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harm reduction

Juxin Yin, Jianjian Zhuang, Shaowu Lv, Ying Mu
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are harmful to the body. The peroxidase, GPx, and the superoxide dismutase, SOD, are important antioxidant enzymes for preventing ROS-induced damage. Se-CuZn-65P is an enzyme mimetic with dual GPx and SOD antioxidant function. However, currently, its production is mainly based on the cysteine auxotrophic expression technique, which is inefficient, expensive, and time consuming. In this study, we combined protein engineering and the chemical mutation method to synthesize Se-CuZn-65P...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Yong Wang, Qi-Yu Zeng, Wen-Qiang Zheng, Quan-Quan Ji, Xiao-Long Zhou, En-Duo Wang
Six pathogenic mutations have been reported in human mitochondrial tRNAThr (hmtRNAThr); however, the pathogenic molecular mechanism remains unclear. Previously, we established an activity assay system for human mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (hmThrRS). In the present study, we surveyed the structural and enzymatic effects of pathogenic mutations in hmtRNAThr and then focused on m.15915 G > A (G30A) and m.15923A > G (A38G). The harmful evolutionary gain of non-Watson-Crick base pair A29/C41 caused hmtRNAThr to be highly susceptible to mutations disrupting the G30-C40 base pair in various ways; for example, structural integrity maintenance, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAThr, and editing mischarged tRNAThr...
April 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Oluwafemi Olasupo Awe, Terence Akhator Azeke
Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. This disorder results in the absence or reduction in melanin production. There are two main types of albinism which are ocular albinism and oculocutaneous albinism. It could also be classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic the melanin, which protects from the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation of the sun on the normal skin, is deficient in the albino, predisposing them more, to cutaneous malignancies...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
Pol Bruguera, Jillian Reynolds, Eilish Gilvarry, Fleur Braddick, Abdul Latheef Marath-Veettil, Peter Anderson, Zofia Mielecka-Kubien, Eileen Kaner, Antoni Gual
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between economic downturns and substance use has been studied in numerous economic crises occurring worldwide, but the precise relationship between the two remains unclear. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to undertake a survey on behaviour and perspectives related to the latest European economic crisis among illegal drug users attending substance treatment services. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in drug dependence treatment settings, in three geographically different jurisdictions (England, Catalonia and Poland), including 180 drug users...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Philip C Prorok, Patrick Wright, Thomas R Riley, Barnett S Kramer, Christine D Berg, John K Gohagan
BACKGROUND: Screening tests are typically evaluated for a single disease, but multiple tests for multiple diseases are performed in practice. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial assessed testing for four cancers simultaneously and can be viewed as a multiphasic cancer intervention. This paper presents overall and multiphasic findings of this trial. METHODS: The PLCO trial was a randomized multi-center trial conducted at ten screening centers in the US...
April 9, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify gaps in HIVDR surveillance, with a particular focus on specific regional variations within and between Europe and Asia, to highlight directions for research and implementation...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Sanni L Aalto, Jatta Saarenheimo, Janne Ropponen, Janne Juntunen, Antti J Rissanen, Marja Tiirola
Sediment microbes have a great potential to transform reactive N to harmless N2 , thus decreasing wastewater nitrogen load into aquatic ecosystems. Here, we examined if spatial allocation of the wastewater discharge by a specially constructed sediment diffuser pipe system enhanced the microbial nitrate reduction processes. Full-scale experiments were set on two Finnish lake sites, Keuruu and Petäjävesi, and effects on the nitrate removal processes were studied using the stable isotope pairing technique. All nitrate reduction rates followed nitrate concentrations, being highest at the wastewater-influenced sampling points...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Silvina C Mema, Chloe Sage, Serge Popoff, Jessica Bridgeman, Deanne Taylor, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has been at the forefront of the response to the opioid overdose public health emergency in British Columbia (BC). The unprecedented number of opioid overdose deaths in the province calls for an expansion of harm reduction services. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of a fentanyl urine drug test among people who use drugs (PWUD) and explore whether testing introduced any changes in participants' attitudes and behaviors towards their drug use...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Torbjørn Wisløff, Richard White, Olav Dalgard, Ellen J Amundsen, Hinta Meijerink, Hilde Kløvstad
New drugs for treating hepatitis C have considerably increased the probability of being cured. Treatment uptake, however, is still low. The objectives of this study were to analyse the impact of initiatives that may increase the proportion of infected people on treatment and interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of new infection among people who inject drugs. A compartmental model for Norway was used to simulate hepatitis C and related complications. We analysed two different screening initiatives aimed to increase the proportion of infected people on treatment...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Julia Cen Chen
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Colin P Mendelsohn
There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a quitting aid and, although not completely harmless, the scientific consensus is that they are substantially less harmful than smoking tobacco. More research is needed, but there is now sufficient empirical evidence and real-world experience over more than a decade to consider their use as a legitimate tobacco harm reduction tool for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit with conventional strategies. Smokers should be advised that the highest success rates occur with daily use with nicotine e-liquid and newer e-cigarette models...
April 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Jonathan Edward Millar, Viktor von Bahr, Maximillian V Malfertheiner, Katrina K Ki, Meredith A Redd, Nicole Bartnikowski, Jacky Y Suen, Danny Francis McAuley, John F Fraser
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted attention as a potential therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). At the same time, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased among patients with severe ARDS. To date, early clinical trials of MSCs in ARDS have excluded patients supported by ECMO. Here we provide evidence from an ex-vivo model of ECMO to suggest that the intravascular administration of MSCs during ECMO may adversely impact the function of a membrane oxygenator...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
Michael J Tchou, Sonya Tang Girdwood, Benjamin Wormser, Meifawn Poole, Stephanie Davis-Rodriguez, J Timothy Caldwell, Lauren Shannon, Philip A Hagedorn, Eric Biondi, Jeffrey Simmons, Jeffrey Anderson, Patrick W Brady
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite studies indicating a high rate of overuse, electrolyte testing remains common in pediatric inpatient care. Frequently repeated electrolyte tests often return normal results and can lead to patient harm and increased cost. We aimed to reduce electrolyte testing within a hospital medicine service by >25% within 6 months. METHODS: We conducted an improvement project in which we targeted 6 hospital medicine teams at a large academic children's hospital system by using the Model for Improvement...
April 4, 2018: Pediatrics
Rachelle Buchbinder, Renea V Johnston, Kobi J Rischin, Joanne Homik, C Allyson Jones, Kamran Golmohammadi, David F Kallmes
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty remains widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures although our 2015 Cochrane review did not support its role in routine practice. OBJECTIVES: To update the available evidence of the benefits and harms of vertebroplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. SEARCH METHODS: We updated the search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase and trial registries to 15 November 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures, comparing vertebroplasty with placebo (sham), usual care, or another intervention...
April 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Renee Zahnow, Adam R Winstock, Larissa J Maier, Jay Levy, Jason Ferris
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies...
March 31, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Robert R M Verchick
Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call 'loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Rebecca J Domangue, Behzad Mortazavi
The eutrophication of estuaries results from increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs to coastal waters. Ecosystem recovery from eutrophication is partly dependent on the ability of a system to assimilate or remove nutrients, and denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are important pathways for nitrogen (N) removal or retention. We measured rates of denitrification and DNRA over an annual cycle at two stations in Weeks Bay, AL, a shallow microtidal estuary receiving freshwater from two rivers with agricultural watersheds and high N inputs...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ellen M Leslie, Adrian Cherney, Andrew Smirnov, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
BACKGROUND: While young adults who engage in recreational drug use are at increased risk of contact with police, their experiences of police contact have been largely overlooked. METHOD: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 70 young adult amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS; i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) users who had experienced intensive alcohol and other drug-related police contact (e.g., being arrested, charged, or raided by police). These interviews focused on perceptions of personal experiences of alcohol and other drug-related police contact and general perceptions of police and policing and were conducted as part of a larger longitudinal study of drug use among a population-based sample of young adults from South-East Queensland, Australia...
March 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Isaac Jordão de Souza Araújo, Andréia Bolzan de Paula, Roberta Caroline Bruschi Alonso, Jesus Roberto Taparelli, Lúcia Helena Innocentini Mei, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Regina Maria Puppin-Rontani
The use of antimicrobial monomers, linked to the polymer chain of resin composites, is an interesting approach to circumvent the effects of bacteria on the dental and material surfaces. In addition, it can likely reduce the incidence of recurrent caries lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel Triclosan Methacrylate (TM) monomer, which was developed and incorporated into an experimental resin composite, on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms, focusing on the analyses of vicR, gtfD, gtfC, covR, and gbpB gene expression, cell viability and biofilm characteristics...
2018: PloS One
Amy Bestman, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Hannah Pitt, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling has been identified as an important public health issue that affects individuals, families and the broader community. One gambling product, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), has been associated with significant gambling harm in Australia. There has been limited research that has explored community perceptions of EGMs and attitudes towards reform. This study, conducted in NSW, Australia, aimed to explore community use of EGM venues (clubs and hotels containing EGMs), attitudes towards EGMs and whether the use of these venues influenced attitudes towards EGM reform...
April 2, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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