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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457468/experiences-of-racism-sexual-objectification-and-alcohol-use-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-of-colour
#1
Rusty Souleymanov, David J Brennan, Clemon George, Richard Utama, Andre Ceranto
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that experiences of racial discrimination and sexual objectification are associated with health risk behaviours among gay and bisexual men of colour. However, little is known about whether racial discrimination and sexual objectification are associated with alcohol use among this population. This community-based study examined the association between racial discrimination, sexual objectification and alcohol use in a sample of 369 gay and bisexual men of colour (Black/African/Caribbean, Latino/Latin American, South Asian, and East and Southeast Asian) in Toronto...
February 18, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456274/maintaining-disorder-the-micropolitics-of-drugs-policy-in-iran
#2
Maziyar Ghiabi
This article analyses the ways in which the state 'treats' addiction among precarious drug (ab)users in Iran. While most Muslim-majority as well as some Western states have been reluctant to adopt harm reduction measures, the Islamic Republic of Iran has done so on a nationwide scale and through a sophisticated system of welfare intervention. Additionally, it has introduced devices of management of 'addiction' (the 'camps') that defy statist modes of punishment and private violence. What legal and ethical framework has this new situation engendered? And what does this new situation tell us about the governmentality of the state? Through a combination of historical analysis and ethnographic fieldwork, the article analyses the paradigm of government of the Iranian state with regard to disorder as embodied by the lives of poor drug (ab)users...
2018: Third World Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455713/age-specific-global-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-hiv-and-tuberculosis-among-incarcerated-people-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Stuart A Kinner, Kathryn Snow, Andrea L Wirtz, Frederick L Altice, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years)...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455368/sepsis-calculator-implementation-reduces-empiric-antibiotics-for-suspected-early-onset-sepsis
#4
Niek B Achten, J Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma, Paul D van der Linden, Monique van Brakel, Frans B Plötz
Significant overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected early onset sepsis (EOS) constitutes a persisting clinical problem, generating unnecessary risks, harms, and costs for many newborns. We aimed to study feasibility and impact of a sepsis calculator to help guide antibiotic for suspected EOS in a European setting. In this single-center study, the sepsis calculator was implemented as an addition to and in accordance with existing protocols. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven newborns ≥ 35 weeks of gestational age were prospectively evaluated; an analogous retrospective control group (n = 2076) was used for impact analysis...
February 18, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454871/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-do-the-benefits-outweigh-the-risks
#5
REVIEW
Wilson Kwong, George Tomlinson, Denice S Feig
OBJECTIVE: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse obstetrical outcomes, including gestational diabetes, macrosomia and preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence that bariatric surgery may decrease the risk of these outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the benefits and risks of bariatric surgery in obese women on obstetrical outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science and PubMed from inception up to December 12, 2016...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454814/smoking-behaviour-and-sensations-during-the-pre-quit-period-of-an-exercise-aided-smoking-cessation-intervention
#6
Stefanie De Jesus, Harry Prapavessis
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has shown reductions in cigarette consumption during the pre-quit period of exercise-aided smoking cessation interventions. Smoking topography and sensation patterns during this period is unknown and may provide valuable insight into compensation and cessation readiness. METHODS: Female smokers (N = 236, M age = 43, M cigarettes/day = 17.0) enrolled in an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention self-reported daily cigarette use and cigarette sensory experiences...
February 15, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453117/performance-of-integrated-ferrate-polyaluminum-chloride-coagulation-as-a-treatment-technology-for-removing-freshwater-humic-substances
#7
Mitsuru Amano, Jenyuk Lohwacharin, Alice Dubechot, Satoshi Takizawa
Ferrate-based technologies can play versatile roles in water treatment because of their potential for in situ production and because they do not form any harmful by-products. We compared the oxidative performance of Fe(VI) generated by an electrochemical process, with H 2 O 2 -UV irradiation (a standard oxidation process) for removing Suwannee River natural organic matter. It took only 5 min for Fe(VI) (Fe: 1.67 × 10 -4 M) to reduce the fluorescence intensity of a humic-like fluorophore by 36% of the original value; in contrast, it took 120 min of irradiation using H 2 O 2 -UV ([OH] ∼ 1...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452862/protective-effect-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-allele-drb1-13-02-on-age-related-brain-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-healthy-women
#8
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Scott M Lewis, Brian E Engdahl, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy) during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017). METHODS: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32-69years old) underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter...
February 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452300/therapeutic-strategy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-who-have-achieved-remission
#9
Bruno Fautrel
Once remission or low disease activity (LDA) is attained in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, attempting disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) tapering appears to be a viable option to avoid patient overtreatment. Potential benefits include reduction in the treatment burden and the risk of adverse events, although the latter has not been demonstrated convincingly.The feasibility of DMARD discontinuation has been tested in numerous studies or trials. All have revealed a high risk of relapse, ranging from 56% to 87% at one year...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449262/systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews-for-medical-cannabinoids-pain-nausea-and-vomiting-spasticity-and-harms
#10
G Michael Allan, Caitlin R Finley, Joey Ton, Danielle Perry, Jamil Ramji, Karyn Crawford, Adrienne J Lindblad, Christina Korownyk, Michael R Kolber
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of medical cannabinoids on pain, spasticity, and nausea and vomiting, and to identify adverse events. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, and the references of included studies were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews with 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focused on medical cannabinoids for pain, spasticity, or nausea and vomiting were included. For adverse events, any meta-analysis for the conditions listed or of adverse events of cannabinoids was included...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447116/amyloid-toxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Allison B Reiss, Hirra A Arain, Mark M Stecker, Nicolle M Siegart, Lora J Kasselman
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is the plaque composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Although these plaques may have harmful properties, there is much evidence to implicate soluble oligomeric Aβ as the primary noxious form. Aβ oligomers can be generated both extracellularly and intracellularly. Aβ is toxic to neurons in a myriad of ways. It can cause pore formation resulting in the leakage of ions, disruption of cellular calcium balance, and loss of membrane potential. It can promote apoptosis, cause synaptic loss, and disrupt the cytoskeleton...
February 15, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444700/pharmacotherapies-for-fatigue-in-chronic-liver-disease-cld-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#12
Andem Effiong, Prerna Kumari
BACKGROUND: This is the protocol for a systematic review (and meta-analysis) of an intervention. The primary objective of this systematic review will be to assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological therapies (pharmacotherapies) for the management of fatigue in adults with CLD of any etiology. The effects of pharmacological therapies on fatigue in CLD will be compared against those of placebo, no intervention, or non-pharmacological interventions. Specifically, this review will examine whether pharmacological therapies improve CLD-associated fatigue, and if they do, what key elements are associated with their effectiveness...
February 14, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444275/e-cigarette-advertising-exposure-explicit-and-implicit-harm-perceptions-and-e-cigarette-use-susceptibility-among-non-smoking-young-adults
#13
Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Pebbles Fagan, Jennifer B Unger, Alan W Stacy
Introduction: This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising increases e-cigarette use susceptibility among non-smoking young adults by promoting explicit and implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer and healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes. Methods: Young adult current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette (N = 393; Mean age = 22.1, Standard Deviation = 3.9; 66% Women) were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing real-world, print e-cigarette ads...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442701/graphene-oxide-nanocoating-prevents-flame-spread-on-polyurethane-sponge
#14
Qinghong Kong, Ting Wu, Hong Liu, Yi Zhang, Manman Zhang, Yibing Cai, Junhao Zhang, Ling Yang
Many current flame retardant technologies for polymeric materials contain environmentally harmful compounds, negatively impact processing and mechanical properties. In an effort to tackle these issues, graphene oxide (GO) nanocoating was deposited on the surface of polyurethane sponge (PUS) to reduce its flammability via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method. The results indicated that GO was evenly distributed on the surface of PUS to form GO coating PUS (PUS@GO) composites. This coating system completely eliminated melt dripping of sponge upon exposure to the direct flame from a butane torch...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441869/monosodium-glutamate-induced-obesity-changed-the-expression-and-activity-of-glutathione-s-transferases-in-mouse-heart-and-kidney
#15
I Boušová, Š Košťáková, P Matoušková, H Bártíková, B Szotáková, L Skálová
Obesity may affect activity and/or expression of enzymes participating in xenobiotics' detoxification and antioxidant defense. This study sought to investigate the activities and expression of cardiac and renal glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms in order to reveal possible differences between obese and control mice. For this purpose, mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity were used as an experimental model. Obesity was induced in newborn male mice by repeated s.c. administration of MSG. At 8 months of age, mice were sacrificed and specific activity, protein and mRNA expressions levels of GSTs were analyzed in their heart and kidney...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441568/evaluation-of-the-benefits-harms-and-cost-effectiveness-of-potential-alternatives-to-ifobt-testing-for-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-australia
#16
Jie-Bin Lew, D James, B St John, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Hooi C Ee, Mark A Jenkins, Emily He, Paul Grogan, Michael Caruana, Diana Sarfati, Marjolein Je Greuter, Veerle Mh Coupé, Karen Canfell
The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) will fully roll-out 2-yearly screening using immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test (iFOBT) in people aged 50-74 years by 2020. In this study, we aimed to estimate the comparative health benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of screening with iFOBT, versus other potential alternative or adjunctive technologies. A comprehensive validated microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate a total of 13 screening approaches involving use of iFOBT, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), faecal DNA (fDNA) and plasma DNA (pDNA), in people aged 50-74 years...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440044/acupuncture-and-in-vitro-fertilisation-research-current-and-future-directions
#17
Lee E Hullender Rubin, Belinda J Anderson, LaTasha B Craig
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a common adjuvant treatment to support patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, the impact of acupuncture and the different roles it can play in IVF remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present an overview and critique of the current evidence on acupuncture's impact on IVF-related stress, describe harms, and propose future directions for investigation. CONCLUSION: Two to three acupuncture sessions performed on or around the day of embryo transfer are insufficient interventions to improve IVF birth outcomes but provide significant IVF-related stress reduction...
February 10, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435795/illicit-drug-users-in-the-tanzanian-hinterland-population-size-estimation-through-key-informant-driven-hot-spot-mapping
#18
Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Alois M Ngonyani, Jenny Tiberio, Susie Welty, Christen Said, Meghan D Morris, Willi McFarland
We mapped hot spots and estimated the numbers of people who use drugs (PWUD) and who inject drugs (PWID) in 12 regions of Tanzania. Primary (ie, current and past PWUD) and secondary (eg, police, service providers) key informants identified potential hot spots, which we visited to verify and count the number of PWUD and PWID present. Adjustments to counts and extrapolation to regional estimates were done by local experts through iterative rounds of discussion. Drug use, specifically cocaine and heroin, occurred in all regions...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434264/urban-stormwater-runoff-negatively-impacts-lateral-line-development-in-larval-zebrafish-and-salmon-embryos
#19
Alexander Young, Valentin Kochenkov, Jenifer K McIntyre, John D Stark, Allison B Coffin
After a storm, water often runs off of impervious urban surfaces directly into aquatic ecosystems. This stormwater runoff is a cocktail of toxicants that have serious effects on the ecological integrity of aquatic habitats. Zebrafish that develop in stormwater runoff suffer from cardiovascular toxicity and impaired growth, but the effects of stormwater on fish sensory systems are not understood. Our study investigated the effect of stormwater on hair cells of the lateral line in larval zebrafish and coho salmon...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432758/paper-spray-mass-spectrometry-for-the-direct-semi-quantitative-measurement-of-fentanyl-and-norfentanyl-in-complex-matrices
#20
Gregory W Vandergrift, Arden J Hessels, Jan Palaty, Erik T Krogh, Chris G Gill
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a potent, synthetic opioid at the centre of an international health crisis that has seen thousands of fatal overdoses. Most analytical methods focus on the detection of fentanyl in blood and/or urine (i.e., post-drug use). Harm reduction (including pre-screening before drug use) may be an effective strategy against fentanyl overdoses. METHOD: Paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is an inexpensive, direct sampling strategy where a small volume of sample (<10 μL) is spotted onto a piece of paper that is then wetted and connected to high voltage...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
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