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Cardiac pathologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742517/type-1-rhizomelic-chondrodysplasia-punctata-with-a-homozygous-pex7-mutation
#1
Nursel Muratoğlu Şahin, Meliha Esra Bilici, Erdal Kurnaz, Melek Pala Akdoğan, Serdar Ceylaner, Zehra Aycan
INTRODUCTION: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a rare peroxisomal disease characterised by punctate calcifications of non-ossified cartilage epiphyseal centres. The main biochemical marker of all RCDP types is a decrease in the levels of plasmalogens. Additionally, the accumulation of phytanic acid can be used as a differential marker between types of RDCP. Due to the biochemical overlap between types 1 and 5 RCDP, a genetic analysis of these genes should be performed in patients to identify the type...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740514/normal-versus-pathological-cardiac-fibroblast-derived-extracellular-matrix-differentially-modulates-cardiosphere-derived-cell-paracrine-properties-and-commitment
#2
Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Clotilde Castaldo, Vittorio Picchio, Elisa Messina, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Ciro Maiello, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Giacomo Frati, Franca di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska, Isotta Chimenti
Human resident cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated as cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are under clinical evaluation as a therapeutic product for cardiac regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, limited engraftment and differentiation potential of transplanted cells significantly hamper therapeutic success. Moreover, maladaptive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during heart failure progression provides impaired biological and mechanical signals to cardiac cells, including CPCs. In this study, we aimed at investigating the differential effect on the phenotype of human CDCs of cardiac fibroblast-derived ECM substrates from healthy or diseased hearts, named, respectively, normal or pathological cardiogel (CG-N/P)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740379/peg-coated-gold-nanoparticles-attenuate-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-mediated-cardiac-hypertrophy
#3
Yuhui Qiao, Baoling Zhu, Aiju Tian, Zijian Li
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely used as a drug delivery vehicle, which can accumulate in the heart through blood circulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand the effect of AuNPs on the heart, especially under pathological conditions. In this study, we found that PEG-coated AuNPs attenuate β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-mediated acute cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation. However, both isoproterenol, a non-selective β-AR agonist, and AuNPs did not induce cardiac function change or cardiac fibrosis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739841/the-goldilocks-zone-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-to-ensure-that-the-relationship-with-cardiac-function-is-just-right
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Kerr, Michael S Dodd, Lisa C Heather
Fatty acids (FA) are the main fuel used by the healthy heart to power contraction, supplying 60-70% of the ATP required. FA generate more ATP per carbon molecule than glucose, but require more oxygen to produce the ATP, making them a more energy dense but less oxygen efficient fuel compared with glucose. The pathways involved in myocardial FA metabolism are regulated at various subcellular levels, and can be divided into sarcolemmal FA uptake, cytosolic activation and storage, mitochondrial uptake and β-oxidation...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739515/the-trigeminocardiac-reflex-during-the-anterior-transpetrosal-approach
#5
Shunsuke Shibao, Karam Kenawy, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Kazunari Yoshida
BACKGROUND: The anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA), during which the trigeminal nerve is manipulated, has a risk of eliciting the trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of the TCR during the ATPA. METHODS: The surgical records of 92 patients who had surgical treatment via the ATPA at the Keio university hospital between December 2005 and June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into two groups on the basis of the occurrence of the TCR during surgery, and their clinical and tumor characteristics were compared...
July 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738526/the-potential-of-chrysophanol-in-protecting-against-high-fat-induced-cardiac-injury-through-nrf2-regulated-anti-inflammation-anti-oxidant-and-anti-fibrosis-in-nrf2-knockout-mice
#6
Yonggang Lian, Xiangjun Xia, Haiying Zhao, Yunfeng Zhu
Cardiovascular complications induced by high fat are one of the most challenging health problems presently. Oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis are major components included in the pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been reported as an essential therapeutic target in various diseases for its induction of anti-oxidant enzymes, and other protective enzymes. Additionally, a number of Nrf2 activators showed strong anti-inflammatory properties. In the study, we calculated the Nrf2-dependent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis effects of chrysophanol in high fat diet-induced diabetic heart injury...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738488/-pathological-features-at-autopsy-in-elderly-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
H Wang, F Fang, K Chai, Y Y Li, Y Luo, D G Liu, D P Liu, J F Yang
Objective: To analyze the cardiac pathological features of elderly coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (60 years and over) and evaluate the pathological features at autopsy and risk factors of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Data from 471 elderly patients (aged from 60 to 100 years old) with CAD confirmed by autopsy hospitalized in our hospital from April 1969 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: AMI group(n=128) with AMI as the primary cause of death and the rest served as control group(n=343)...
July 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738162/neuropeptide-y-and-its-receptors-in-ventricular-endocardial-endothelial-cells
#8
Danielle Jacques, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste, Sheldon Magder, Ghassan Bkaily
Endocardial endothelial cells (EECs) constitute an important component of the heart. These cells form a monolayer that covers the cavities of the right (EECRs) and left (EECLs) ventricles. They play an important role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling via their secretion of cardioactive factors such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). They also contribute to cardiac pathology such as arrhythmia, hypertrophy and heart failure. Differences between EECRs and EECLs contribute to tuning of circulating factors at the entry and exit of the ventricles...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737584/update-on-new-muscle-glycogenosis
#9
Pascal Laforêt, Edoardo Malfatti, John Vissing
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of muscle glycogenoses has progressed in recent years by the identification of new disorders, and by reaching a better understanding of pathophysiology of the disorders and the physiology of glycogen metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we describe the clinical and pathological features of the three most recently described muscle glycogenoses caused by recessive mutations in GYG1, RBCK1 and PGM1. The three involved enzymes play different roles in glycogen metabolism...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737122/preserved-heart-function-after-left-ventricular-pressure-overload-in-adult-mice-subjected-to-neonatal-cardiac-hypoplasia
#10
K Heinecke, A Heuser, F Blaschke, C Jux, L Thierfelder, J-D Drenckhahn
Intrauterine growth restriction in animal models reduces heart size and cardiomyocyte number at birth. Such incomplete cardiomyocyte endowment is believed to increase susceptibility toward cardiovascular disease in adulthood, a phenomenon referred to as developmental programming. We have previously described a mouse model of impaired myocardial development leading to a 25% reduction of cardiomyocyte number in neonates. This study investigated the response of these hypoplastic hearts to pressure overload in adulthood, applied by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736564/characterization-of-an-animal-model-to-study-risk-factors-and-new-therapies-for-the-cardiorenal-syndrome-a-major-health-issue-in-our-aging-population
#11
Anja Verhulst, Ellen Neven, Patrick C D'Haese
BACKGROUND: The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a major health problem in our aging population. The term was introduced to cover disorders of the kidneys and heart, whereby dysfunction of one organ may induce dysfunction of the other. As the natural history of the CRS is mostly slow, hence difficult to explore in clinical trials, adequate animal models combining cardiovascular and renal disease are required. Therefore, we developed and characterized a usable model for CRS type 4, i.e. chronic kidney disease (CKD) causing cardiac dysfunction...
June 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736261/genetic-disruption-of-the-cardiomyocyte-circadian-clock-differentially-influences-insulin-mediated-processes-in-the-heart
#12
Graham R McGinnis, Yawen Tang, Rachel A Brewer, Manoja K Brahma, Haley L Stanley, Gobinath Shanmugam, Namakkal Soorappan Rajasekaran, Glenn C Rowe, Stuart J Frank, Adam R Wende, E Dale Abel, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Silvio Litovsky, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang, John C Chatham, Martin E Young
Cardiovascular physiology exhibits time-of-day-dependent oscillations, which are mediated by both extrinsic (e.g., environment/behavior) and intrinsic (e.g., circadian clock) factors. Disruption of circadian rhythms negatively affects multiple cardiometabolic parameters. Recent studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock directly modulates responsiveness of the heart to metabolic stimuli (e.g., fatty acids) and stresses (e.g., ischemia/reperfusion). The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock impacts insulin-regulated pathways in the heart...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735097/protecting-the-heart-through-mk2-modulation-toward-a-role-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-and-lipid-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Matthieu Ruiz, Lise Coderre, Bruce Gordon Allen, Christine Des Rosiers
Various signaling pathways have been identified in the heart as important players during development, physiological adaptation or pathological processes. This includes the MAPK families, particularly p38MAPK, which is involved in several key cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and survival. Disrupted p38MAPK signaling has been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as diabetes and its related complications...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734525/classification-of-cardiovascular-tissues-using-lbp-based-descriptors-and-a-cascade-svm
#14
Claudia Mazo, Enrique Alegre, Maria Trujillo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Histological images have characteristics, such as texture, shape, colour and spatial structure, that permit the differentiation of each fundamental tissue and organ. Texture is one of the most discriminative features. The automatic classification of tissues and organs based on histology images is an open problem, due to the lack of automatic solutions when treating tissues without pathologies. METHOD: In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to automatically classify cardiovascular tissues using texture information and Support Vector Machines (SVM)...
August 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734440/use-of-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-isolated-right-heart-failure-a-bridge-to-transplantation
#15
Daniel J Beissel, Brian F Birnbaum, Aliessa P Barnes, James E O'Brien, Elizabeth M Turk, James D St Louis
Acute myocarditis may lead to left ventricular dysfunction and subsequent need for cardiac transplantation. We describe a 15-month-old child who presented with right heart failure of unclear cause. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular function; however, right ventricular function was markedly reduced. The patient required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by placement of a right-sided Berlin EXCOR ventricular assist device. There was little recovery, and the child underwent cardiac transplantation...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734428/rupture-of-anterolateral-papillary-muscle-resulting-from-small-artery-occlusion
#16
Tomoki Sakata, Kenji Mogi, Manabu Sakurai, Anan Nomura, Masahiko Fujii, Shinichiro Shimizu, Yoshiharu Takahara
A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for dyspnea and fever. Echocardiography showed a mobile mass on the anterolateral papillary muscle and severe mitral regurgitation. Coronary artery angiography showed no stenotic lesion. Infective endocarditis or cardiac tumor was suspected, and a mitral valve operation was performed. Intraoperative observation revealed a partially ruptured anterolateral papillary muscle and no evidence of infection or tumor. Pathologic examination of the resected papillary muscle showed atherosclerotic changes in small arteries and infarcted areas in different postinfarct time phases along the ruptured edge...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733449/mitochondrial-function-in-engineered-cardiac-tissues-is-co-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-elasticity-and-tissue-alignment
#17
Davi Marco Lyra-Leite, Allen Mariano Andres, Andrew Patrick Petersen, Nethika Ruvini Ariyasinghe, Nathan Cho, Jezell Athena Lee, Roberta A Gottlieb, Megan L McCain
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733448/pathophysiology-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-patients-with-heart-failure-potential-therapeutic-targets
#18
Hiroyuki Takahama, Masafumi Kitakaze
Despite the development of pharmacological inventions and new non-pharamacological techniques to prevent and treat HF, the mortality rate in patients with symptomatic HF remains high. To conquer these difficulties, the pathophysiology of HF should be considered within a wide range of views. Given the diverse mechanisms of HF pathophysiology, renal and cardiac functions have close and complementary interconnections. Recent studies suggest that communication between kidney and heart through bidirectional pathways causes significant pathological changes...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733364/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-myocardial-strain-after-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-systematic-review
#19
Kenneth Mangion, Christie McComb, Daniel A Auger, Frederick H Epstein, Colin Berry
The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a clinically relevant, disease-based perspective on myocardial strain imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging uniquely integrates myocardial function with pathology. Therefore, this review focuses on strain imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance. We have specifically considered the relationships between left ventricular (LV) strain, infarct pathologies, and their associations with prognosis...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731589/effects-of-nitric-oxide-on-large-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-currents-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-through-pka-and-pkg-related-pathways
#20
Hyemi Bae, Inja Lim
The human cardiac fibroblast (HCF) is the most abundant cell type in the myocardium, and HCFs play critical roles in maintaining normal cardiac function. However, unlike cardiomyocytes, the electrophysiology of HCFs is not well established. In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (KCa) channels have distinct physiological and pathological functions, and nitric oxide (NO) play key roles. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of NO on KCa channels in HCFs. We recorded strong oscillating, well-maintained outward K(+) currents without marked inactivation throughout the test pulse period and detected outward rectification in the I-V curve; these are all characteristics that are typical of KCa currents...
July 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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