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harm reduction

Daniella Barreto, Kate Shannon, Chrissy Taylor, Sabina Dobrer, Jessica St Jean, Shira M Goldenberg, Putu Duff, Kathleen N Deering
This research aimed to determine the effect of food insecurity on sexual HIV risk with clients among youth sex workers (YSWs) <30 years in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Data were drawn from a prospective community cohort of sex workers (2010-2013). We examined the independent relationship between YSWs' food insecurity and being pressured into sex without a condom by clients ("client condom refusal"). Of 220 YSWs, 34.5 % (n = 76) reported client condom refusal over the 3.5-year study period and 76.4 % (n = 168) reported any food insecurity...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Julie Latimer, Stephen Ling, Ian Flaherty, Marianne Jauncey, Allison M Salmon
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a powerful analgesic, the prescription of which has increased markedly in recent years. The emergence of the drug at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) warranted a retrospective clinical audit to assess the risk of fentanyl overdose in comparison with other opioids, in the context of a drug consumption room. METHOD: Heroin, fentanyl or other prescription opioids (PO) injections resulting in overdose were audited (September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2015)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Fan Wang, Shuyan Song, Kai Li, Junqi Li, Jing Pan, Shuang Yao, Xin Ge, Jing Feng, Xiao Wang, Hongjie Zhang
A green and cost-effective method, named the "solid dual-ions-transformation reaction", is reported to achieve the goal of successfully doping S and N into hollow carbon nanotubes. No harmful raw material is needed during the whole synthesis. Importantly, in the catalytic test of chemical reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4 , the as-obtained S,N co-doped hollow carbon nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh catalytic performances.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Xinglei Zhao, Shan Wang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Fabrication of air filtration materials (AFM) that allow air to easily flow through while retaining particles is a significant and urgent need due to the harmful airborne particulate matter pollution; however, this is still a challenging research area. Herein, we report novel slip-effect functional nanofibrous membranes with decreased air resistance (reduction rate of 40%) due to the slip flow of air molecules on the periphery of nanofibers. This was achieved through careful control over the diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and aperture size of fiber assembly...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kristin A Tansil, Marissa B Esser, Paramjit Sandhu, Jeffrey A Reynolds, Randy W Elder, Rebecca S Williamson, Sajal K Chattopadhyay, Michele K Bohm, Robert D Brewer, Lela R McKnight-Eily, Daniel W Hungerford, Traci L Toomey, Ralph W Hingson, Jonathan E Fielding
CONTEXT: Excessive drinking is responsible for one in ten deaths among working-age adults in the U.S. annually. Alcohol screening and brief intervention is an effective but underutilized intervention for reducing excessive drinking among adults. Electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) uses electronic devices to deliver key elements of alcohol screening and brief intervention, with the potential to expand population reach. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using Community Guide methods, a systematic review of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of e-SBI for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yindong Tong, Xiaoge Bu, Junyue Chen, Feng Zhou, Long Chen, Maodian Liu, Xin Tan, Tao Yu, Wei Zhang, Zhaorong Mi, Lekuan Ma, Xuejun Wang, Jing Ni
Based on a time-series dataset and the mass balance method, the contributions of various sources to the nutrient discharges from the Yangtze River to the East China Sea are identified. The results indicate that the nutrient concentrations vary considerably among different sections of the Yangtze River. Non-point sources are an important source of nutrients to the Yangtze River, contributing about 36% and 63% of the nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into the East China Sea, respectively. Nutrient inputs from non-point sources vary among the sections of the Yangtze River, and the contributions of non-point sources increase from upstream to downstream...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
José Luis Muñoz-Carrillo, José Jesús Muñoz-Escobedo, Claudia H Maldonado-Tapia, Francisca Chávez-Ruvalcaba, María Alejandra Moreno-García
During the course of infection with Trichinella spiralis, an inflammatory response is triggered at the intestinal level in the host, playing a crucial role in the expulsion and elimination of the parasite. However, several studies have demonstrated that this inflammatory response is harmful to the host; hence the importance of studying molecules with therapeutic potential like resiniferatoxin, which is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect both in-vitro and in-vivo. In this article, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of resiniferatoxin during the intestinal phase of T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Natalie C Sadler, Hans C Bernstein, Matthew R Melnicki, Moiz A Charania, Eric A Hill, Lindsey N Anderson, Matthew E Monroe, Richard D Smith, Alexander S Beliaev, Aaron T Wright
: Photobiologically synthesized hydrogen (H2) gas is carbon-neutral to produce and clean to combust, making it an ideal biofuel. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a cyanobacterium capable of performing simultaneous oxygenic photosynthesis and H2 production, a highly perplexing phenomenon because H2 evolving enzymes are O2-sensitive. We employed a systems-level in vivo chemoproteomic profiling approach to explore the cellular dynamics of protein thiol redox, and how thiol redox mediates the function of the dinitrogenase NifHDK, an enzyme complex capable of aerobic hydrogenase activity...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rajamani Nagarajan, Pankaj Gupta, Poonam Singh, Pinki Chakraborty
Given the fact that the literature describing the intercalation of organic molecules in monometallic LDH systems is scarce, the present investigation is aimed at the generation of ethylene glycol intercalated Fe(II)-Fe(III) LDH with the objective of enhancing the surface area for further catalytic applications of industrially important and environmentally harmful organics. The solvothermal reaction of FeCl3 with urea in an ethylene glycol medium yielded a brown colored powder which was characterized employing a wide range of analytical techniques including high resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental (C, H, N and S) analysis, UV-visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements, BET surface area and pore-size analysis...
October 14, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hang Yang, Yongli Bi, Xiaoran Shang, Mengyue Wang, Sara B Linden, Yunpeng Li, Yuhong Li, Daniel C Nelson, Hongping Wei
Streptococcus mutans often survives as a biofilm on the tooth surface and contributes to the development of dental caries. We investigated the efficacy of ClyR, an engineered chimeolysin, against S. mutans biofilms in physiological and cariogenic conditions. Susceptibility tests showed that ClyR was active against all clinical S. mutans isolates tested as well as S. mutans biofilms that displayed resistance to penicillin. S. mutans biofilms formed on hydroxyapatite discs in physiological sugar conditions and cariogenic conditions were reduced ∼2 logs and 3 logs after treatment with 100 μg/ml ClyR, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Igor Barjaktarevic, Doug Arenberg, Brandon S Grimes, Kathleen Ruchalski, Denise R Aberle
Each year, more than 1 million persons worldwide are found to have a lung nodule that carries a risk of being malignant. In reality, the vast majority of lung nodules are benign, whether identified by screening or incidentally. The consequences of delaying or missing the diagnosis of lung cancer can be substantial, as can be the consequences of invasive procedures on patients with benign lung nodules. The challenge for the clinician caring for these patients is to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules with the least harm possible...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christoph U Correll, Leslie Citrome, Peter M Haddad, John Lauriello, Mark Olfson, Stephen M Calloway, John M Kane
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are among the most effective treatments in psychiatry, yet they remain underutilized in clinical practice. Although LAIs are typically used to maintain treatment adherence in patients with chronic schizophrenia, recent research has suggested that they may also provide an effective treatment strategy for patients with early-phase or first-episode disease. In October 2015, a group of 8 experts on the management of schizophrenia and LAIs met to evaluate the evidence surrounding the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of LAIs and to develop practical recommendations regarding the clinical use, education, and unmet needs related to LAIs...
2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Michel Landry, Nadia Veilleux, Julie-Eve Arseneault, Saneea Abboud, André Barrieau, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Elisabeth M Hodson, Sophia C Wong, Narelle S Willis, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: The majority of children who present with their first episode of nephrotic syndrome achieve remission with corticosteroid therapy. Children who fail to respond may be treated with immunosuppressive agents including calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporin or tacrolimus) and with non-immunosuppressive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). Optimal combinations of these agents with the least toxicity remain to be determined. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and updated in 2006 and 2010...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vittoria Roncalli, Jefferson T Turner, David Kulis, Donald M Anderson, Petra H Lenz
Inshore and offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine (USA) have spring/summer harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with A. fundyense during the seasonal blooms. At that time, C. finmarchicus population abundances are high, dominated by immature copepods preparing for diapause, and by actively-reproducing adults. High survival has been reported for copepods exposed to toxic A...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Inge Van Schipstal, Swasti Mishra, Moritz Berning, Hayley Murray
This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Anita Hardon, Takeo David Hymans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Jean-Pierre Schaller, Daniela Keller, Laurent Poget, Pascal Pratte, Etienne Kaelin, Damian McHugh, Gianluca Cudazzo, Daniel Smart, Anthony R Tricker, Lydia Gautier, Michel Yerly, Roger Reis Pires, Soazig Le Bouhellec, David Ghosh, Iris Hofer, Eva Garcia, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Serge Maeder
The chemical composition, in vitro genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of the mainstream aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) were compared with those of the mainstream smoke from the 3R4F reference cigarette. In contrast to the 3R4F, the tobacco plug in the THS2.2 is not burnt. The low operating temperature of THS2.2 caused distinct shifts in the aerosol composition compared with 3R4F. This resulted in a reduction of more than 90% for the majority of the analyzed harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), while the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol remained similar...
October 6, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
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