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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651112/secondary-harm-mitigation-a-more-humanitarian-framework-for-international-drug-law-enforcement
#1
Jarrett Blaustein, Miki McLay, Jude McCulloch
This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable...
June 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647744/effectiveness-of-supported-self-help-in-recurrent-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-primary-care
#2
Karolien E M Biesheuvel-Leliefeld, Sandra M A Dijkstra-Kersten, Digna J F van Schaik, Harm W J van Marwijk, Filip Smit, Henriette E van der Horst, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: The burden and economic consequences of depression are high, mostly due to its recurrent nature. Due to current budget and time restraints, a preventive, low- cost, accessible minimal intervention is much needed. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a supported self-help preventive cognitive therapy (S-PCT) added to treatment as usual (TAU) in primary care, compared to TAU alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 248 patients with a history of depression, currently in full or partial remission or recovery...
June 24, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647216/characteristics-of-prostate-cancer-found-at-fifth-screening-in-the-european-randomized-study-of-screening-for-prostate-cancer-rotterdam-can-we-selectively-detect-high-grade-prostate-cancer-with-upfront-multivariable-risk-stratification-and-magnetic-resonance
#3
Arnout R Alberts, Ivo G Schoots, Leonard P Bokhorst, Frank-Jan H Drost, Geert J van Leenders, Gabriel P Krestin, Roy S Dwarkasing, Jelle O Barentsz, Fritz H Schröder, Chris H Bangma, Monique J Roobol
BACKGROUND: The harm of screening (unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis) generally outweighs the benefit of reducing prostate cancer (PCa) mortality in men aged ≥70 yr. Patient selection for biopsy using risk stratification and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may improve this benefit-to-harm ratio. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential of a risk-based strategy including MRI to selectively identify men aged ≥70 yr with high-grade PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and thirty-seven men with prostate-specific antigen ≥3...
June 21, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646844/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-hiv-infection-among-male-prisoners-in-tehran-iran
#4
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi, Minoo Mohraz, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, Mostafa Hosseini, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
BACKGROUND: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted on 6900 male prisoners in Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. METHODS: In order to find HIV positive prisoners in the prison's quarantine and two housing units, we used HIV active case finding (ACF) strategy by rapid screening test. In ACF, healthcare staff and trained prisoners asked inmates to answer relevant questions about history of risky behaviors related to HIV as well as to be tested voluntarily by HIV rapid test...
June 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645570/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-by-itraq-revealed-underlying-changes-in-thermotolerance-of-arthrospira-platensis
#5
Rong Chang, Bingxin Lv, Bosheng Li
Growth temperature is a critical factor that affects cultivation of Arthrospira platensis which is a type of cyanobacterium widely known as Spirulina that has significant commercial value. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the thermotolerance of Spirulina, differential protein expression profiling was carried out using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. This study only analyzed changes in thylakoids. Among the 2085 proteins quantified, 43 differentially expressed proteins were selected based on the fold change cutoff scores of ≥2 or ≤0...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645060/young-people-who-use-drugs-engaged-in-harm-reduction-programs-in-new-york-city-overdose-and-other-risks
#6
Michele Calvo, Jessica MacFarlane, Heather Zaccaro, Matthew Curtis, María Cabán, Jamie Favaro, Marian R Passannante, Taeko Frost
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the engagement of young people who use drugs (PWUD) in harm reduction programs (HRPs), and few studies have included non-opioid users and non-injectors. While HRPs have effectively engaged PWUD, young people are under-represented in their services. METHODS: The Injection Drug Users Health Alliance Citywide Study (IDUCS) is the largest community-based study of PWUD in HRPs in the US. From 2014-2015, 2421 HRP participants across New York City (NYC) completed a cross-sectional survey...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644404/garlic-organosulfur-compounds-reduce-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-during-dengue-virus-infection
#7
Alex Hall, Andrea Troupin, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Tonya M Colpitts
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease...
June 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644335/practice-bulletin-number-179-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#8
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644328/practice-bulletin-no-179-summary-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#9
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644057/the-implementation-of-medical-monitoring-programs-following-potentially-hazardous-exposures-a-medico-legal-perspective
#10
David Vearrier, Michael I Greenberg
CONTEXT: Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid(®) search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance")...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643887/personality-dopamine-and-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-subthalamic-stimulation
#11
Eugénie Lhommée, François Boyer, Maxime Wack, Pierre Pélissier, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Stéphan Chabardès, Patrick Mertens, Anna Castrioto, Andrea Kistner, Emmanuel Broussolle, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation improves the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of this treatment on impulse control and personality is the subject of heavy debate. The objective of this study was to investigate personality changes after subthalamic stimulation. METHODS: Using Cloninger's biosocial model, we assessed personality in 73 Parkinson's disease patients before and 12 months after subthalamic stimulation accompanied by a drastic reduction in dopaminergic medication...
June 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643030/hospital-electronic-prescribing-system-implementation-impact-on-discharge-information-communication-and-prescribing-errors-a-before-and-after-study
#12
Pamela Ruth Mills, Anita Elaine Weidmann, Derek Stewart
PURPOSE: The study aimed to test the hypothesis that hospital electronic prescribing and medicine administration system (HEPMA) implementation impacted patient discharge letter quality, nature and frequency of prescribing errors. METHOD: A quasi experimental before and after retrospective case note review was conducted in one United Kingdom district general hospital. The total sample size was 318 (random samples of 159 before and after implementation), calculated to achieve a 10% error reduction with a power of 80% and p < 0...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641703/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-cost-effectiveness-of-intensive-versus-no-scheduled-follow-up-in-patients-who-have-undergone-resection-for-colorectal-cancer-with-curative-intent
#13
David Mant, Alastair Gray, Siân Pugh, Helen Campbell, Stephen George, Alice Fuller, Bethany Shinkins, Andrea Corkhill, Jane Mellor, Elizabeth Dixon, Louisa Little, Rafael Perera-Salazar, John Primrose
BACKGROUND: Intensive follow-up after surgery for colorectal cancer is common practice but lacks a firm evidence base. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether or not augmenting symptomatic follow-up in primary care with two intensive methods of follow-up [monitoring of blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and scheduled imaging] is effective and cost-effective in detecting the recurrence of colorectal cancer treatable surgically with curative intent. DESIGN: Randomised controlled open-label trial...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640995/colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-induce-changes-in-cellular-and-subcellular-morphology
#14
Xiaowei Ma, Raimo Hartmann, Dorleta Jimenez de Aberasturi, Fang Yang, Stefaan J H Soenen, Bella B Manshian, Jonas Franz, Daniel Valdeperez, Beatriz Pelaz, Neus Feliu, Norbert Hampp, Christoph Riethmüller, Henning Vieker, Natalie Frese, Armin Gölzhäuser, Michael Simonich, Robert L Tanguay, Xing-Jie Liang, Wolfgang J Parak
Exposure of cells to colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) can have concentration-dependent harmful effects. Mostly, such effects are monitored with biochemical assays or probes from molecular biology, i.e. viability assays, gene expression profiles, etc., neglecting that the presence of NPs can also drastically affect cellular morphology. In the case of polymer-coated Au NPs we demonstrate that upon NP internalization, cells undergo lysosomal swelling, alterations in mitochondrial morphology, disturbances in actin and tubulin cytoskeleton and associated signaling, and reduction of focal adhesion contact area and number of filopodia...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640238/treatment-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome-results-from-a-systematic-evidence-review
#15
REVIEW
Linda A Bradley, Hamish R M Haddow, Glenn E Palomaki
PurposeA pilot systematic evidence review to establish methodology utility in rare genetic diseases, support clinical recommendations, and identify important knowledge gaps.MethodsBroad-based published/gray-literature searches through December 2015 for studies of males with confirmed mucopolysaccharidosis type II (any age, phenotype, genotype, family history) treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Preset inclusion criteria employed for abstract and full document selection, and standardized methods for data extraction and assessment of quality and strength of evidence...
June 22, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640234/garlic-organosulfur-compounds-reduce-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-during-dengue-virus-infection
#16
Alex Hall, Andrea Troupin, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Tonya M Colpitts
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease...
June 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639406/controlling-cyanobacterial-harmful-blooms-in-freshwater-ecosystems
#17
Hans W Paerl
Cyanobacteria's long evolutionary history has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recent human and climatic modifications of aquatic ecosystems, including nutrient over-enrichment, hydrologic modifications, and global warming. Harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web altering) cyanobacterial bloom (CyanoHAB) genera are controlled by the synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) supplies, light, temperature, water residence/flushing times, and biotic interactions...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638147/sensitivity-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-insulin-precipitation-induced-by-peristaltic-pump-based-medium-circulation-considerations-on-process-development
#18
Diana Massai, Emiliano Bolesani, Diana Robles Diaz, Christina Kropp, Henning Kempf, Caroline Halloin, Ulrich Martin, Tudor Braniste, Giuseppe Isu, Vanessa Harms, Umberto Morbiducci, Gerald Dräger, Robert Zweigerdt
Controlled large-scale production of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is indispensable for their envisioned clinical translation. Aiming at advanced process development in suspension culture, the sensitivity of hPSC media to continuous peristaltic pump-based circulation, a well-established technology extensively used in hydraulically-driven bioreactors, was investigated. Unexpectedly, conditioning of low protein media (i.e. E8 and TeSR-E8) in a peristaltic pump circuit induced severe viability loss of hPSCs cultured as aggregates in suspension...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637430/malaria-control-by-commodities-without-practical-malariology
#19
J Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637344/nicotine-delivery-to-the-aerosol-of-a-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-comparison-with-a-tobacco-cigarette-and-e-cigarettes
#20
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Nikoletta Yannovits, Theoni Sarri, Vassilis Voudris, Konstantinos Poulas
Introduction: The purpose was to measure nicotine levels to the tobacco and levels emitted to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn product (HnB, IQOS) compared to e-cigarettes (ECs) and a tobacco cigarette. Methods: The HnB device and regular and menthol sticks were purchased from Italy. Three types of ECs (ciga-like, eGo-style and variable wattage) and a commercially-available tobacco cigarette were also tested. A custom-made liquid containing 2% nicotine was used with ECs...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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