials. The microFLOQ(®) Direct swab, a miniaturized version of the 4N6 FLOQSwab(®), has a small swab head that is treated with a lysing agent which allows for direct amplification and DNA profiling from sample collection to final result in less than two hours. Additionally, the microFLOQ(®) system subsamples only a minute portion of a stain and preserves the vast majority of the sample for subsequent testing or re-analysis, if desired...
October 26, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125964/null-alleles-and-sequence-variations-at-primer-binding-sites-of-str-loci-within-multiplex-typing-systems
#11
Yining Yao, Qinrui Yang, Chengchen Shao, Baonian Liu, Yuxiang Zhou, Hongmei Xu, Yueqin Zhou, Qiqun Tang, Jianhui Xie
Rare variants are widely observed in human genome and sequence variations at primer binding sites might impair the process of PCR amplification resulting in dropouts of alleles, named as null alleles. In this study, 5 cases from routine paternity testing using PowerPlex(®)21 System for STR genotyping were considered to harbor null alleles at TH01, FGA, D5S818, D8S1179, and D16S539, respectively. The dropout of alleles was confirmed by using alternative commercial kits AGCU Expressmarker 22 PCR amplification kit and AmpFℓSTR(®)...
October 28, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122420/locked-in-and-growing-old-the-psychiatric-forensic-and-cognitive-correlates-of-30-years-of-psychiatric-hospitalization
#12
Frederick Hives, Kenny A Karyadi, Steve Nitch, Dominique Kinney
OBJECTIVE: As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, the population of older adults with severe mental illness in institutional settings (OASIS) is expected to place a significant demand on healthcare resources. This study presents an update to research regarding the clinical characteristics of OASIS inpatients with histories of extensive hospitalization through the use of a newly developed psychiatric measure: the Clinician-Rated Dimension of Psychosis Symptom Severity...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121662/qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-illumina-s-forensic-str-and-snp-kits-on-miseq-fgx%C3%A2
#13
Vishakha Sharma, Hoi Yan Chow, Donald Siegel, Elisa Wurmbach
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a powerful tool transforming DNA analysis in multiple fields ranging from medicine, to environmental science, to evolutionary biology. In forensic applications, MPS offers the ability to significantly increase the discriminatory power of human identification as well as aid in mixture deconvolution. However, before the benefits of any new technology can be employed, a thorough evaluation of its quality, consistency, sensitivity, and specificity must be rigorously evaluated in order to gain a detailed understanding of the technique including sources of error, error rates, and other restrictions/limitations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121618/estimating-normal-lung-weight-measurement-using-postmortem-ct-in-forensic-cases
#14
Kotaro Matoba, Hideki Hyodoh, Manabu Murakami, Atsuko Saito, Tomoko Matoba, Lisa Ishida, Emi Fujita, Mayumi Yamase, Shigeki Jin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to estimate the lung weight using postmortem CT in well aerated lung autopsy cases. The correlation coefficients to the lung weight were also evaluated for the cadavers' height, weight, whole body surface area (WBSA), body mass index, and estimated lung volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2015 to July 2016, 31 cadavers (male 12, female 19, age 20-98 (mean 66.9) y.o., postmortem interval 0.3-75.0 (5.7) days) were compared as regards body weight, height, whole body surface area (WBSA), body mass index (BMI), lung volume on CT, and total lung volume classified into several CT number categories, with their lung weight in autopsy...
October 31, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101908/using-drone-mounted-cameras-for-on-site-body-documentation-3d-mapping-and-active-survey
#15
Petra Urbanová, Mikoláš Jurda, Tomáš Vojtíšek, Jan Krajsa
Recent advances in unmanned aerial technology have substantially lowered the cost associated with aerial imagery. As a result, forensic practitioners are today presented with easy low-cost access to aerial photographs at remote locations. The present paper aims to explore boundaries in which the low-end drone technology can operate as professional crime scene equipment, and to test the prospects of aerial 3D modeling in the forensic context. The study was based on recent forensic cases of falls from height admitted for postmortem examinations...
October 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101907/differences-between-postmortem-ct-and-autopsy-in-death-investigation-of-cervical-spine-injuries
#16
Yohsuke Makino, Hajime Yokota, Eiji Nakatani, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Suguru Torimitsu, Takashi Uno, Hirotaro Iwase
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the differences between postmortem CT (PMCT) and autopsy findings in the postmortem detection of cervical spine injuries (CSIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our department's forensic pathology database was searched for CSI cases. In each case, the autopsy data and radiologists' interpretations were reviewed for the presence of bone fractures and intervertebral injuries. RESULTS: The study included 42 cases. For both bone fractures and intervertebral injuries, no substantial concordance between PMCT and autopsy findings was observed (McNemar's test: p<0...
October 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101904/the-attribution-of-a-death-to-heroin-a-model-to-help-improve-the-consistent-and-transparent-classification-and-reporting-of-heroin-related-deaths
#17
Nathan C Stam, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Paul M Dietze, Sarah Parsons, Karen Smith, Belinda Lloyd, Jennifer L Pilgrim
INTRODUCTION: Accurate attribution of heroin-related deaths, as well as the differentiation from other opioid analgesic-related deaths, is essential from a public health perspective. Heroin-related deaths involve a number of complexities where heroin-specific or non-specific metabolites and indicators (6-acetylmorphine [6-AM], morphine, and codeine) may or may not be detected. The aims of this study were therefore to develop a model for improved consistency in the attribution of heroin-related deaths and to determine areas of variation in the current decision-making processes...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096202/parzen-neural-networks-fundamentals-properties-and-an-application-to-forensic-anthropology
#18
Edmondo Trentin, Luca Lusnig, Fabio Cavalli
A novel, unsupervised nonparametric model of multivariate probability density functions (pdf) is introduced, namely the Parzen neural network (PNN). The PNN is intended to overcome the major limitations of traditional (either statistical or neural) pdf estimation techniques. Besides being profitably simple, the PNN turns out to have nice properties in terms of unbiased modeling capability, asymptotic convergence, and efficiency at test time. Several matters pertaining the practical application of the PNN are faced in the paper, too...
October 18, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084352/potential-use-in-forensics-of-a-novel-hybrid-gelatin-dynamic-impact-assessment
#19
Teodora Zecheru, Alexandru Dena, Marius Cîrmaci, Ciprian Său, Cătălin Zaharia, Claudiu Lăzăroaie
Ballistic gelatin as simulant of the human body and organs is a support in forensics. After having obtained very good results for a new gelatin-based composite in terms of physicochemical and rheological properties, this study focused on this material's mechanical behavior during stabbing and shooting versus bovine and porcine organs and standard ballistic gelatin. The hybrid gelatin has a predominantly elastic behavior at 23°C, whereas the elastic modulus becomes practically constant in the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082429/improving-body-fluid-identification-in-forensic-trace-evidence-construction-of-an-immunochromatographic-test-array-to-rapidly-detect-up-to-five-body-fluids-simultaneously
#20
Hannah Holtkötter, Kristina Schwender, Peter Wiegand, Heidi Peiffer, Marielle Vennemann
Body fluid identification is a substantial part of forensic trace analyses. The correct determination of the origin of a biological stain may give valuable information regarding the circumstances of a crime. A simple way to detect a body fluid in a stain is the use of immunochromatographic strip tests. They are easy to use, user-independent, quick, and cheap. Currently, however, it is only possible to analyze one body fluid at a time, requiring the analyst to make previous, possibly subjective, assumptions on the body fluid at hand...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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