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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036767/the-role-of-glycation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-aging-and-its-prevention-through-herbal-products-and-physical-exercise
#1
Chan-Sik Kim, Sok Park, Junghyun Kim
PURPOSE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are non-enzymatic modifications of proteins or lipids after exposure to sugars. In this review, the glycation process and AGEs are introduced, and the harmful effects of AGEs in the aging process are discussed. METHODS: Results from human and animal studies examining the mechanisms and effects of AGEs are considered. In addition, publications addressing means to attenuate glycation stress through AGE inhibitors or physical exercise are reviewed...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#2
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034338/desorption-of-harmful-hydrocarbon-compounds-in-soil-using-micron-sized-magnetic-particles-and-high-frequency-magnetic-fields
#3
Bailey S Tye, Rushi J Vyas
This research looks at the use of high frequency (HF) magnetic fields to desorb/reduce harmful chemical compounds within gasoline and diesel that commonly leak out of underground storage tanks. Using a multi-strand coil design, measured magnetic fields of over 3 kilo-amperes per meter are generated at an optimal frequency of 117 kHz without skin-depth losses, and without the use of expensive super-conductors or liquid-cooled mechanisms. This high frequency magnetic field is successfully used in non-contact-based magnetic heating and desorption of Gasoline and Diesel mixed with sand, water and easily-dispersible, benign micrometer-sized iron filings, used as a magnetic absorber...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031132/effectiveness-of-policy-changes-to-reduce-harm-from-unrecorded-alcohol-in-russia-between-2005-and-now
#4
Maria Neufeld, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. METHODS: Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market...
October 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029077/association-of-obesity-diabetes-and-risk-of-tuberculosis-two-population-based-cohorts
#5
Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Chih-Hui Wang, Han Fu, Knut Lonnroth, Yi-Cheng Chang, Yen-Tsung Huang
Background: Mounting data has revealed that body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with risk of active tuberculosis. The inverse association presents a "paradox" with regard to diabetes, since obesity is a major determinant of diabetes, and diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis. Methods: We conducted two population-based cohort studies involving 167,392 participants. The main exposure was BMI and diabetes ascertained at baseline. Occurrence of incident tuberculosis was ascertained from the national Tuberculosis Registry...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029043/degradation-of-the-recalcitrant-oil-spill-components-anthracene-and-pyrene-by-a-microbially-driven-fenton-reaction
#6
Ramanan Sekar, Thomas J DiChristina
Oil spill components include a range of toxic saturated, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbons, including pyrene and anthracene. Such contaminants harm natural ecosystems, adversely affect human health, and negatively impact tourism and the fishing industries. Current physical, chemical, and biological remediation technologies are often unable to completely remove recalcitrant oil spill components, which accumulate at levels greater than regulatory limits set by the EPA. In the present study, a microbially-driven Fenton reaction, previously shown to produce hydroxyl (HO) radicals that degrade chlorinated solvents and associated solvent stabilizers, was also found to degrade source zone concentrations of the oil spill components pyrene (10 μM) and anthracene (1 μM) at initial rates of 0...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028741/fundamental-epidemiology-terminology-and-measures-it-really-is-all-in-the-name
#7
Thomas R Vetter, Christine A Jesser
Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. Clinical epidemiology denotes the application of epidemiologic methods to questions relevant to patient care and provides a highly useful set of principles and methods for the design and conduct of quantitative clinical research. Validly analyzing, correctly reporting, and successfully interpreting the findings of a clinical research study often require an understanding of the epidemiologic terms and measures that describe the patterns of association between the exposure of interest (treatment or intervention) and a health outcome (disease)...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#8
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028563/exploring-the-relationship-between-online-buyers-and-sellers-of-image-and-performance-enhancing-drugs-ipeds-quality-issues-trust-and-self-regulation
#9
Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028555/shifting-characteristics-of-ecstasy-users-ages-12-34-in-the-united-states-2007-2014
#10
Joseph J Palamar, Pia M Mauro, Benjamin H Han, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy/MDMA has been one of the most prevalent party drugs for decades, and powder ecstasy recently increased in popularity. We examined trends in use to determine who to best target for prevention and harm reduction. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2007-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample, was conducted. Linear trends in past-year ecstasy use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among ecstasy users were examined among participants ages 12-34 (N=332,560)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026501/typology-of-street-substance-users-communities-in-tehran-iran
#11
Masoomeh Maarefvand, Mohammad Sadegh Shirazi, Raha Peyravi, Ali Farhoudian
BACKGROUND: There are different street substance users' communities (SSUCs). Typology of SSUCs in Tehran, Iran was approached in this qualitative study. METHODS: Using content analysis and saturation principles, 22 street-outreach workers were recruited and interviewed. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. FINDINGS: Three types of SSUCs were identified. SSUCs were different in geographic location, the community hierarchy, roles of residents and its function during a 24-hour period...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025107/vanishing-twin-syndrome-among-art-singletons-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#12
Maria C Magnus, Sara Ghaderi, Nils-Halvdan Morken, Per Magnus, Liv Bente Romundstad, Rolv Skjærven, Allen J Wilcox, Siri Eldevik Håberg
STUDY QUESTION: Among babies born by ART, do singleton survivors of a vanishing twin have lower birth weight than other singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was associated with lower birth weight among ART singletons; a sibship analysis indicated that the association was not confounded by maternal characteristics that remain stable between deliveries. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies indicate that ART singletons with VTS have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, compared with other ART singletons...
August 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024264/deutetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia-a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-for-this-newly-approved-novel-medication-what-is-the-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#13
REVIEW
Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVE: Deutetrabenazine is a deuterated formulation of tetrabenazine. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, for the search terms 'deutetrabenazine' OR 'SD-809', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024121/the-need-to-exercise-caution-in-accepting-addiction-as-a-reason-for-performing-euthanasia
#14
Wayne Hall, Malcolm Parker
The recent practice in Belgium and the Netherlands of accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia raises important issues for the field of addiction and the practice of euthanasia. In this paper we outline some of these issues. We also argue that physicians making decisions about whether to accept requests for euthanasia from people with an allegedly untreatable addiction should consider two issues carefully. They should ensure that: (1) the person has the capacity to give free and informed consent to undergo euthanasia; and (2) their request is the outcome of a deliberative process in which all reasonable treatment options and harm reduction measures have been offered to and considered by the person...
October 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023685/summary-statement-on-screening-for-prostate-cancer-in-europe
#15
Eveline A M Heijnsdijk, Chris H Bangma, Josep M Borràs, Tiago M de Carvalho, Xavier Castells, Martin Eklund, Josep A Espinàs, Markus Graefen, Henrik Grönberg, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Pim J van Leeuwen, Vera Nelen, Franz Recker, Monique J Roobol, Pieter Vandenbulcke, Harry J de Koning
The European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) showed that Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) based screening results in a significant prostate cancer mortality reduction. Although there are concerns on overdiagnosis and overtreatment, it has been shown that the benefits can outweigh the harms if screening is stopped in older ages to prevent overdiagnosis. A limited screening program (for example screening at ages 55-59 years), including active surveillance for men with low-risk tumors, can even be cost-saving, compared with testing in an opportunistic setting in the wrong ages, as currently in Europe...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023367/effect-of-cadmium-and-copper-exposure-on-growth-secondary-metabolites-and-antioxidant-activity-in-the-medicinal-plant-sambung-nyawa-gynura-procumbens-lour-merr
#16
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Yap Chee Kong, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain
A randomized complete block (RCBD) study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on the growth, bioaccumulation of the two heavy metals, metabolite content and antibacterial activities in Gyanura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Nine treatments including (1) control (no Cd and Cu); (2) Cd 2 = cadmium 2 mg/L; (3) Cd 4 = cadmium 4 mg/L; (4) Cu 70 = copper 70 mg/L; (5) Cu 140 = copper 140 mg/L); (6) Cd 2 + Cu 70 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (7) Cd 2 + Cu 140 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (8) Cd 4 + Cu 70 = cadmium 4 mg/L+ copper 70 mg/L and (9) Cd 4 + Cu 140 = cadmium 4 mg/L + copper 140 mg/L) were evaluated in this experiment...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021079/blood-borne-virus-transmission-in-an-urban-culturally-diverse-neighbourhood-results-from-a-cross-sectional-bio-behavioural-survey-using-innovative-outreach-methods-in-a-hard-to-reach-population
#17
Elizabeth Peach, Shelley Cogger, Kat Byron, Penny Francis, Daniel O'Keefe, Peter Higgs, Mark Stoove, Kasey Elmore, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard
Background: Following a HIV outbreak among Aboriginal people in a culturally diverse inner-city suburb of Melbourne, a blood-borne virus (BBV) screening program was conducted to inform public health interventions to prevent transmission and facilitate timely diagnosis and linkage to care. Methods: In August-September 2014, community health workers recruited people who inject drugs (PWID) from a local needle and syringe program. Participants were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and syphilis and completed a bio-behavioural questionnaire...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017374/prevalence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-their-risk-factors-among-female-sex-workers-in-isfahan-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Maryam Nasirian, Sina Kianersi, Shervin Ghaffari Hoseini, Nazila Kassaian, Majid Yaran, Parisa Shoaei, Behrooz Ataei, Reza Fadaei, Marjan Meshkati, Alireza Emami Naeini, Mojtaba Rostami Jalilian
OBJECTIVES: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and form a core group to facilitate STI spreading. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of STIs among FSWs who attended Female Harm Reduction Center of Isfahan, Iran, and to determine the association between risky behaviors and STIs. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, 99 FSWs were recruited and interviewed about demographic characteristics and risky behaviors. A trained midwife examined FSWs for genital ulcer, abnormal vaginal discharge, and cervicitis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016995/ultra-brief-mindfulness-training-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-at-risk-drinkers-a-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-experiment
#19
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Damla Irez, Shirley Serfaty, Emily Thomas, Ravi K Das, Tom P Freeman
Background: Like other complex psychosocial interventions, mindfulness-based treatments comprise various modality-specific components as well as nonspecific therapeutic ingredients that collectively contribute to efficacy. Consequently, the isolated effects of mindfulness strategies per se remain unclear. Methods: Using a randomized double-blind design, we compared the isolated effects of 11-minutes of "supervised" mindfulness instruction against a closely matched active control (relaxation) on subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of maladaptive alcohol responding in drinkers at risk of harm from alcohol use (n = 68)...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016713/heavy-drinkers-and-the-potential-impact-of-minimum-unit-pricing-no-single-or-simple-effect
#20
J Gill, H Black, R Rush, F O'May, J Chick
Aims: To explore the potential impact of a minimum unit price (MUP: 50 pence per UK unit) on the alcohol consumption of ill Scottish heavy drinkers. Methods: Participants were 639 patients attending alcohol treatment services or admitted to hospital with an alcohol-related condition. From their reported expenditure on alcohol in their index week, and assuming this remained unchanged, we estimated the impact of a MUP (50 ppu) on future consumption. (Around 15% purchased from both the more expensive on-sale outlets (hotels, pubs, bars) and from off-sales (shops and supermarkets)...
September 7, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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