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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452273/3d-bioprinted-functional-and-contractile-cardiac-tissue-constructs
#1
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451818/overexpression-of-heart-specific-small-subunit-of-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-results-in-heart-failure-and-conduction-disturbance
#2
Takuro Arimura, Antoine Muchir, Masayoshi Kuwahara, Sachio Morimoto, Taisuke Ishikawa, Cheng-Kun Du, Dong-Yun Zhan, Shu Nakao, Noboru Machida, Ryo Tanaka, Yoshihisa Yamane, Takeharu Hayashi, Akinori Kimura
Mutations in genes encoding components of sarcomere cause cardiomyopathy, which is often associated with abnormal Ca 2+ sensitivity of muscle contraction. We previously showed that a heart-specific myosin light chain phosphatase small subunit, hHS-M 21 , increases the Ca 2+ -sensitivity of muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of hHS-M 21 in vivo and the causative role of abnormal Ca 2+ sensitivity in cardiomyopathy. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of hHS-M 21 ...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439446/the-t2238c-human-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-molecular-variant-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Speranza Rubattu, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Simona Marchitti, Franca Bianchi, Maurizio Forte, Massimo Volpe
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone which plays important functions to maintain cardio-renal homeostasis. The peptide structure is highly conserved among species. However, a few gene variants are known to fall within the human ANP gene. The variant rs5065 (T2238C) exerts the most substantial effects. The T to C transition at the 2238 position of the gene (13-23% allele frequency in the general population) leads to the production of a 30-, instead of 28-, amino-acid-long α-carboxy-terminal peptide...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419405/muscle-contraction
#4
REVIEW
H Lee Sweeney, David W Hammers
SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance...
February 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404407/correction-of-diverse-muscular-dystrophy-mutations-in-human-engineered-heart-muscle-by-single-site-genome-editing
#5
Chengzu Long, Hui Li, Malte Tiburcy, Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, Huanyu Zhou, Yu Zhang, Yi-Li Min, John M Shelton, Pradeep P A Mammen, Norman Y Liaw, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Jay W Schneider, Eric N Olson
Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 is a promising new approach for correcting or mitigating disease-causing mutations. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with lethal degeneration of cardiac and skeletal muscle caused by more than 3000 different mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene ( DMD ). Most of these mutations are clustered in "hotspots." There is a fortuitous correspondence between the eukaryotic splice acceptor and splice donor sequences and the protospacer adjacent motif sequences that govern prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 target gene recognition and cleavage...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396114/cardiomyocytes-sense-matrix-rigidity-through-a-combination-of-muscle-and-non-muscle-myosin-contractions
#6
Pragati Pandey, William Hawkes, Junquiang Hu, William Valentine Megone, Julien Gautrot, Narayana Anilkumar, Min Zhang, Liisa Hirvonen, Susan Cox, Elisabeth Ehler, James Hone, Michael Sheetz, Thomas Iskratsch
Mechanical properties are cues for many biological processes in health or disease. In the heart, changes to the extracellular matrix composition and cross-linking result in stiffening of the cellular microenvironment during development. Moreover, myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathies lead to fibrosis and a stiffer environment, affecting cardiomyocyte behavior. Here, we identify that single cardiomyocyte adhesions sense simultaneous (fast oscillating) cardiac and (slow) non-muscle myosin contractions. Together, these lead to oscillating tension on the mechanosensitive adaptor protein talin on substrates with a stiffness of healthy adult heart tissue, compared with no tension on embryonic heart stiffness and continuous stretching on fibrotic stiffness...
February 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394331/vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-hypertension
#7
Rhian M Touyz, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Francisco J Rios, Livia L Camargo, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Anders Arner, Augusto C Montezano
Hypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex interacting systems such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), sympathetic nervous system, immune activation and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function...
January 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382576/toxic-activity-and-protein-identification-from-the-parotoid-gland-secretion-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#8
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
Anuran toxins released from the skin glands are involved in defence against predators and microorganisms. Secretion from parotoid macroglands of bufonid toads is a rich source of bioactive compounds with the cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and hemolytic activity. Bufadienolides are considered the most toxic components of the toad poison, whereas the protein properties are largely unknown. In the present work, we analysed the cardio-, myo-, and neurotropic activity of extract and the selected proteins from Bufo bufo parotoids in in vitro physiological bioassays carried out on two standard model organisms: beetles and frogs...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366413/myotropic-effects-of-cholinergic-muscarinic-agonists-and-antagonists-in-the-beetle-tenebrio-molitor-l
#9
Szymon Chowanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. METHODS: In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
January 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360846/the-activation-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-induces-relaxation-via-camp-as-well-as-potentiates-contraction-via-egfr-transactivation-in-porcine-coronary-arteries
#10
Xuan Yu, John N Stallone, Cristine L Heaps, Guichun Han
Estrogen exerts protective effects against cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women, but is associated with an increased risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke in older postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that activation of the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) can cause either relaxation or contraction of arteries. It is highly likely that these dual actions of GPER may contribute to the seemingly paradoxical effects of estrogen in regulating coronary artery function. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of GPER enhances agonist-stimulated porcine coronary artery contraction via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359592/performance-and-physiological-analysis-of-500-km-non-stop-cycling-a-case-study
#11
Pedro L Valenzuela, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucía, Pedro de la Villa
Ultra-endurance sports have gained popularity over the last years. In this case, a well-trained cyclist completed 503.5 km non-stop (33.3 km.h-1). Speed and power output were reduced during the trial, being the reduction of power attributable to changes in pedal velocity rather than pedal forces. Heart rate (HR) showed an initial cardiovascular drift and progressively decreased independently of power. A decreased HR variability, a marked inflammatory response, signs of muscle damage and alterations of the haematological profile were observed after the trial...
January 23, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357483/successive-contractile-periods-activate-mitochondria-at-the-onset-of-contractions-in-intact-rat-cardiac-trabeculae
#12
Rob C I Wüst, Ger J M Stienen
The rate of oxidative phosphorylation depends on the contractile activity of the heart. Cardiac mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is determined by free ADP concentration, mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, mitochondrial enzyme activities and Krebs cycle intermediates. The purpose of the present study was to examine the factors that limit oxidative phosphorylation upon rapid changes in contractile activity in cardiac muscle. We tested the hypotheses that prior contractile performance enhances the changes in NAD(P)H and FAD concentration upon an increase in contractile activity, and that this mitochondrial "priming" depends on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351473/sympathetically-mediated-cardiac-responses-to-isolated-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-following-exercise-are-modulated-by-body-position-in-humans
#13
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337194/fasudil-ameliorates-the-ischemia-reperfusion-oxidative-injury-in-rat-hearts-through-suppression-of-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-nadph-oxidase-2-pathway
#14
Yi-Shuai Zhang, Li-Jing Tang, Hua Tu, Shi-Jing Wang, Bin Liu, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Nian-Sheng Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Jun Peng
Fasudil is a potent Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and can relax smooth muscle or cardiac muscle contraction through decreasing the phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (p-MLC20 or p-MLC2v), while p-MLC2v can function as a transcription factor to promote the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression in rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). This study aims to explore whether fasudil can protect the rat hearts against I/R oxidative injury through suppressing NOX2 expression via reduction of p-MLC2v level...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318456/voltage-dependence-of-the-ca2-transient-in-endocardial-and-epicardial-myocytes-from-the-left-ventricle-of-goto-kakizaki-type-2-diabetic-rats
#15
Lina Al Kury, Vadym Sydorenko, Manal M A Smail, Muhammad Anwar Qureshi, Anatoliy Shmygol, Murat Oz, Jaipaul Singh, Frank Christopher Howarth
Diabetes mellitus is a major global health disorder and, currently, over 450 million people have diabetes with 90% suffering from type 2 diabetes. Left untreated, diabetes may lead to cardiovascular diseases which are a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Calcium is the trigger and regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and derangement in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, which can result in heart failure and sudden cardiac death. It is of paramount importance to investigate the regional involvement of Ca2+ in diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289723/diaphragm-muscle-dysfunction-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#16
Mari Miyagi, Yoshiharu Kinugasa, Takeshi Sota, Kensaku Yamada, Takuya Ishisugi, Masayuki Hirai, Kiyotaka Yanagihara, Nobuhiko Haruki, Koichi Matsubara, Masahiko Kato, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory muscle weakness is associated with the development of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure (HF). Ultrasound assessment of the diaphragm is used to evaluate respiratory muscle function, but its application in patients with HF remains undefined. We examined the relationship of diaphragm function as assessed by ultrasonography with inspiratory muscle strength and exercise tolerance in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients hospitalized with HF were enrolled...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288804/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-functional-hyperemia-exercise-training-and-moderate-compensated-heart-failure
#17
Daniel M Hirai, Steven W Copp, Scott K Ferguson, Clark T Holdsworth, K Sue Hageman, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Nitric oxide (NO) modulates oxygen delivery-utilization matching in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Recent reports indicate that neuronal NO synthase (nNOS)-mediated vasoregulation during contractions is enhanced with exercise training and impaired with chronic heart failure (HF). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that selective nNOS inhibition (S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline; SMTC, 2.1 μmol/kg) would produce attenuated reductions in muscle blood flow during moderate/heavy submaximal exercise in sedentary HF rats compared to their healthy counterparts...
December 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282212/musclemotion-a-versatile-open-software-tool-to-quantify-cardiomyocyte-and-cardiac-muscle-contraction-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Luca Sala, Berend J van Meer, Leon T Tertoolen, Jeroen Bakkers, Milena Bellin, Richard P Davis, Chris N Denning, Michel A Dieben, Thomas Eschenhagen, Elisa Giacomelli, Catarina Grandela, Arne Hansen, Eduard Holman, Monique R Jongbloed, Sarah M Kamel, Charlotte D Koopman, Quentin Lachaud, Ingra Mannhardt, Mervyn P Mol, Diogo Mosqueira, Valeria V Orlova, Robert Passier, Marcelo C Ribeiro, Umber Saleem, Godfrey Smith, Francis L L Burton, Christine L Mummery
Rationale: There are several methods to measure cardiomyocyte (CM) and muscle contraction but these require customized hardware, expensive apparatus and advanced informatics or can only be used in single experimental models. Consequently, data and techniques have been difficult to reproduce across models and laboratories, analysis is time consuming and only specialist researchers can quantify data. Objective: Here we describe and validate an automated, open source software tool (MUSCLEMOTION) adaptable for use with standard laboratory- and clinical imaging equipment that enables quantitative analysis of normal cardiac contraction, disease phenotypes and pharmacological responses...
December 27, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247531/effects-of-acute-phase-intensive-electrical-muscle-stimulation-in-frail-elderly-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-active-ems-rationale-and-protocol-for-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Shinya Tanaka, Kentaro Kamiya, Yuya Matsue, Ryusuke Yonezawa, Hiroshi Saito, Nobuaki Hamazaki, Ryota Matsuzawa, Kohei Nozaki, Kazuki Wakaume, Yoshiko Endo, Emi Maekawa, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Takaaki Shiono, Takayuki Inomata, Takashi Masuda, Junya Ako
In elderly patients with acute heart failure (AHF), clinical outcome is adversely affected by frailty. Although a number of potentially effective interventions for frailty have been reported, little is known about the effects of rehabilitation programs in frail elderly AHF patients. We postulated that addition of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), which induces muscle contraction without requiring patient volition, to early rehabilitation would be efficacious in frail elderly AHF patients. The ACTIVE-EMS (Effects of Acute Phase Intensive Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Frail Elderly Patients With AHF; UMIN000019551) trial is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that will enroll 80 patients from 3 hospitals in Japan...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235526/plasma-acylcarnitine-concentrations-reflect-the-acylcarnitine-profile-in-cardiac-tissues
#20
Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Karlis Vilks, Kristine Volska, Unigunde Antone, Janis Kuka, Elina Makarova, Osvalds Pugovics, Maija Dambrova, Edgars Liepinsh
Increased plasma concentrations of acylcarnitines (ACs) are suggested as a marker of metabolism disorders. The aim of the present study was to clarify which tissues are responsible for changes in the AC pool in plasma. The concentrations of medium- and long-chain ACs were changing during the fed-fast cycle in rat heart, muscles and liver. After 60 min running exercise, AC content was increased in fasted mice muscles, but not in plasma or heart. After glucose bolus administration in fasted rats, the AC concentrations in plasma decreased after 30 min but then began to increase, while in the muscles and liver, the contents of medium- and long-chain ACs were unchanged or even increased...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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