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antimicrobial agent

Robin Patel, Ferric C Fang
Recent advances in microbial diagnostics are providing clinicians with information about microbes causing infections and their resistance to antimicrobial agents more rapidly than ever before. Diagnostic stewardship refers to the appropriate use of laboratory testing to guide patient management, including treatment, in order to optimize clinical outcomes and limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fulfilling the promise of diagnostic stewardship requires a seamless partnership between clinical laboratories, pharmacists, and infectious diseases clinicians, so that appropriate tests are ordered and diagnostic information is translated into appropriate management in real time...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Nicole M Revie, Kali R Iyer, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Microorganisms have a remarkable capacity to evolve resistance to antimicrobial agents, threatening the efficacy of the limited arsenal of antimicrobials and becoming a dire public health crisis. This is of particular concern for fungal pathogens, which cause devastating invasive infections with treatment options limited to only three major classes of antifungal drugs. The paucity of antifungals with clinical utility is in part due to close evolutionary relationships between these eukaryotic pathogens and their human hosts, which limits the unique targets to be exploited therapeutically...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Julia Robertson, Marija Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Simon Swift
Antimicrobial surfaces can be applied to break transmission pathways in hospitals. Polyaniline (PANI) and poly(3-aminobenzoic acid) (P3ABA) are novel antimicrobial agents with potential as non-leaching additives to provide contamination resistant surfaces. The activity of PANI and P3ABA were investigated in suspension and as part of absorbent and non-absorbent surfaces. The effect of inoculum size and the presence of organic matter on surface activity was determined. PANI and P3ABA both demonstrated bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in suspension and as part of an absorbent surface...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Jane Hawkey, David B Ascher, Louise M Judd, Ryan R Wick, Xenia Kostoulias, Heather Cleland, Denis W Spelman, Alex Padiglione, Anton Y Peleg, Kathryn E Holt
Acinetobacter baumannii is a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections and a leading cause of infection in burns patients. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is considered a major public-health threat and has been identified by the World Health Organization as the top priority organism requiring new antimicrobials. The most common mechanism for carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is via horizontal acquisition of carbapenemase genes. In this study, we sampled 20 A. baumannii isolates from a patient with extensive burns, and characterized the evolution of carbapenem resistance over a 45 day period via Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Sungdae Yang, Hyung-Suk Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Microbial biofilms pose a serious threat to food industry, as they are difficult to inactivate or remove owing to their inherent resistance to traditional physical and antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages have been suggested as promising biocontrol agents for eliminating biofilms within the food industry. The efficacy of phages (BP 1369 and BP 1370) was evaluated against Salmonella spp. in biofilms. Biofilms were grown on food (lettuce), food contact surfaces (stainless steel and rubber), and MBEC biofilm devices...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Huda O AbuBakr, Marwa S Khattab, Samah H Mohamed, Maha A El-Hady, Rehab A Ghandour, Rania E Morsi
Despite the potential antimicrobial and water purification benefits of chitosan-based nanocomposites, there are growing concerns regarding the hazards of leached nanoparticles (NPs) to the in-contact circumference. The antibacterial performance of the nanocomposites of chitosan with silver and copper NPs and carbon nanotubes was assessed with an emphasis on their impact on fish health. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each preparation and the growth curves of Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to different nanocomposites were measured...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Amarjeet Singh, Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant, to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed AgNPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanostructures was confirmed using UVVis spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400-435 nm. Nanosight and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed monodisperse spherical AgNPs (4-18 nm)...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
David J Tennent, Stefanie M Shiels, Jessica A Jennings, Warren O Haggard, Joseph C Wenke
BACKGROUND: Contaminated traumatic open orthopedic wounds are frequently complicated by polymicrobial contamination and infection. In high-risk wounds, the standard of care comprises debridement and irrigation combined with antibiotics which can be applied directly or combined with systemic antibiotics. Recently, bioabsorbable chitosan sponges have been shown to be an effective single-agent delivery device for local antibiotics with and without negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Severely contaminated orthopedic wounds, however, are often complicated by polymicrobial infections, necessitating multiple antibiotic agents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Assem Barakat, Abdullah M Al-Majid, Bander M Al-Qahtany, M Ali, Mohamed Teleb, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Sehrish Naz, Zaheer Ul-Haq
BACKGROUND: Design and synthesis of pyrazole-dimedone derivatives were described by one-pot multicomponent reaction as new antimicrobial agents. These new molecular framework were synthesized in high yields with a broad substrate scope under benign conditions mediated by diethylamine (NHEt2 ). The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on different spectroscopic techniques (1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR, IR, MS, and CHN). RESULTS: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against S...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Yuan Zhang, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Yu Cheng, Ren-Guo Yang, Jian-Mei Lin, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of isopropanol-bridged carbazole azoles as potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized from commercial carbazoles. Bioassay revealed that 3,6-dichlorocarbazolyl triazole 3f could effectively inhibit the growth of E. faecalis with minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/mL. The active molecule 3f showed lower propensity to trigger the development of resistance in bacteria than norfloxacin and exerted rapidly bactericidal ability. Compound 3f also exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal mammalian RAW264...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ronald Domalaon, Temilolu Idowu, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
James B Wood, Lauren S Jones, Nicole R Soper, Meng Xu, Victor J Torres, C Buddy Creech, Isaac P Thomsen
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is among the most commonly identified causes of invasive bacterial infection in children; however, reliable results from cultures of sterile-site samples often cannot be obtained, which necessitates prescription of a broad empiric antimicrobial agent(s). Children with invasive S aureus infection rapidly generate high antibody titers to the cytotoxin LukAB; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of an anti-LukAB antibody assay for children with musculoskeletal infection (MSKI)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Yong-Zhe Zhu, Jing-Wen Liu, Xue Wang, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Chuan-Jie Zhang
The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus) , which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4- en -3-one, cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol, and hurgadacin...
March 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
L Gatta, C Scarpignato, G Fiorini, J Belsey, I M Saracino, C Ricci, D Vaira
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of strains resistant to antimicrobial agents is a critical issue in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AIMS: (1) To evaluate the prevalence of primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin (2) to assess the effectiveness of sequential therapy on resistant strains (3) to identify the minimum number of subjects to enrol for evaluating the effectiveness of an eradication regimen in patients harbouring resistant strains...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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