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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#1
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924470/emerging-issues-and-treatment-strategies-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre
#2
REVIEW
Dana R Bowers, Vanthida Huang
Carbapenems are the broadest spectrum antimicrobials utilized in the treatment of serious infections since the 1980s. Soon after their introduction, the discovery of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was reported in the 1990s. Invasive CRE infections are associated with high mortality and limited treatment options making care for patients with these infections challenging for clinicians. Current practice has reverted back to the use of "older" antimicrobials, such as the polymyxins, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, to combat invasive CRE infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924468/whether-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-can-overcome-the-problem-of-biofilms-in-respiratory-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Kamal Dua, Shakti D Shukla, Rakesh K Tekade, Philip M Hansbro
Biofilm comprises a community of microorganisms which form on medical devices and can lead to various threatening infections. It is a major concern in various respiratory diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. The treatment strategies for such infections are difficult due to the resistance of the microflora existing in the biofilms against various antimicrobial agents, thus posing threats to the patient population. The present era witnesses the beginning of research to understand the biofilm physiology and the associated microfloral diversity by applying -omics approaches...
December 6, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924179/ischemic-stroke-and-septic-shock-after-subacute-endocarditis-caused-by-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-case-report
#4
Mayra Goncalves Menegueti, Jaciara Machado-Viana, Gilberto Gambero Gaspar, Edson Antonio Nicolini, Anibal Basile-Filho, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins
Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group, is a rare cause of subacute endocarditis and may lead to ischemic stroke. A 65-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with rheumatic valve disease was submitted to surgical mitral valve repair in 1996. Physical examination did not reveal any murmurs; physical examination of the lungs and abdomen was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and fever...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922236/microorganisms-isolated-from-cultures-and-infection-focus-and-antibiotic-treatments-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-from-%C3%A5-anl%C3%A4-urfa-turkey
#5
Z Canan Özdemir, Ahmet Koç, Ali Ayçiçek
Chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia predisposes patients to life threatening infections. We aimed to determine the causative microorganisms, infection focus and antibiotic treatment success in febrile neutropenic children with leukemia. A total of 136 febrile neutropenic episodes in 48 leukemic children were reviewed retrospectively from records. Among 136 febrile neutropenic episodes, 68 (50%) episodes were microbiologically documented. Methicillin sensitive coagulase (-) Staphylococcus aureus were the most common isolates from hemoculture (20...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921105/ultrasmall-silver-nanoclusters-highly-efficient-antibacterial-activity-and-their-mechanisms
#6
Jian-Cheng Jin, Xiao-Juan Wu, Juan Xu, Bei-Bei Wang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Silver materials have been widely used as antimicrobial agents. Notably, silver nanoparticles have emerged as a new generation of nanoproducts for biomedical and environmental applications in recent years. However, ultrasmall silver nanoclusters (NCs) (∼2 nm) have rarely been used to kill bacteria and their antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, we studied the antibacterial activities of bifunctional fluorescent DHLA-AgNCs against three types of bacteria. The results showed that DHLA-AgNCs exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative E...
December 6, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919625/an-insight-study-on-hptlc-fingerprinting-of-mukia-maderaspatana-mechanism-of-bioactive-constituents-in-metal-nanoparticle-synthesis-and-its-activity-against-human-pathogens
#7
G Karthiga Devi, K Sathish Kumar, R Parthiban, K Kalishwarlal
The present work reports the development of a Simple, rapid and eco-friendly route for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens in the wound infected area. The synthesis was done using Mukia maderasapatna plant extract as a reducing agent. FT-IR analysis reported that the methanol extract was found to contain maximum number of functional groups which is responsible for the reduction of metal ions to metal nanoparticles...
December 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918999/effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-metabolic-rate-hematological-response-and-survival-of-juvenile-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#8
Karla Juarez-Moreno, Claudio Humberto Mejía-Ruiz, Fernando Díaz, Horacio Reyna-Verdugo, Ana Denisse Re, Edgar F Vazquez-Felix, Edna Sánchez-Castrejón, Josué D Mota-Morales, Alexey Pestryakov, Nina Bogdanchikova
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917735/top-1-of-inpatients-administered-antimicrobial-agents-comprising-50-of-expenditures-a-descriptive-study-and-opportunities-for-stewardship-intervention
#9
Jennifer Dela-Pena, Luiza Kerstenetzky, Lucas Schulz, Ron Kendall, Alexander Lepak, Barry Fox
OBJECTIVE To characterize the top 1% of inpatients who contributed to the 6-month antimicrobial budget in a tertiary, academic medical center and identify cost-effective intervention opportunities targeting high-cost antimicrobial utilization. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Top 1% of the antimicrobial budget from July 1 through December 31, 2014. METHODS Patients were identified through a pharmacy billing database. Baseline characteristics were collected through a retrospective medical chart review...
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917689/green-synthesis-of-gold-and-silver-nanoparticles-using-aqueous-extract-of-cibotium-barometz-root
#10
Dandan Wang, Josua Markus, Chao Wang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Verónica Castro Aceituno, Sungeun Ahn, Deok Chun Yang
Green synthesis of gold (CB-AuNps) and silver (CB-AgNps) nanoparticles using Cibotium barometz root extract was highlighted. CB-AuNps were synthesized almost instantly and CB-AgNps were formed after 25 min in a heated aqueous extract. The formation of CB-AuNps and CB-AgNps was detected at 548 and 412 nm; they were spherical with crystallite sizes of 6 nm and 23 nm, respectively. CB-AgNps were further investigated for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 4, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917275/synergistic-effect-of-thymbra-spicata-l-extracts-with-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains
#11
Mohammad F Haroun, Rawaa S Al-Kayali
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between different extracts of Thymbra spicata L. and certain antimicrobial drugs of different mechanisms, including ampicillin, cefotaxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. This study was performed against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using checkerboard microdilution...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916800/lead-discovery-strategies-for-identification-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Leena Hanski, Pia Vuorela
Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds...
November 28, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916738/a-review-of-the-recent-advances-in-antimicrobial-coatings-for-urinary-catheters
#13
REVIEW
Priyadarshini Singha, Jason Locklin, Hitesh Handa
: More than 75% of hospital-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infections are initiated by urinary catheters, which are used during the treatment of 15-25% of hospitalized patients. Among other purposes, urinary catheters are primarily used for draining urine after surgeries and for urinary incontinence. During catheter-associated urinary tract infections, bacteria travel up to the bladder and cause infection. A major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection is attributed to the use of non-ideal materials in the fabrication of urinary catheters...
December 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916471/the-efficacy-of-faropenem-for-patients-with-acute-cystitis-caused-by%C3%A2-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#14
Keiko Fujino, Yoshiki Hiyama, Teruhisa Uehara, Koji Ichihara, Jiro Hashimoto, Satoshi Fujii, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Naoya Masumori
The number of patients with acute cystitis caused by extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) is increasing gradually. Although it is reported that ESBL-producing E. coli are sensitive to faropenem (FRPM), there are few clinical studies on the efficiency of FRPM against acute cystitis caused by the bacteria. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with acute cystitis caused by ESBL-producing E. coli who were treated with the oral antimicrobial agent faropenem (FRPM) in our institution from June 2011 to May 2015...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915228/cytokines-il-17-and-il-22-in-the-host-response-to-infection
#15
Maria Valeri, Manuela Raffatellu
Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 play pivotal roles in host defense against microbes and in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. These cytokines are produced by cells that are often located in epithelial barriers, including subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In general, IL-17 and IL-22 can be characterized as important cytokines in the rapid response to infectious agents, both by recruiting neutrophils and by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Although each cytokine induces an innate immune response in epithelial cells, their functional spectra are generally distinct: IL-17 mainly induces an inflammatory tissue response and is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, whereas IL-22 is largely protective and regenerative...
December 2, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#16
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913751/new-fungal-defensin-like-peptides-provide-evidence-for-fold-change-of-proteins-in-evolution
#17
Yucheng Wu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Defensins containing a consensus cystine framework, Cys[1]..Cys[2]X3Cys[3]..Cys[4]..Cys[5]X1Cys[6] ("X", any amino acids normally except Cys; "...", variable residue numbers), are extensively distributed in a variety of multicellular organisms (plants, fungi and invertebrates) and essentially involved in immunity as microbicidal agents. This framework is a prerequisite for forming a cystine-stabilized α-helix and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold, in which the two invariant motifs, Cys[2]X3Cys[3]/Cys[5]X1Cys[6], are key determinants of fold formation...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912980/lack-of-sustained-efficacy-for-alcohol-based-surgical-hand-rubs-containing-residual-active-ingredients-according-to-en-12791
#18
REVIEW
G Kampf, A Kramer, M Suchomel
The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#19
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
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