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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107585/treatment-and-primary-prevention-in-people-who-inject-drugs-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-is-elimination-possible-in-a-high-prevalence-setting
#1
I Gountas, V Sypsa, O Anagnostou, N K Martin, P Vickerman, E Kafetzopoulos, A Hatzakis
AIMS: To project the impact of scaling up oral antiviral therapy and harm reduction on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) prevalence and incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece, to estimate the relationship between required treatment levels and expansion of harm reduction programs to achieve specific targets and to examine whether hepatitis C viruse (HCV) elimination among PWID is possible in this high prevalence setting. DESIGN: A dynamic discrete time, stochastic individual-based model was developed to simulate HCV transmission among PWID incorporating the effect of HCV treatment and harm reduction strategies, and allowing for reinfection following treatment...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106818/potential-benefits-and-harms-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-and-intermittent-fasting-amongst-obese-overweight-and-normal-weight-subjects-a-narrative-review-of-human-and-animal-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Michelle Harvie, Anthony Howell
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106607/individualized-venous-thromboembolism-risk-stratification-using-the-2005-caprini-score-to-identify-the-benefits-and-harms-of-chemoprophylaxis-in-surgical-patients-a-meta-analysis
#3
Christopher J Pannucci, Lukasz Swistun, John K MacDonald, Peter K Henke, Benjamin S Brooke
OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104570/high-risk-injecting-behaviour-among-people-who-inject-pharmaceutical-opioids-in-australia
#4
Jenny Iversen, George Dertadian, Louise Geddes, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Use of opioid analgesic medicines has doubled globally over the past decade, with a concomitant increase in prevalence of injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO), including in Australia. This study investigates types of PO injected, methods used to prepare PO for injection and correlates of recent (last 6 months) PO injection among a large national sample of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: The Australian NSP Survey (ANSPS), conducted annually at ∼50 NSP services across Australia, consists of a brief self-administered questionnaire and provision of a capillary dried blood spot for HIV and hepatitis C antibody testing...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104548/six-month-outcomes-among-socially-marginalized-alcohol-and-drug-users-attending-a-drop-in-center-allowing-alcohol-consumption
#5
Véronique S Grazioli, Susan E Collins, Sophie Paroz, Caroline Graap, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
BACKGROUND: Despite their experience of substance-related harm, few socially marginalized alcohol and other drug (AOD) users access substance use treatment. Thus, identifying alternative approaches for this population is important. This program evaluation documented substance use and health-related quality of life (QoL) following exposure to such an alternative approach: a harm-reduction drop-in center allowing alcohol consumption onsite. METHODS: Participants (N=85) were socially marginalized AOD users (e...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103937/the-influence-of-marketing-on-the-sports-betting-attitudes-and-consumption-behaviours-of-young-men-implications-for-harm-reduction-and-prevention-strategies
#6
Emily G Deans, Samantha L Thomas, Jeffrey Derevensky, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting...
January 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103534/examining-the-link-between-cocaine-binging-and-individual-social-and-behavioral-factors-among-street-based-cocaine-users
#7
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Djamal Berbiche, Michel Perreault, Karine Bertrand, Magali Dufour, Julie Bruneau
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of cocaine binging and examine associated factors, to characterize binge episodes and to study the relationship between cocaine binging and HIV and HCV risk behaviors among street-based cocaine users. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Montréal, Canada. Interviewer-administered questionnaire were carried out at 3-month intervals. Cocaine binging was defined as using large quantities of cocaine, without stopping, over a limited period of time, until resources run out or until being physically incapable of consuming...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103270/cold-atmospheric-plasma-created-at-the-tip-of-an-elongated-flexible-capillary-using-low-electric-current-can-slow-the-progression-of-melanoma
#8
Y Binenbaum, G Ben-David, Z Gil, Ya Z Slutsker, M A Ryzhkov, J Felsteiner, Ya E Krasik, J T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet (CAPJ), with ion temperature close to room temperature, has tremendous potential in biomedical engineering, and can potentially offer a therapeutic option that allows cancer cell elimination without damaging healthy tissue. We developed a hand-held flexible device for the delivery of CAPJ to the treatment site, with a modified high-frequency pulse generator operating at a RMS voltage of <1.2 kV and gas flow in the range 0.3-3 l/min. The aims of our study were to characterize the CAPJ emitted from the device, and to evaluate its efficacy in elimination of cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102700/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-metabolic-rhythms
#9
Cassie Jaeger, Canxin Xu, Mingwei Sun, Stacey Krager, Shelley A Tischkau
High fat diet (HFD) consumption alters the synchronized circadian timing system resulting in harmful loss, gain or shift of transcriptional oscillations. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) shares structural homology to clock genes, containing both PAS domains and basic helix-loop helix structural motifs, allowing for interaction with components of the primary circadian feedback loop. Activation of AhR alters circadian rhythmicity, primarily through inhibition of Clock/Bmal1-mediated regulation of Per1. AhR-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, exhibiting enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance...
January 19, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100289/hepatitis-b-virus-in-drug-users-in-france-prevalence-and-vaccination-history-anrs-coquelicot-survey-2011-2013
#10
C Brouard, J Pillonel, P Sogni, A Chollet, J V Lazarus, X Pascal, F Barin, M Jauffret-Roustide
People who use drugs (PWUD) are a key population for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and screening. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of HBs antigen (HBsAg) and self-reported HBV vaccination history in French PWUD attending harm reduction centres using data from the ANRS-Coquelicot multicentre survey conducted in 2011-2013 in 1718 PWUD. Self-fingerprick blood samples were collected on dried blood spots to detect the presence of HBsAg. HBsAg seroprevalence was estimated at 1·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·8-2·5]...
January 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099731/provision-of-harm-reduction-services-to-limit-unsafe-abortion-in-tanzania
#11
Catherine Kahabuka, Andrea Pembe, Alejandra Meglioli
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of providing harm-reduction services to reduce unsafe abortion in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 women who received harm-reduction counseling at a public health center in Dar es Salaam between February 10 and October 10, 2014. Background and clinical information was collected for all women; a subgroup (n=50) undertook a semi-structured survey that measured the type of services women received, women's perception of the services, and pregnancy outcome...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098063/the-use-of-e-cigarettes
#12
Martin Eichler, Maria Blettner, Susanne Singer
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a consumer product whose benefits and risks are currently debated. Advocates of the "tobacco harm reduction" strategy emphasize their potential as an aid to smoking cessation, while advocates of the precautionary principle emphasize their risks instead. There have been only a few studies to date on the prevalence of e-cigarette use in Germany. METHODS: In May 2016, in collaboration with Forsa, an opinion research firm, we carried out a survey among 4002 randomly chosen persons aged 14 and older, asking them about their consumption of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine, reasons for using e-cigarettes, plans for future use, estimation of danger compared to that of tobacco products, smoking behavior, and sociodemographic features...
December 16, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097615/trends-in-injection-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-and-the-impact-of-harm-reduction-programs-in-ukraine-2007-2013
#13
Iuliia Makarenko, D C Ompad, Y Sazonova, T Saliuk, J DeHovitz, L Gensburg
The study examined trends in injection risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and assessed the impact of harm reduction programs in Ukraine during 2007-2013. We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected in serial cross-sectional bio-behavioral surveillance surveys administered with PWIDs in Ukraine in 2007, 2008, 2011, and 2013. Using data from 14 Ukrainian cities, we assessed short-term trends in injection risk behaviors with the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, region, marital status, education level, occupation, age at injection drug use initiation, experience of overdose, and self-reported HIV status...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095879/treatment-seeking-behaviour-and-barriers-to-service-access-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Jun-Jie Xu, Yan-Qiu Yu, Qing-Hai Hu, Hong-Jing Yan, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Wei-Ming Tang, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Delayed or inappropriate treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increases the risk of HIV acquisition and may cause other harmful outcomes. However, studies on STD treatment-seeking behaviour and correlated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) are scarce. This information is crucial for the promotion of STD treatment-seeking behaviour and reduction of HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. METHODS: During 2012-2013, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 Chinese cities...
January 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095411/optimal-management-strategies-for-primary-hpv-testing-for-cervical-screening-cost-effectiveness-evaluation-for-the-national-cervical-screening-program-in-australia
#15
Kate T Simms, Michaela Hall, Megan A Smith, Jie-Bin Lew, Suzanne Hughes, Susan Yuill, Ian Hammond, Marion Saville, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18-20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094865/long-term-side-effects-on-the-temporomandibular-joints-and-orofacial-function-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-treated-with-a-mandibular-advancement-device
#16
Sofie W Knappe, Merete Bakke, Palle Svanholt, Arne Petersson, Liselotte Sonnesen
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space, may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the orofacial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim was to investigate the influence of long-term MAD treatment on the TMJs, orofacial function and occlusion. This prospective study included 30 men and 13 women (median age 54) with OSA (Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI): 7-57). They were examined with the Nordic Orofacial Test Screening (NOT-S), the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the TMJs...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091333/an-ecological-approach-to-reducing-potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-canadian-deprescribing-network
#17
Cara Tannenbaum, Barbara Farrell, James Shaw, Steve Morgan, Johanna Trimble, Jane Currie, Justin Turner, Paula Rochon, James Silvius
Polypharmacy is growing in Canada, along with adverse drug events and drug-related costs. Part of the solution may be deprescribing, the planned and supervised process of dose reduction or stopping of medications that may be causing harm or are no longer providing benefit. Deprescribing can be a complex process, involving the intersection of patients, health care providers, and organizational and policy factors serving as enablers or barriers. This article describes the justification, theoretical foundation, and process for developing a Canadian Deprescribing Network (CaDeN), a network of individuals, organizations, and decision-makers committed to promoting the appropriate use of medications and non-pharmacological approaches to care, especially among older people in Canada...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090731/addition-of-ezetimibe-to-statins-for-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-systematic-review-of-patient-important-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Yutong Fei, Gordon Henry Guyatt, Paul Elias Alexander, Regina El Dib, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Per Olav Vandvik, Mark E Nunnally, Huda Gomaa, Rebecca L Morgan, Arnav Agarwal, Ying Zhang, Neera Bhatnagar, Frederick A Spencer
Ezetimibe is widely used in combination with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein. We sought to examine the impact of ezetimibe when added to statins on patient-important outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched through July, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ezetimibe combined with statins versus statins alone that followed patients for at least 6 months and reported on at least one of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and non-fatal strokes were included...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089102/comparison-of-corticosteroid-autologous-blood-or-sclerosant-injections-for-chronic-tennis-elbow
#19
R Branson, K Naidu, C du Toit, A H Rotstein, R Kiss, D McMillan, L Fooks, B K Coombes, B Vicenzino
OBJECTIVES: To compare three different ultrasound-guided injections for chronic tennis elbow. DESIGN: Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled comparative trial. METHODS: 44 patients with clinically diagnosed tennis elbow, confirmed by Doppler ultrasound, received under ultrasound guidance, a single corticosteroid injection (n=14), or two injections (separated by 4 weeks) of either autologous blood (n=14) or polidocanol (n=16). Clinical and ultrasound examination was performed at baseline, 4, 12 and 26 weeks...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088084/correlates-of-anti-hepatitis-c-positivity-and-use-of-harm-reduction-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-two-cities-in-croatia
#20
Senad Handanagic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Zoran Dominkovic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac, Ivana Bozicevic
BACKGROUND: We assessed correlates of anti-hepatitis C (anti-HCV) positivity and utilization of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in two Croatian cities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven (RDS) sampling among PWID in Rijeka (N=255) and Split (N=399). We used RDS-weighted population estimates and multivariable logistic regression to explore correlates of anti-HCV positivity and NSEP and OAT utilization...
December 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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