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antimicrobial agent

Jinshan Jin, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Jianmei Cui, Krishna Damera, Chaofeng Dai, Arpana S Chaudhary, Hao Zhang, Hsiuchin Yang, Nannan Cao, Chun Jiang, Martti Vaara, Binghe Wang, Phang C Tai
With the widespread emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobials, especially those against Gram-negative bacteria. Along this line, the identification of viable targets is a critical first step. The protein translocase SecA is commonly believed to be an excellent target for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In recent years, we developed three structural classes of SecA inhibitors that have proven to be very effective against Gram-positive bacteria. However, we have not achieved the same level of success against Gram-negative bacteria, despite the potent inhibition of SecA in enzyme assays by the same inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: ChemMedChem
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Jeong-Ann Park, Song-Bae Kim
Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Susana Barros, Rosa Montes, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Jorge M A Oliveira, Miguel M Santos, Teresa Neuparth
Triclocarban (TCC), a common antimicrobial agent widely used in many household and personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to its high lipophilicity and persistence in the aquatic ecosystems, TCC is of emerging environmental concern. Despite the frequently reported detection of TCC in the environment and significant uncertainties about its long term effects on aquatic ecosystems, few studies have addressed the chronic effects of TCC in aquatic organisms at ecologically relevant concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dawood Yusef, Blanca E Gonzalez, Charles B Foster, Johanna Goldfarb, Carla Saracusa, Sarah Worley, Camille Sabella
We report a significantly higher occurrence of adverse events associated with prolonged courses of piperacillin-tazobactam compared with other antibacterial agents used for pediatric outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy. These adverse events were characterized by a constellation of clinical findings including fever, hematologic abnormalities, and transaminitis. Adverse events related to piperacillin-tazobactam should be considered in patients who develop a febrile illness associated with a prolonged course of therapy...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Patrycja Golinska, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Magdalena Wypij, Indarchand Gupta, Marek Składanowski, Priti Paralikar, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
Mycoendophytes are the fungi that occur inside the plant tissues without exerting any negative impact on the host plant. They are most frequently isolated endophytes from the leaf, stem, and root tissues of various plants. Among all fungi, the mycoendophytes as biosynthesizer of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are less known. However, some reports showing efficient synthesis of metal nanoparticles, mainly silver nanoparticles and its remarkable antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans and plants...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Soumitra Shome, Anupam Das Talukdar, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Mrinal Kanti Bhattacharya, Hrishikesh Upadhyaya
OBJECTIVES: Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems can resolve the poor bioavailability issue allied with curcumin. The therapeutic potential of curcumin can be enhanced by making nanocomposite preparation of curcumin with metal oxide nanoparticles, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and solid lipid nanoparticles that increases its bioavailability in the tissue. KEY FINDINGS: Curcumin has manifold therapeutic effects which include antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Akane Yamabe, Atsushi Irisawa, Ikuo Wada, Goro Shibukawa, Mariko Fujisawa, Ai Sato, Ryo Igarashi, Takumi Maki, Koki Hoshi
Background and study aims: Biliary stent dysfunction is mainly caused by biliary sludge that forms as a result of bacterial adherence and subsequent biofilm formation on the inner surface of the stent. Silver ions arewell known to have excellent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. In this study, we designed and constructed silver-coated plastic stent (PS) and investigated whether the silver coating prevented bacterial adherence and biofilm formation through the use of electron microscopy...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
J M Diaz Carrasco, L M Redondo, E A Redondo, J E Dominguez, A P Chacana, M E Fernandez Miyakawa
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP), the causative agent of NE. However, the use of AGPs in animal diet has been linked to the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance through food-borne microorganisms, which has led to the ban of AGPs in many countries...
2016: BioMed Research International
Nicole Robbins, Michaela Spitzer, Wenliang Wang, Nicholas Waglechner, Dhruv J Patel, Jonathan S O'Brien, Linda Ejim, Obi Ejim, Mike Tyers, Gerard D Wright
Natural products are invaluable historic sources of drugs for infectious diseases; however, the discovery of novel antimicrobial chemical scaffolds has waned in recent years. Concurrently, there is a pressing need for improved therapeutics to treat fungal infections. We employed a co-culture screen to identify ibomycin, a large polyketide macrolactone that has preferential killing activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Using chemical and genome methods, we determined the structure of ibomycin and identified the biosynthetic cluster responsible for its synthesis...
October 7, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Katie J Suda, Rebecca M Roberts, Robert J Hunkler, Thomas H Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Although antibiotic prescriptions are decreasing in the United States, broad-spectrum prescribing is increasing. It is unknown if decreases observed in national antibiotic prescribing differ by provider group. Understanding prescribing trends over time by provider group can be helpful for customizing antimicrobial stewardship efforts. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to describe outpatient antibiotic prescribing by provider group overall and adjusted for population and number of providers...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Sabrina Saltaji, Mohamed Ali Khlifi, Stephane Salmieri, Khanh Dang Vu, Monique Lacroix
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), organic acid (OA) salts and natamycin, a natural antifungal produced during fermentation by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis, was assessed against four pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Aspergillus niger). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each antimicrobial (AM) was assessed to determine their efficiency on tested microbial species in order to select the most efficient. Then, the interactions between different antimicrobial compounds showing the lowest MIC were determined by the checkerboard method...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shizong Wang, Yanan Yin, Jianlong Wang
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which has been frequently detected in the environment. In this paper, the biodegradation of triclosan after radiation-induced advanced oxidation was investigated. The results show that the removal efficiency of triclosan in the combined irradiation and biological treatment process ranged from 88% to 97%, depending on the absorbed dose, while it was only 54% in the single biological treatment process. The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) was in the range of 53...
October 13, 2016: Chemosphere
Salwa Mansur Ali, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Seng-Kai Ong, Muhammad Raza Shah, Ayaz Anwar, Peter J Heard, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances...
October 14, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Robert A Bonomo
β-Lactamases, the enzymes that hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics, remain the greatest threat to the usage of these agents. In this review, the mechanism of hydrolysis is discussed for both those enzymes that use serine at the active site and those that require divalent zinc ions for hydrolysis. The β-lactamases now include >2000 unique, naturally occurring amino acid sequences. Some of the clinically most important of these are the class A penicillinases, the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), the AmpC cephalosporinases, and the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes in both the serine and metalloenzyme groups...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
X Yuan, C Chen, J Zhou, M Han, X Wang, C Wang, X He
OBJECTIVES: Donors with bacteremia and sepsis are often considered to be controversial for organ retrieval due to potential transmission of an infectious agent to the recipient. Herein we report our initial experience of organ donation and transplantation results from donors with systemic infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2014, 125 cases of donation were completed in our organ procurement organization including 90 cases of donation after brain death (DBD) and 35 cases of donation after circulatory death (DCD)...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Dragica Spasojević, Danica Zmejkoski, Jasmina Glamočlija, Miloš Nikolić, Marina Soković, Verica Milošević, Ivana Jarić, Marijana Stojanović, Emilija Marinković, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer, Radivoje Prodanović, Miloš Jovanović, Ksenija Radotić
Nowadays bacterial resistance to known antibiotics is a serious health problem. In order to achieve more efficient treatment, lately there is an effort to find new substances, such as certain biomaterials, that are non-toxic to humans with antibiotic potential. Lignins and lignin-derived compounds have been proposed to be good candidates for use in medicine and health maintenance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the lignin model polymer dehydrogenate polymer (DHP) in alginate hydrogel (Alg) was studied...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Pauline M Lang, Rogério C Jacinto, Tatiane S Dal Pizzol, Maria Beatriz C Ferreira, Francisco Montagner
Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Maren Seitz, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Jörg Willenborg
Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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