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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918229/design-of-modified-botulinum-neurotoxin-a1-variants-with-a-shorter-persistence-of-paralysis-and-duration-of-action
#1
Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of low doses of botulinum neurotoxins cause localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the treatment of several medical disorders and aesthetic indications. Optimizing the therapeutic properties could offer new treatment opportunities. This report describes a rational design approach to modify the pharmacological properties by mutations in the C-terminus of BoNT/A1 light chain (LC)...
September 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915291/cosmetic-practitioners-take-huge-risks-purchasing-and-administering-illegal-botulinum-toxin-drug-products
#2
Sheldon Bradshaw
In their article "Importing Injectables" in the September 2014 issue of the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Dr. Kenneth Beer and Karen Rothschild highlighted the possible harm to patients and practitioners from the use of unapproved botulinum toxin products - eg, Botox, Dysport, Xeomin, and Myobloc - and other cosmetic prescription drug products purchased from foreign or unlicensed suppliers.1 In the intervening years, the accuracy of their critique has been repeatedly demonstrated, as the dangers to patients' health, as well as to cosmetic practitioners' liberty, has only increased...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915289/mild-to-moderate-dysphagia-following-very-low-dose-abobotulinumtoxin-a-for-platysmal-bands
#3
Suzan Obagi, Kseniya Golubets
Onabotulinumtoxin A (Botox) can be a safe and successful off-label treatment of vertical platysma bands of various severities. Due to risk of the botulinum toxin diffusing to the underlying anatomic structures such as the deglutition muscles, the larynx, and the neck flexors, a maximal dose of 100 units has been suggested and there have been no known reports of untoward effects with doses less than 60 units. We present a case of mild to moderate dysphagia in a patient after very low doses of Abobutulinumtoxin (60 units, equivalent to 20 units of Onabotulinumtoxin using a 3:1 conversion ratio)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913292/the-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-on-an-iatrogenic-sialo-cutaneous-fistula
#4
Seung Eun Hong, Jung Woo Kwon, So Ra Kang, Bo Young Park
A sialo-cutaneous fistula is a communication between the skin and a salivary gland or duct discharging saliva. Trauma and iatrogenic complications are the most common causes of this condition. Treatments include aspiration, compression, and the administration of systemic anticholinergics; however, their effects are transient and unsatisfactory in most cases. We had a case of a patient who developed an iatrogenic sialo-cutaneous fistula after wide excision of squamous cell carcinoma in the parotid region that was not treated with conventional management, but instead completely resolved with the injection of botulinum toxin...
December 2016: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905074/erratum-to-anatomical-recommendations-for-safe-botulinum-toxin-injection-into-temporalis-muscle-a-simplified-reproducible-approach
#5
Won-Kang Lee, Jung-Hee Bae, Kyung-Seok Hu, Takafumi Kato, Seong-Taek Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904941/is-there-any-relationship-between-bladder-trabeculation-and-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravesical-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-refractory-idiopathic-overactive-bladder-women
#6
Mahtab Zargham, Shideh Abedi, Farshid Alizadeh, Mohamad Hatef Khorami, Mehrdad Mohamadi, Faranak Bahrami, Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas, Hamid Mazdak
BACKGROUND: Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) might serve as a minimally invasive substitute in patients with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (RIOAB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes related to two different doses of abo-BTX-A (AboBTX-A) in patients with RIOAB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was performed on 55 women with RIOAB. After determination of trabeculation grade, 300 (no or mild) or 500 (moderate or severe) unit of AboBTX-A (Dysport) was intravesicaly injected...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904310/efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-treatment-of-myofascial-pain
#7
Jorge Chaurand, Laura Pacheco-Ruíz, Hector Orozco-Saldívar, Julio López-Valdés
The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of using botulinum toxin (BTX) in temporomandibular joint disorders, particularly pertaining to myofascial pain from masseter and temporal muscles. The study included 11 patients who were diagnosed with masseter and temporalis myofascial pain. Visual analog scale for pain and pressure algometry were conducted initially, after 1 month of conservative therapy (control group), and after 1 month of BTX type A injections (study group). Data were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's test) to determine intergroup differences...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904218/early-onset-sixth-nerve-palsy-with-eccentric-fixation
#8
Kaajal D Nanda, Eve Lacey, Alki Liasis, Ken K Nischal
PURPOSE: To report four cases of early onset sixth-nerve palsy all of whom had eccentric fixation. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was undertaken of all cases presenting to the senior author's private and NHS practice with early onset sixth palsy between 2006 and 2012. As well as demographic information, details of ophthalmic, orthoptic, electrophysiological examinations, and radiological investigations that were extracted from the records. RESULTS: Four children with unilateral or asymmetric early onset sixth-nerve palsy were identified, of which three were congenital...
January 2017: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902023/novel-modality-for-neck-rejuvenation-a-prospective-multicenter-trial-of-percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-of-the-cervical-branch-of-the-facial-nerve
#9
Daniel Rivlin, D Ryan Skinner, Christina Y Steinmetz-Rodriguez, Jordan S Fabrikant, Marie A Stoddard, Jeffrey J So, Shauntell J Solomon, Ronald L Moy
BACKGROUND: Neck rejuvenation offers few modalities of treatments limited to either invasive plastic surgery or temporary neuromodulation using botulinum toxin. OBJECTIVE: To access the efficacy, longevity, and safety of percutaneous monopolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the cervical branch of the facial nerve innervating the platysma for neck rejuvenation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, multicenter trial enrolled 19 adult patients with noticeable platysmal banding at 2 different centers...
September 8, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899693/clinical-efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-in-salivary-duct-stenosis-a-preliminary-study-of-six-cases
#10
C Trapeau, J M Foletti, C Collet, L Guyot, C Chossegros
INTRODUCTION: Salivary duct stenosis is the second most common cause of obstructive pathology after lithiases, and it primarily affects the parotid gland. Salivary duct stenosis is treated with drug therapy and/or sialendoscopy. If unsuccessful, surgical removal of the gland is indicated, but it is associated with a high risk of facial morbidity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an alternate treatment, botulinum toxin, in salivary duct stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a preliminary retrospective study from January 2011 to December 2014, six patients with parotid duct stenosis received 50 IU of botulinum toxin in three injections in the parotid gland...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898517/characterization-of-the-functional-activity-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-subtype-b6
#11
Tomoko Kohda, Keiji Nakamura, Koji Hosomi, Yasushi Torii, Shunji Kozaki, Masafumi Mukamoto
Clostridium botulinum produces the highly potent neurotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which is classified into seven serotypes, A-G, and the subtype classification is confirmed by the diversity of the amino acid sequence among the serotypes. The BoNT from the Osaka05 strain is associated with type B infant botulism and has been divided into BoNT/B subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) by phylogenetic analysis and the antigenicity of its C-terminal heavy chain (HC) domain. However, the molecular basis for its properties, including the potency, is poorly understood...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892597/adult-male-stress-and-urge-urinary-incontinence-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-treatment-strategies-for-voiding-dysfunction-in-men
#12
Eric Chung, Darren J Katz, Christopher Love
BACKGROUND: Male urinary incontinence adversely affects health-related quality of life and is associated with significant psychosexual and financial burden. The two most common forms of male incontinence are stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) with concomitant urge urinary incontinence (UUI). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to briefly review the current understandings of the pathophysiological mechanisms in SUI and OAB/UUI, and offer a set of practical, action-based recommendations and treatment strategies...
September 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891795/-intravesical-botulinum-toxin-under-local-anestesia-as-ambulatory-procedure
#13
José Javier Fabuel Alcañiz, Laura Martínez Arcos, Miguel Jimenez Cidre, Francisco Javier Burgos Revilla
Bladder hyperactivity is described as the presence of "voiding urgency, generally associated with increased daytime frequency and nocturia, with or without urinary incontinence, in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology". Onabotulinum toxin A (BTA) is a recommendable therapeutic option in case of failure, contraindication or refusal of the conservative therapy or other non-pharmacological therapies. The injection of BTA in the detrusor has been performed under local, regional or general anesthesia either in the conventional or major ambulatory surgery operative room or in the cystoscopy room...
September 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891721/the-regions-on-the-light-chain-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-recognized-by-t-cells-from-toxin-treated-cervical-dystonia-patients-the-complete-human-t-cell-recognition-map-of-the-toxin-molecule
#14
Minako Oshima, Philip Deitiker, Joseph Jankovic, M Zouhair Atassi
We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients...
September 11, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889761/safety-issues-associated-with-using-medication-to-treat-overactive-bladder
#15
George Araklitis, Linda Cardozo
The mainstay of overactive bladder treatment is the use of anticholinergic medication with its common side effects well known. This review focused on three less well-known safety issues when treating OAB. Areas covered: Patients with increased anticholinergic load are at risk of cognitive decline, dementia or even death. The elderly are particularly at risk due to polypharmacy. Botulinum toxin carries the risk of high urinary residuals, urinary tract infection and need to self catheterise. The use of vaginal oestrogens may improve OAB symptoms, but there is concern in those with a history of breast cancer...
September 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888968/role-of-botulinum-toxin-a-in-treatment-of-intractable-diplopia
#16
Seyhan B Özkan, Ayşe İpek Akyüz Ünsal
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) in patients with intractable diplopia related to intracranial problems or long-term interruption of fusion due to cataract or uncorrected aphakia and to identify the group of resistant cases who have no potential to fuse the two images. Methods; The medical records of patients seen by the senior author (SBÖ) at a single institution over a period of 20 years were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who underwent BTXA treatment for intractable diplopia...
September 6, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888929/longitudinal-studies-of-botulinum-toxin-in-cervical-dystonia-why-do-patients-discontinue-therapy
#17
H A Jinnah, Cynthia L Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD patients discontinue therapy. The reasons for discontinuation are only partly understood. METHODS: This summary describes longitudinal studies that provided information regarding the proportions of patients discontinuing BoNT therapy, and the reasons for discontinuing therapy...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888928/an-update-on-new-and-unique-uses-of-botulinum-toxin-in-movement-disorders
#18
Joseph Jankovic
The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have established its safety in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and non-neurologic disorders. This review focuses on some novel and uncommon uses of BoNT in the treatment of movement disorders, such as oromandibular dystonia, including bruxism, anterocollis, camptocormia, tremor, tics, tardive and levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888640/a-bovine-botulism-outbreak-associated-with-a-suspected-cross-contamination-from-a-poultry-farm
#19
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884242/a-comparative-crossover-study-on-the-treatment-of-hemifacial-spasm-and-blepharospasm-preseptal-and-pretarsal-botulinum-toxin-injection-techniques
#20
Praween Lolekha, Arthita Choolam, Kongkiat Kulkantrakorn
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, patient satisfaction, and complications of low-dose BoNT-A injections between injection at the preseptal (PS) and the pretarsal (PT) portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle...
September 7, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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