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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636760/successful-management-of-refractory-diabetic-gastroparesis-with-long-term-aprepitant-treatment
#1
N Fountoulakis, J Dunn, S Thomas, J Karalliedde
BACKGROUND: People with gastroparesis who develop treatment-resistant (refractory) disease pose a difficult challenge, especially in the setting of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or post pancreas transplant. Aprepitant (a neurokinin-receptor antagonist) is licensed for the short-term treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea. There is lack of information on its long-term efficacy and safety in people with diabetic gastroparesis. CASE REPORT: Case 1 was 73-year-old man with Type 2 diabetes of 25 years' duration and ESRD requiring dialysis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635876/-salivation-after-stroke
#2
Z A Zalyalova
Salivation after stroke (sialorrhea, hypersalivation, ptyalism) can be caused by the overproduction or a lack of utilization of saliva. Patients after stroke often have sialorrhea as a result of dysphagia. Neurogenic dysphagia in acute period after stroke occurs in 25-65% of patients. The mortality rate among people with post-stroke dysphagia and tube feeding ranges from 20 to 24%. Patients who suffering from profuse salivation have difficulties with articulation and swallowing, bad breath, irritation and maceration of perioral area, contamination of clothing and bed linen...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634003/spasticity-video-challenge-a-look-at-methods-for-addressing-difficult-cases
#3
Katharine E Alter, Mark Gormley, Atul T Patel
As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://courses.elseviercme.com/spasticity/662e), treatment of patients with spasticity due to upper motor neuron syndromes, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral palsy, is multifaceted, involving chemodenervation, systemic medications, surgical therapy, rehabilitation efforts, and home care. Optimal care begins with the recognition that each patient's impairments are unique and must be assessed carefully to determine the impact of muscle overactivity, loss of dexterity, and weakness on passive and active function in the context of the patients' goals...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633975/efficacy-of-inactivation-of-viral-contaminants-in-hyperimmune-horse-plasma-against-botulinum-toxin-by-low-ph-alone-and-combined-with-pepsin-digestion
#4
Amram Torgeman, Nurit Mador, Marina Dorozko, Aliza Lifshitz, Naomi Eschar, Moshe D White, Dana G Wolf, Eyal Epstein
Assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. We previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low pH to inactivate West Nile and Sindbis viruses in horse plasma. The present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: HSV-1 and BVDV (lipid-enveloped), BPV and Reo-3 (nonenveloped). These viruses were spiked into hyperimmunized horse plasma against botulinum toxin and subjected to low pH (3...
June 17, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632885/restoring-facial-symmetry-through-non-surgical-cosmetic-procedures-after-permanent-facial-paralxsis-a-case-report
#5
Ali Sahan, Funda Tamer
Facial nerve paralysis can occur due to infection, inflammation, trauma, surgery, and tumors. It leads to facial asymmetry, impaired oral competence, articulation deficits, and psychological problems. Treatment options include physical therapy, static slings, nerve and muscle transfers, blepharoplasty, brow lift, and chemodenervation with botulinum toxin. We report the case of a 66-year-old Caucasian female with permanent facial paralysis following middle ear surgery. The facial asymmetry was treated successfully with botulinum toxin A injection, hyaluronic acid dermal filler injection, and a thread-lift procedure...
June 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631689/-objective-tympanophonia-caused-by-myoclonus-of-the-auricular-muscles
#6
N V Boiko
The objective of the present literature review was to systematize the available data on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostics, and treatment of muscular tympanophonia. The commonest source of muscular tympanophonia is the tremor (myoclonus) of the soft palate or the middle ear; sometimes this condition can be a consequence of myoclonus of the external ear muscles or head muscles. Pharmacotherapy of muscular tympanophonia does not invariably result in the favourable outcome. The author describes a rare observation of objective tympanophonia attributable to myoclonus of the auricular muscle...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629806/prevalence-of-bleeding-complications-following-ultrasound-guided-botulinum-toxin-injections-in-patiens-on-anticoagulation-or-antiplatelet-therapy
#7
Jeffrey Lavallee, Regan Royer, Geoffrey Smith
BACKGROUND: Patients on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy may be at higher risk of bleeding complications following intramuscular chemodenervation injections. Musculoskeletal ultrasound may be able to reduce the risk of bleeding complications by providing real time visualization of vascular structures and post-injection monitoring. Limited data exist addressing risk of bleeding complications following ultrasound-guided botulinum neurotoxin intramuscular chemodenervation procedures in the setting of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy...
June 16, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627956/evaluating-the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-tear-metrics-in-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm
#8
Yasmin Poustchi Mali, Robert L Schultze, Edward J Wladis
Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Twelve eyes of 6 patients with hemifacial spasm (2 men and 4 women; mean age 55.5 years) were assessed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and IRB approval...
June 19, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627937/the-safety-of-intra-articular-injections-for-the-treatment-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-critical-narrative-review
#9
Christelle Nguyen, François Rannou
International guidelines recommend that the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) combine both nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Intra-articular (IA) therapies are considered part of this multimodal approach and are well-established Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved treatments. Areas covered. Safety data for knee OA, including IA corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma and botulinum toxin are critically reviewed, and evidence- and pratice-based measures to improve safety of IA therapies are discussed...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627346/-study-on-rac1-mapk-erk-pathway-mediated-mechanism-and-role-in-rats-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#10
Guanghua Tao, Linghui Pan, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Huijun Dai, Wanyun Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Rac1/MAPK/ERK) signal pathway in rats with ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) and its mechanism. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into spontaneous respiration group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and high VT group with 10 rats in each group. The rats in spontaneous respiration group were kept their spontaneous breathing...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627117/the-cognitive-features-of-idiopathic-and-dyt1-dystonia
#11
REVIEW
Marjan Jahanshahi, Mariam Torkamani
Dystonia is a common movement disorder. In this paper, we review the literature on cognitive function in idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia. In idiopathic or DYT1 dystonia, cognition is largely intact with only isolated executive dysfunction. Dystonia patients also have increased temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds, considered endophenotypes of the disorder because deficits are also shown by unaffected relatives and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 mutation. Anticholinergic medication in high doses can be associated with memory impairment in dystonia...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626389/rac1-guides-porf-2-to-wnt-pathway-to-mediate-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#12
Xi-Tao Yang, Guo-Hui Huang, Hong-Jiang Li, Zhao-Liang Sun, Nan-Jie Xu, Dong-Fu Feng
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of preoptic regulator factor 2 (Porf-2) on neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unknown. Here, we found that Porf-2 inhibits the activity of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein in hippocampus-derived rat NSCs. Reduced Rac1 activity impaired the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, ultimately causing a repression of NSCs proliferation. Porf-2 knockdown enhanced NSCs proliferation but not in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of Rac1 or Wnt...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625615/efficacy-and-safety-of-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-hemiparesis-in-adults-with-upper-limb-spasticity-previously-treated-with-botulinum-toxin-sub-analysis-from-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Christina Marciniak, Peter McAllister, Heather Walker, Allison Brashear, Steven Edgley, Thierry Deltombe, Svetlana Khatkova, Marta Banach, Fatma Gul, Claire Vilain, Philippe Picaut, Anne-Sophie Grandoulier, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity previously treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). DESIGN: A post-hoc analysis from a Phase 3, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study SETTING: 34 neurology or rehabilitation clinics in nine countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18-80 years with hemiparesis, ≥6 months after stroke or traumatic brain injury. This analysis focused on a subgroup of subjects with previous onabotulinumtoxinA or incobotulinumtoxinA treatment (n=105 of 243 in the total trial population) in the affected limb...
June 15, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623614/abobotulinumtoxina-a-review-in-pediatric-lower-limb-spasticity
#14
Yahiya Y Syed
AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport(®)) is currently the only botulinum toxin A formulation approved by the US FDA for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in pediatric patients aged ≥2 years. Intramuscular abobotulinumtoxinA was approved based on the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial in children with lower limb spasticity due to cerebral palsy. In this trial, a single treatment cycle with abobotulinumtoxinA 10-15 U/kg/leg injected into the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles significantly improved ankle plantar flexor muscle tone (primary endpoint), with abobotulinumtoxinA recipients showing a significant response to treatment relative to placebo...
June 16, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621277/botulinum-toxin-for-the-treatment-of-gummv-smile
#15
Afnan F Al-Fouzan, Lamia S Mokeem, Reem T Al-Saqat, Maisa A Alfalah, Mana A Alharbi, Abdullah E Al-Samary
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections as a conservative treatment for gummy smile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental in vivo study was conducted at a dermatology clinic in Riyadh in January 2016. The study included 23 female patients who ranged from 20 to 50 years and were treated with Botox injections due to excessive maxillary gingival display. The patients with short clinical crowns or long maxilla, those who were pregnant or breastfeeding, and patients with neuromuscular disorders were excluded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617306/characterization-of-hemagglutinin-negative-botulinum-progenitor-toxins
#16
Suzanne R Kalb, Jakub Baudys, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, John R Barr
Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC), alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) to cause hemagglutination...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614767/changes-in-caveolin-1-caveolin-3-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expression-and-protein-content-after-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-the-right-masseter-muscle-of-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#17
U U Botzenhart, V Vaal, I Rentzsch, T Gredes, T Gedrange, C Kunert-Keil
Progressive muscle wasting, frequently associated with inflammation, muscle fibre degeneration and fibrosis, is a characteristic of DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Its most common used animal model, the mdx mouse, however can overcome muscle degeneration by regeneration processes and is for this reason not suitable to answer all scientific questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in breaking down muscle regeneration in mdx mice. For this purpose, the right masseter muscle of 100 days old mdx and healthy mice was paralyzed by a single specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614361/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-frizzled-6-in-the-small-intestine-of-pigs-sus-scrofa
#18
Lijun Zou, Xiaocheng Wang, Liping Jiang, Shengping Wang, Xia Xiong, Huansheng Yang, Wei Gao, Min Gong, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Yin
Frizzled 6 (FZD6) encodes an integral membrane protein that functions in multiple signal transduction pathways, for example, as a receptor in Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway for polarized cell migration and organ morphogenesis. Mutations in FZD6 have been identified in a variety of tumors. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Sus scrofa FZD6 (Sfz6) was cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrates that the Sfz6 gene encodes the 712 amino-acid (aa) protein with seven transmembrane domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614091/injectable-daxibotulinumtoxina-for-the-treatment-of-glabellar-lines-a-phase-2-randomized-dose-ranging-double-blind-multicenter-comparison-with-onabotulinumtoxina-and-placebo
#19
Jean Carruthers, Nowell Solish, Shannon Humphrey, Nathan Rosen, Channy Muhn, Vince Bertucci, Arthur Swift, Andrei Metelitsa, Roman G Rubio, Jacob Waugh, John Quiring, Gill Shears, Alastair Carruthers
BACKGROUND: Injectable daxibotulinumtoxinA (RT002) is an investigational botulinum toxin Type A in clinical development. It is formulated with a proprietary peptide and offers the potential of a longer acting neurotoxin therapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety, efficacy, and duration of response of daxibotulinumtoxinA with onabotulinumtoxinA and placebo [www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02303002]. METHODS: In this Phase 2, randomized, dose-ranging, parallel-group, double-blind, multicenter study, subjects with moderate or severe glabellar lines at maximum frown were randomly assigned to 20U, 40U, or 60U daxibotulinumtoxinA, 20U onabotulinumtoxinA, or placebo...
June 12, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612061/management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-neurogenic-bladder
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Q Wu, Israel Franco
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a significant risk factor for pyelonephritis and renal scarring. VUR can occur through a defective ureterovesical junction (UVJ) or an overwhelmed normal UVJ mechanism such as in bladder dysfunction of congenital, acquired, or behavioral etiology. There are numerous causes for the development of a neurogenic bladder from spinal dysraphisms to spinal cord trauma and even centrally based abnormalities in children with apparently normal motor function (inappropriately termed nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder)...
June 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
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