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Didier Majou, Souad Christieans
For cured meat products, nitrite is recognized for its antimicrobial effects against pathogenic bacteria, even though the specific inhibitory mechanisms are not well known. Nitrite contributes to oxidative stress by being the precursor of peroxynitrite (ONOO- ), which is the major strong oxidant. Thus, bacterial stress (highly pH-very low partial pressure of oxygen-dependent) is enhanced by the nitrate-nitrite-peroxynitrite system which is also highly pH- and low partial pressure of oxygen-dependent. Nitrite is a hurdle technology which effectiveness depends on several other hurdle technologies including sodium chloride (accelerating the autoxidation of oxymyoglobin and promote peroxynitrite formation), ascorbate (increasing ONOO- synthesis), and Aw...
July 9, 2018: Meat Science
Alexander P Gardner, Joseph T Barbieri
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are produced by several species of clostridium. There are seven immunologically unique BoNT serotypes (A⁻G). The Centers for Disease Control classifies BoNTs as 'Category A' select agents and are the most lethal protein toxins for humans. Recently, BoNT-like proteins have also been identified in several non-clostridia. BoNTs are di-chain proteins comprised of an N -terminal zinc metalloprotease Light Chain (LC) and a C-terminal Heavy Chain (HC) which includes the translocation and receptor binding domains...
July 2, 2018: Toxins
Vijay P Misra, Richard M Trosch, Pascal Maisonobe, Savary Om
Background: Cervical dystonia is a heterogeneous disorder with several possible presentations, for which first-line therapy is often botulinum toxin (BoNT). In routine clinical practice the success of each BoNT injection is dependent on several variables, including individual presentation and injection technique. Large multicenter, observational studies provide important information on individualized administration strategies that cannot be otherwise ascertained from controlled clinical trials...
2018: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
A L Diaz, T A Chaparro, A Tello, H Coy, G A Frederick, M M Parra
OBJECTIVE/METHODS: The aim of this study is to describe the use of botulinum toxin to increase tear retention in patients with dry eye, using the description of 2 cases. RESULTS: Patients with moderate to severe dry eye that were given an injection of type A botulinum toxin in the Horner's muscle. The results at one month and 3 months are reported. An assessment was made of the subjective perception of the patient as regards any improvement, as well as taking into account, the Ocular Surface Disease Index, superficial punctate keratitis, and the time of the tear rupture and tear meniscus...
July 9, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Mohammed G Turkmani, Naief Alnomair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: JAAD Case Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Suzanne W van Landingham, Jacqueline Diels, Mark J Lucarelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to describe the current state of physical therapy for facial nerve palsy, the evidence basis for these interventions and how therapy can be integrated with other medical and surgical interventions for facial nerve palsy, as it applies to ophthalmologists, oculoplastic surgeons and other specialists. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies indicate that physical therapy is effective for the rehabilitation of patients with facial nerve palsy and can be used synergistically with interventions administered by physicians, such as targeted botulinum toxin injections...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Adel H Alsuhaibani, Shaikha Al Eid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 1980, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was introduced for the treatment of strabismus and benign essential blepharospasm. Since then, a number of additional indications have been introduced, which continue to expand, providing less invasive solutions in managing different ophthalmic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful trials of BTX-A injection into the lacrimal gland have been reported for the treatment of epiphora caused by primary lacrimal gland hyperlacrimation, functional tearing, gustatory tearing, and lacrimal outflow obstruction...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Zhan Shi, Jin Lv, Liu Xiaoyu, Li Wu Zheng, Xue-Wen Yang
Objective: The masticatory muscles are the most important contributor to bite force, and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) receives direct occlusal loading. The present study aimed to investigate condylar remodeling after masseter muscle atrophy in rats. Methods: Sixty 5-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 3 groups: the control group, soft diet (SD) group, and botulinum toxin (BTX) group. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the masseter muscles was investigated as well as atrogin-1/MuRF-1 expression...
2018: BioMed Research International
Damien Motavasseli, Camille Chesnel, Audrey Charlanes, Diane Menoux, Francis Charoenwong, Frédérique Le Breton, Gérard Amarenco
PURPOSE: To evaluate adherence to anticholinergic therapy (AT) and clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify factors associated with poor adherence. METHODS: This single-center study prospectively included 49 patients suffering from MS who had been prescribed AT and/or CISC. Adherence was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Patient Global Impression of Improvement, Mini-Mental State Examination, Urinary Symptom Profile, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) instruments were administered, and the number of daily anticholinergic pills and/or catheterizations was noted...
June 2018: International Neurourology Journal
Daniel Weiss, Leonhard Hieber, Justine Sturm, Axel Börtlein, Joachim Buchthal, Christian Dippon, Guy Arnold, Tobias Wächter
OBJECTIVE: Blepharospasm associates with impairment in generic health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Albeit botulinum toxin is widely used to alleviate the motor symptoms of blepharospasm, its effect on generic health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) is heterogeneous. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label clinical observational study, we characterized outcomes on HR-QoL in terms of the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5 L) from botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection in a prospective cohort of patients with blepharospasm (n = 55)...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Berthold Rzany, Falk G Bechara, Konstantin Feise, Marc Heckmann, Stefan Rapprich, Birgit Wörle
Focal hyperhidrosis can have a considerable impact on social and occupational activities and be associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Primary (idiopathic) hyperhidrosis is neither caused by systemic disorders nor by external factors. It usually occurs in areas characterized by a high density of sweat glands such as the axillae and hands. The diagnosis of focal hyperhidrosis is based on history and clinical findings. Supplementary diagnostic tests include gravimetry (measurement of the amount of sweat) and the iodine starch test (which shows the area of sweating)...
July 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Nagarajan Thirunavukkarasu, Eric Johnson, Segaran Pillai, David Hodge, Larry Stanker, Travis Wentz, BalRam Singh, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Patrick McNutt, Michael Adler, Eric Brown, Thomas Hammack, Donald Burr, Shashi Sharma
Botulism outbreak due to consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is a public health emergency. The threat of bioterrorism through deliberate distribution in food sources and/or aerosolization of BoNTs raises global public health and security concerns due to the potential for high mortality and morbidity. Rapid and reliable detection methods are necessary to support clinical diagnosis and surveillance for identifying the source of contamination, performing epidemiological analysis of the outbreak, preventing and responding to botulism outbreaks...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Libin Xiao, Lizhen Pan, Bing Li, Yanwen Zhou, Yougui Pan, Xiaolong Zhang, Yong Hu, Dirk Dressler, Lingjing Jin
Botulinum toxin (BT) is the treatment of choice for hemifacial spasm (HFS). When BT is injected into the affected side, patients may experience increased facial asymmetry. We wanted to evaluate in a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study whether bilateral BT injections may reduce this facial asymmetry. For this, we treated 19 HFS patients with unilateral and 24 with bilateral BT therapy using CBTX-A (Lanzhou Biological Products Institute, Lanzhou, China). BT doses on the affected side were standard doses, on the non-affected side they were one-third of those...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Antonio Carlos Abramo
BACKGROUND: In this series of patients the cutaneous insertion and strength of voluntary contraction of the muscles in the upper third of the face were used as guidelines for botulinum toxin application named "BTA Codes." METHOD: Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers identified the shape and cutaneous insertions of the muscles in the upper third of the face. Patient voluntary contraction of the muscles in the upper third of the face created different patterns of skin lines classified by the 4-grade Facial Wrinkle Scale...
July 9, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Mar Carreño, Maria José Martí, Ibán Aldecoa, Celia Painous, Estefanía Conde, Francesc Valldeoriola, Josep Valls-Solé, Núria Bargalló, Francisco Gil, Isabel Manzanares, Xavier Setoain, Antonio Donaire, Esteban Muñoz, Pedro Roldán, Teresa Boget, Luis Pintor, Eva Bailles, Jordi Rumià
OBJECTIVE: To describe an adult patient with Rasmussen's disease with focal dystonia as the most disabling symptom and the good response to unilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records and diagnostic tests. RESULTS: The patient had displayedmild focal seizures with sensory and motor symptoms on the left arm and hemiface since the age of 22. Ten years later she experienced abrupt onset of focal left dystonia involving mainly the leg...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
T Wiggins, S R Markar, H MacKenzie, O Faiz, G Zaninotto, G B Hanna
Management of achalasia is potentially complex. Previous studies have identified equivalence between pneumatic dilatation and surgical cardiomyotomy in terms of clinical outcomes. However, previous research has not investigated whether a management strategies and outcomes are different in high-volume achalasia centers. This national population-based cohort study aimed to identify the treatment modalities utilized in centers, which regularly manage achalasia and those which manage it infrequently. This study also assessed rates of re-intervention and complications to establish if a volume-outcome relationship exists for the management of achalasia in England...
July 9, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Richard C Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periocular rehabilitation of the patient with a facial nerve palsy has evolved over time. Although protection of the ocular surface is paramount, application of disfiguring tarsorrhaphies should be utilized only in special situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss current surgical and medical strategies in treatment of the periocular area in patients with facial nerve palsy to give maximal functional and cosmetic results. RECENT FINDINGS: Upper lid lagophthalmos is preferentially treated with upper eyelid weights...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Nicoletta Cinone, Sara Letizia, Luigi Santoro, Michele Gravina, Loredana Amoruso, Franco Molteni, Maurizio Ranieri, Andrea Santamato
Introduction: Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases, and can be due to glenohumeral osteoarthritis, rotator cuff tear, impingement, tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, and subacromial bursitis. Several therapies have been proposed, including steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular injections, and physical therapies. Many published studies have reported on the employment of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) to reduce pain in subjects with neurological and musculoskeletal diseases by inhibiting substance P release and other inflammatory factors...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Yanwen Zhou, Ying Liu, Yunhua Hao, Ya Feng, Lizhen Pan, Wuchao Liu, Bing Li, Libin Xiao, Lingjing Jin, Zhiyu Nie
Background: Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is emerging as a treatment modality for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). However, the mechanism of the role of BoNT/A in antagonizing the constriction of arteriola in RP remains unclear. Materials and methods: We tested the constriction of arteriole diameter and the distribution of adrenergic receptors on the rat cremaster modle. Moreover, we measured the secretion of norepinephrine (NE), protein level changes and related receptors on cultured rat superior cervical ganglia neurons(SCGNs), a model of sympathetic neuron...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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