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Cardiac pathologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346546/identifying-cardiac-pathologies-with-coronary-wave-intensity-analysis-an-enrichment-to-the-ever-expanding-coronary-haemodynamics-armamentarium
#1
Nico Bruining, Paul Cummins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346115/mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-linked-to-air-pollution
#2
REVIEW
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345361/immunotherapy-for-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Elisa Martini, Giuliano Giuseppe Stirparo, Marinos Kallikourdis
Heart failure (HF), the final stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HF has been extensively studied, with great emphasis on proinflammatory cytokines. Yet, clinical trials targeting these cytokines failed to become a credible therapeutic strategy for HF. More recent studies are increasingly highlighting an active role for T cells in the progression of HF pathology. As a result, a number of novel immunotherapy strategies are emerging for the treatment of HF and other cardiovascular diseases, via the targeting of adaptive immunity...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345197/neonatal-hyperoxia-depletes-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes-in-adult-mice-via-mitochondrial-oxidation
#4
Min Yee, Ethan David Cohen, William Domm, George A Porter, Andrew N McDavid, Michael A O'Reilly
Supplemental oxygen given to preterm infants has been associated with permanently altering postnatal lung development. Now that these individuals are reaching adulthood, there is growing concern that early-life oxygen exposure may also promote cardiovascular disease through poorly understood mechanisms. We previously reported that adult mice exposed to 100% oxygen between postnatal days 0-4 develop pulmonary hypertension defined pathologically by capillary rarefaction, dilation of arterioles and veins, cardiac failure, and a reduced lifespan...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344737/the-125th-anniversary-of-the-his-bundle-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Georg H von Knorre
In 1893, Wilhelm His Jr. was the first to describe the AV (atrioventricular) bundle of the vertebrate heart, which now bears his name. Moreover, prior to the turn of the century, W. His Jr. had proved the function of the AV bundle by transection experiments in animals, and had interpreted Adams Stokes disease as heart block due to pathological changes within the bundle. In this way, he was ahead of his time. While clinical interest was limited to the bundle as the location of an AV block in the first half of the 125 years, it has gained attractiveness since then as a target of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures...
January 17, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344721/post-mortem-mr-angiography-quantitative-investigation-and-intravascular-retention-of-perfusates-in-ex-situ-porcine-hearts
#6
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Sylvia Scheicher, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
As the implementation of minimally invasive imaging techniques in both forensic and pathological practice increases, research in this area focuses on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses of current approaches. Assessment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be considered one such area in which post-mortem imaging still shows diagnostic weaknesses. We hypothesise that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an angiographic adjunct may improve the visualisation and interpretation of cardiac pathologies in a post-mortem setting...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344379/changes-in-contractile-protein-expression-are-linked-to-ventricular-stiffness-in-infants-with-pulmonary-hypertension-or-right-ventricular-hypertrophy-due-to-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Andrew R Bond, Dominga Iacobazzi, Safa Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed Ghorbel, Kate Heesom, Mariangela Wilson, Christopher Gillett, Sarah J George, Massimo Caputo, Saadeh Suleiman, Robert M R Tulloh
Background: The right ventricle (RV) is not designed to sustain high pressure leading to failure. There are no current medications to help RV contraction, so further information is required on adaption of the RV to such hypertension. Methods: The Right Ventricle in Children (RVENCH) study assessed infants with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with hypertensive RV. Clinical and echocardiographic data were recorded, and samples of RV were taken from matched infants, analysed for proteomics and compared between pathologies and with clinical and echocardiographic outcome data...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#8
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342222/mechano-electric-feedback-effects-in-a-three-dimensional-3d-model-of-the-contracting-cardiac-ventricle
#9
Ani Amar, Sharon Zlochiver, Ofer Barnea
Mechano-electric feedback affects the electrophysiological and mechanical function of the heart and the cellular, tissue, and organ properties. To determine the main factors that contribute to this effect, this study investigated the changes in the action potential characteristics of the ventricle during contraction. A model of stretch-activated channels was incorporated into a three-dimensional multiscale model of the contracting ventricle to assess the effect of different preload lengths on the electrophysiological behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340538/autonomic-nervous-system-monitoring-in-intensive-care-as-a-prognostic-tool-systematic-review
#10
Luis Bento, Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Pedro Póvoa
OBJECTIVE: To present a systematic review of the use of autonomic nervous system monitoring as a prognostic tool in intensive care units by assessing heart rate variability. METHODS: Literature review of studies published until July 2016 listed in PubMed/Medline and conducted in intensive care units, on autonomic nervous system monitoring, via analysis of heart rate variability as a prognostic tool (mortality study). The following English terms were entered in the search field: ("autonomic nervous system" OR "heart rate variability") AND ("intensive care" OR "critical care" OR "emergency care" OR "ICU") AND ("prognosis" OR "prognoses" OR "mortality")...
October 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336470/tnf-%C3%AE-induces-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fragmentation-during-inflammatory-cardiomyocyte-injury
#11
Yue-Liang Shen, Ying-Zhou Shi, Gai-Ge Chen, Lin-Lin Wang, Ming-Zhi Zheng, Hong-Feng Jin, Ying-Ying Chen
Dynamin-related peptide 1 (Drpl)-mediated mitochondrial fission is an important process associated with cardiac dysfunction under different pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of Drpl during inflammatory myocardial injury. Sprague‑Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Furthermore, cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with LPS, interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α). Total and mitochondrial proteins were isolated from the heart tissue of rats and from the H9C2 cardiomyocytes...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335272/complementary-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-assessment-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#12
Tomas Vita, David R Okada, Mahdi Veillet-Chowdhury, Paco E Bravo, Erin Mullins, Edward Hulten, Mukta Agrawal, Rachna Madan, Viviany R Taqueti, Michael Steigner, Hicham Skali, Raymond Y Kwong, Garrick C Stewart, Sharmila Dorbala, Marcelo F Di Carli, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) detect different pathological attributes of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the complementary value of these tests has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the value of combining CMR and PET in assessing the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, we included 107 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of CS by both CMR and PET...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334406/dasatinib-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Nurgül Özgür Yurttaş, Ahmet Emre Eşkazan
Drug-induced (Group 1) pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subgroup of PH involving dasatinib as a likely related agent, which is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), that is used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The mechanism of dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unclear. However, the occurence of PAH at a late onset in CML patients suggests a chronic pathological mechanism with an insidious onset rather than an acute inflammatory or cardiac etiology...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332915/calcified-amorphous-tumor-induced-acute-cerebral-infarction
#14
Yoshihiro Aizawa, Toshiko Nakai, Yuki Saito, Koyuru Monno, Tomoyuki Morikawa, Rikitake Kogawa, Takumi Hatta, Takehiro Tamaki, Mahoto Kato, Munehito Arimoto, Shunji Osaka, Keishin Sunagawa, Xiao Yan Tang, Masashi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Hao, Atsushi Hirayama
We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who was admitted for acute cerebral infarction linked to a cardiac calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) and related mitral annular calcification (MAC). The cardiac mass was removed, and mitral valve replacement surgery was performed. Pathological examination revealed an amorphous accumulation of degenerating material within both lesions, indicating that build-up of calcium along the mitral annulus and subsequent rupture of the fibrotic tissue may be involved in the initiation and progression of CAT...
January 15, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/the-potential-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-a-narrative-review
#15
Abeer Rababa H, Ashley Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
January 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332374/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-bicuspid-aortic-valve-stenosis-where-do-we-stand
#16
Sung-Han Yoon, Rahul Sharma, Tarun Chakravarty, Masaki Miyasaka, Tomoki Ochiai, Takahiro Nomura, Norman Gellada, Shadi Nemanpour, Mamoo Nakamura, Wen Chen, Raj Makkar
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac defect in adults, and symptom typically develops in adulthood. In the majority of cases, bicuspid aortic valve disease progress with ages and surgical aortic valve replacement is performed with excellent operative outcomes. However, with the relatively slow progression of disease, surgical aortic valve replacement is required in elderly patients but the surgical risk often deemed extremely high due to old age and multiple comorbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has evolved from a novel technology to an established therapy for intermediate- and high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#17
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330837/computer-simulated-modeling-of-healthy-and-diseased-right-ventricular-and-pulmonary-circulation
#18
Jody Chou, Joseph B Rinehart
We have previously developed a simulated cardiovascular physiology model for in-silico testing and validation of novel closed-loop controllers. To date, a detailed model of the right heart and pulmonary circulation was not needed, as previous controllers were not intended for use in patients with cardiac or pulmonary pathology. With new development of controllers for vasopressors, and looking forward, for combined vasopressor-fluid controllers, modeling of right-sided and pulmonary pathology is now relevant to further in-silico validation, so we aimed to expand our existing simulation platform to include these elements...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329223/mast-cells-key-contributors-to-cardiac-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Scott P Levick, Alexander Widiapradja
Historically, increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with fibrosis in numerous cardiac pathologies, implicating mast cells in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Subsequently, several approaches have been utilised to demonstrate a causal role for mast cells in animal models of cardiac fibrosis including mast cell stabilising compounds, rodents deficient in mast cells, and inhibition of the actions of mast cell-specific proteases such as chymase and tryptase. Whilst most evidence supports a pro-fibrotic role for mast cells, there is evidence that in some settings these cells can oppose fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328448/association-between-ace2-ace-balance-and-pneumocyte-apoptosis-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-with-cardiac-arrest
#20
Hong-Li Xiao, Lian-Xing Zhao, Jun Yang, Nan Tong, Le An, Qi-Tong Liu, Miao-Rong Xie, Chun-Sheng Li
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is frequently reported in patients with cardiac arrest (CA) in emergency care. Pneumocyte apoptosis is commonly observed in the lungs following an APE. An important pathological mechanism evoking apoptosis during a lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury is the angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/ACE imbalance. The present study uses a porcine model to examine the anti‑apoptotic effects of captopril on APE‑CA and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Pigs were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, APE‑CA, ROSC‑saline, and ROSC‑captopril...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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