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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220813/biotransformation-and-inhibition-effects-of-hexachlorocyclohexanes-during-biogas-production-from-contaminated-biomass-characterized-by-isotope-fractionation-concepts
#1
Shujuan Lian, Marcell Nikolausz, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Athaydes Francisco Leite, Hans Hermann Richnow
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) production for pesticides was banned by Stockholm Convention (2009) due to its harmful and adverse effects on the environment. Despite this measure, many areas contaminated with former HCH production-waste products still require management. As a potential solution contributing to clean-up of these sites, anaerobic digestion (AD) of pesticide-contaminated biomass to produce biogas is a promising strategy. High pesticide concentrations, however, may inhibit biogas production. Therefore, laboratory-scale batch reactors were set up to investigate biogas reactor performance in presence of HCH...
November 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220547/impact-of-moderate-alcohol-discontinuation-on-insulin-action-and-secretion-in-latinos-with-and-without-hepatitis-c
#2
Lindsay A Uribe, Peter Bacchetti, Nicholas Gelman, Esteban Burchard, Mark Fitch, Marc Hellerstein, Mandana Khalili
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with hepatitis C infection (HCV), and Latinos are both at risk for IR and are disproportionately affected by HCV. Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity and may modify HCV-associated IR. We investigated the impact of moderate alcohol discontinuation on insulin sensitivity and secretion in Latinos using direct measurements. METHODS: Twenty-five non-diabetic, non-cirrhotic Latino adults without (n=17) or with (n=8) HCV underwent 3-day metabolic assessment before and after prescription of 6 weeks of moderate alcohol discontinuation...
December 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219911/practical-application-of-high-reliability-principles-in-healthcare-to-optimize-quality-and-safety-outcomes
#3
Cynthia A Oster, Sherilyn Deakins
Application of high-reliability (HR) principles into daily healthcare processes can drive culture change, safety, and quality outcomes. Understanding foundational practices to full HR principle integration in an organization's quality and safety programs strengthens evidence-based practices, reduces clinical variation, and improves nurse-sensitive patient outcomes. Quantifying the cost impact of reduction in preventable harm and improved nurse-sensitive patient outcomes is an initial attempt to formulate an empiric measure of nursing value...
January 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218008/improving-the-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-difficult-but-essential-task-for-a-successful-hiv-treatment-clinical-points-of-view-and-practical-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob, Gheorghita Jugulete
HIV infection is responsible for one the most devastating human pandemics. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of the pandemic and saved millions of lives. Complex therapeutic regimens have been introduced since 1996 and have contributed to the transformation of HIV infection into a treatable chronic diseases. New types of potent antiretrovirals and their combinations, including "once daily" treatment, have simplified the regimens and diminished side effects. Nevertheless the adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains unsatisfactory and varies between 27 and 80% across different population in various studies, compared with the required level of 95%...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217389/competencies-for-engaging-high-needs-patients-in-primary-care
#5
Michael J Yedidia
BACKGROUND: Patients who heavily utilize hospitals and emergency departments frequently have complex needs requiring services spanning medical, behavioral, and social service sectors. This study identifies essential competencies for caring for high-needs patients and highlights their importance to primary care delivery. METHODS: Transcripts of in-depth interviews with 30 clinical and administrative staff at 23 complex care programs across the United States were analyzed using standard qualitative techniques...
December 4, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214890/electronic-cigarettes-an-aid-in-smoking-cessation-or-a-new-health-hazard
#6
Konstantinos Farsalinos
The issue of electronic cigarettes is one of the most controversial topics in public health. There is intense debate and dividing opinions about their use patterns, health effects and association with smoking. This is expected since they were only recently introduced to the market and they refer to a harm-reduction approach and strategy that is not universally accepted for smoking and tobacco use in the public health community. Three main factors determine the public health impact of electronic cigarettes: (1) their safety/risk profile, both relative to smoking and in absolute terms; (2) their effectiveness for smoking reduction and cessation; (3) the patterns of use by different population subgroups, especially never-smokers, and adoption of use by youth...
December 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214119/interested-consumers-awareness-of-harmful-chemicals-in-everyday-products
#7
Sabrina Hartmann, Ursula Klaschka
Background: Everyday products can contain a multitude of harmful substances unnoticed by most consumers, because established risk communication channels reach only part of the society. The question is, whether at least interested and informed consumers are able to use risk communication tools and assess harmful chemicals in products. Results: An online survey investigated the awareness of 1030 consumers on harmful substances in everyday items. Participating consumers' education level, knowledge in chemistry, and motivation were above society's average...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212835/the-air-of-europe-where-are-we-going
#8
Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Air pollution constitutes one of the main threats to public health in Europe. Significant impacts on the health of Europeans in terms of morbidity and mortality have been observed, even in cases of low exposure and where pollutant levels are within limits set by the European Union (EU). The respiratory system is a primary target of the harmful effects of key air pollutants. Emissions of many air pollutants have decreased substantially over the past decades in Europe, resulting in diminished concentrations and improved air quality...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208738/a-new-form-of-nicotine-retailers-a-systematic-review-of-the-sales-and-marketing-practices-of-vape-shops
#9
REVIEW
Joseph G L Lee, Elizabeth N Orlan, Kerry B Sewell, Kurt M Ribisl
OBJECTIVE: Retailers that primarily or exclusively sell electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or vaping products represent a new category of tobacco retailer. We sought to identify (a) how vape shops can be identified and (b) sales and marketing practices of vape shops. DATA SOURCES: A medical librarian iteratively developed a search strategy and in February 2017 searched seven academic databases (ABI/INFORM Complete, ECONLit, Embase, Entrepreneurship, PsycINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus)...
December 5, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208190/preventing-blood-borne-virus-infection-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-uk-systematic-review-stakeholder-interviews-psychosocial-intervention-development-and-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, Noreen Mdege, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: Opioid substitution therapy and needle exchanges have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBVs) among people who inject drugs (PWID). Some PWID continue to share injecting equipment. OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention to reduce BBV risk behaviours and increase transmission knowledge among PWID, and conduct a feasibility trial among PWID comparing the intervention with a control. DESIGN: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility trial...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206769/severe-menopausal-symptoms-associated-with-reduced-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-perimenopausal-and-menopausal-women-living-with-hiv-in-metro-vancouver
#11
Putu K Duff, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie, Florence Ranville, Mary Kestler, Melissa C Braschel, Neora Pick, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVES: Although more women living with HIV (WLWH) are entering midlife, the experiences of perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH, including the effects of menopausal symptoms severity, remain understudied. This study longitudinally investigated the correlates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH from Metro Vancouver. METHODS: Analyses drew on longitudinal data (2014-2017) from Sexual health and HIV/AIDS: Women's Longitudinal Needs Assessment, an ongoing community-based cohort of WLWH, aged 14+, from Metro Vancouver, Canada...
December 4, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204843/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-italy
#12
Enea Spada, Giovanni Rezza, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Ornella Zuccaro, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Elisabetta Cupellaro, Stefania Capone, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alfredo Nicosia, Riccardo Cortese, Antonella Folgori, Alfonso Mele
So far, only three small outdated studies have investigated hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and risk factors among illicit drug users (DUs) in Italy. Thus, during 2007-2010, we conducted a prospective cohort study among DUs attending 17 Italian rehabilitation centers serving urban areas. Two hundred eighty-four HCV-uninfected DUs were prospectively followed by interview and anti-HCV antibody and RNA testing every 6 months. Incidence was calculated using the person-years method. Infection predictors were assessed by time-dependent Cox analysis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203515/brucella-abortus-triggers-a-cgas-independent-sting-pathway-to-induce-host-protection-that-involves-guanylate-binding-proteins-and-inflammasome-activation
#13
Miriam M Costa Franco, Fernanda Marim, Erika S Guimarães, Natan R G Assis, Daiane M Cerqueira, Juliana Alves-Silva, Jerome Harms, Gary Splitter, Judith Smith, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Nina M G P de Queiroz, Delia Gutman, Glen N Barber, Sergio C Oliveira
Immunity against microbes depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Signaling pathways triggered by Brucella abortus DNA involves TLR9, AIM2, and stimulator of IFN genes (STING). In this study, we observed by microarray analysis that several type I IFN-associated genes, such as IFN-β and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are downregulated in STING knockout (KO) macrophages infected with Brucella or transfected with DNA. Additionally, we determined that STING and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) are important to engage the type I IFN pathway, but only STING is required to induce IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, and GBP2 and GBP3 expression...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203025/demographic-determinants-of-chemical-safety-information-recall-in-workers-and-consumers-in-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Farzana Sathar, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Hanna-Andrea Rother, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Chemical hazard communication is intended to alert users of the potential hazards of chemicals. Hazard information needs to be understood and recalled. Recall of hazard communication is critical when the written form of the information is not available at the time it is required. METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigating associations between recall of chemical safety information on labels amongst 402 participants including 315 workers and 87 consumers in two provinces of South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202872/patterns-of-hiv-testing-drug-use-and-sexual-behaviors-in-people-who-use-drugs-findings-from-a-community-based-outreach-program-in-phnom-penh-cambodia
#15
Gitau Mburu, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: People who use drugs are an important priority for HIV programs. However, data related to their utilization of HIV services are limited. This paper reports patterns of HIV testing, drug use, and risk and service perception among people who use drugs. Study participants were receiving HIV and harm reduction services from a community-based program in Phnom Penh, comprised of itinerant peer-led outreach and static drop-in centers. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study conducted in 2014, comprising of a quantitative survey using a structured questionnaire, followed by two focus group discussions among a sub-sample of survey participants...
December 5, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199767/oxcarbazepine-for-neuropathic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Muke Zhou, Ning Chen, Li He, Mi Yang, Cairong Zhu, Fengbo Wu
BACKGROUND: Several anticonvulsant drugs are used in the management of neuropathic pain. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain, but evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. Oxcarbazepine is reportedly better tolerated than carbamazepine. This is the first update of a review published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different types of neuropathic pain...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199398/tramadol-for-maintenance-in-opioid-dependence-a-retrospective-chart-review
#17
Siddharth Sarkar, Rakesh Lal, Mohit Varshney, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tramadol is an opioid agonist which can be potentially used for maintenance treatment of patients with opioid use disorders. This chart review presents the characteristics of individuals with an ICD 10 diagnosis of opioid dependence who were maintained on tramadol for a period of at least 6 months. METHODS: Records of patients seeking treatment for opioid dependence from the outpatient clinic of the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, Ghaziabad, India were screened...
September 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199395/projecting-the-cost-utilization-and-patient-care-impact-of-prescribing-extended-release-non-abuse-deterrent-opioids-to-chronic-pain-patients
#18
Mihran Ara Yenikomshian, Alan G White, Michael E Carson, Louis P Garrison, Gary M Oderda, Joseph E Biskupiak, Patrick R Hlavacek, Carl L Roland
OBJECTIVES: To estimate healthcare resource utilization, associated costs, and number needed to harm (NNH) from a physician's decision to prescribe extended-release (ER) non-abuse-deterrent opioids (non-ADO) as compared to ER ADOs in a chronic pain population. DESIGN: A 12-month probabilistic simulation model was developed to estimate the reduction of misuse and/or abuse from a physician's prescribing decisions for 10,000 patients. Model inputs included probabilities for opioid misuse and/or abuse-related events, opioid discontinuation, and switching from ADO to non-ADO...
September 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194242/experiential-teaching-increases-medication-calculation-accuracy-among-baccalaureate-nursing-students
#19
Teresa V Hurley
Safe medication administration is an international goal. Calculation errors cause patient harm despite education. The research purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of an experiential teaching strategy to reduce errors in a sample of 78 baccalaureate nursing students at a Northeastern college. A pretest-posttest design with random assignment into equal-sized groups was used. The experiential strategy was more effective than the traditional method (t = -0.312, df = 37, p = .004, 95% CI) with a reduction in calculation errors...
January 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192423/bisphosphonates-for-paget-s-disease-of-bone-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Luis Corral-Gudino, Adrian Jh Tan, Javier Del Pino-Montes, Stuart H Ralston
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates are considered to be the treatment of choice for people with Paget's disease of bone. However, the effects of bisphosphonates on patient-centred outcomes have not been extensively studied. There are insufficient data to determine whether reducing and maintaining biochemical markers of bone turnover to within the normal range improves quality of life and reduces the risk of complications. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of bisphosphonates for adult patients with Paget's disease of bone...
December 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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