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J Millán, A Cevidanes, A D Chirife, M G Candela, L León-Vizcaíno
Urbanization of natural areas can change abiotic factors, providing artificial sources of humidity in summer and decreasing variation of temperatures in winter. Our study aimed at document risk factors of infection in mammal reservoirs of pathogenic Leptospira in the human/wildlife interface of a large metropolitan area. We hypothesize that survival of Leptospira and thus their prevalence in animal reservoirs should be higher in residential areas than in natural habitats, especially after the hot, dry Mediterranean summers...
October 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Our final sample consisted of 20 328 research participants of European ancestry (55.3% females; mean age = 53.8, SD = 16.1) who reported ever using alcohol. Our results showed that the 'chip-heritability' of AUDIT score, when treated as a continuous phenotype, was 12%...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
J J Bosboom, R B Klanderman, A L Peters, E K van de Weerdt, E J Goudswaard, J M Binnekade, J J Zwaginga, E A M Beckers, B F Geerts, M W Hollmann, S S Zeerleder, M van Kraaij, A P Vlaar
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at identifying factors that disciplines consider when diagnosing and reporting transfusion-associated circulatory overload ('TACO'). BACKGROUND: TACO is a clinical diagnosis based mainly on subjective factors. Therefore, TACO could be an underreported complication of blood transfusion. METHODS: A survey was conducted among critical care physicians, anaesthesiologists, haematologists, transfusion medicine physicians and haemovigilance officers using case vignettes and a questionnaire...
October 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
Sai-Jiao Li, Dan-Ni Zhou, Wei Li, Jing Yang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major endocrine disorder afflicting women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS are more likely to suffer from mental health disturbances than healthy women. The "infertility" suffered by PCOS patients would also lead to mental health disturbances. Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and questionnaire which includes patients' socio-economic and demographic data were used to assess the mental health status of PCOS (n=103) and non-PCOS (n=110) infertile patients. Logistic regression analysis and t-tests were used for comparative analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Xiao-Qing Huang, Wen-Shan He, Hui-Qiong Zhang, Rui Yang, Tao Huang
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). VEGF-related articles that had been published until August 2016 were searched from the PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE to identify the risk factors of LNM in PTC. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. Finally, 9 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in our meta-analysis. LNM was found to be present in 176 of 318 patients (57...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Niralee Babooa, Wen-Jing Shi, Chao Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have clearly demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in neonates delivered by caesarean section (CS) compared to those delivered vaginally. The pathophysiological factors underlying the link between CS and PPHN are still poorly understood. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that could explain the association between CS delivery and subsequent PPHN, as well as potential preventive measures...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Roberto de Cleva, Victor Arrais Araujo, Carla Cristina Ornelas Buchalla, Fabio de Oliveira Costa, Acácio Fernandes Cardoso, Denis Pajecki, Marco Aurelio Santo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to correlate the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) patterns according to severe obesity and arterial hypertension (AHT) grades. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in 379 patients with severe obesity. Obesity was classified according to the BMI in the following: morbidly obese (MO; 40 < BMI < 50 kg/m(2)) and super obese (SO; BMI > 50 kg/m(2)). The AHT was classified into classes 1 and 2 according to American Heart Association...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Piotr Major, Tomasz Stefura, Piotr Małczak, Michał Wysocki, Jan Witowski, Jan Kulawik, Mateusz Wierdak, Magdalena Pisarska, Michał Pędziwiatr, Andrzej Budzyński
BACKGROUND: The most commonly performed bariatric procedures are laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). There are major differences between LSG and LRYGB during postoperative period. Optimization of the postoperative care may be achieved by using enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, which allows earlier functional recovery. PURPOSE: The aim was to assess differences in the course of postoperative care conducted in accordance with ERAS protocol among patients after LSG and LRYGB...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Ning An, Liuqi Jin, Jiaoyun Yang, Yue Yin, Siyuan Jiang, Bo Jing, Rhoda Au
With the rapid increase in global aging, Alzheimer's disease has become a major burden in both social and economic costs. Substantial resources have been devoted to researching this disease, and rich multimodal data resources have been generated. In this chapter, we discuss an ongoing effort to build a data platform to harness these data to help research and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. We will detail this data platform in terms of its architecture, its data integration strategy, and its data services...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gil Aizik, Etty Grad, Gershon Golomb
Major advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms and risk factors leading to cardiovascular disorders and consequently developing new therapies. A strong inflammatory response occurs with a substantial recruitment of innate immunity cells in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and restenosis. Monocytes and macrophages are key players in the healing process that ensues following injury. In the inflamed arterial wall, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages have specific functions in the initiation and resolution of inflammation, principally through phagocytosis, and the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species...
October 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Andrea Camargo Casquero, Jairo Augusto Berti, Laura Lauand Sampaio Teixeira, Helena Coutinho Franco de Oliveira
Regular exercise and anabolic androgenic steroids have opposing effects on the plasma lipoprotein profile and risk of cardio-metabolic diseases in humans. Studies in humans and animal models show conflicting results. Here, we used a mice model genetically modified to mimic human lipoprotein profile and metabolism. They under-express the endogenous LDL receptor gene (R1) and express a human transgene encoding the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), normally absent in mice. The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of testosterone supplementation, exercise training and CETP expression on the plasma lipoprotein profile and CETP activity...
October 20, 2017: Lipids
Tomasz W Kaminski, Krystyna Pawlak, Malgorzata Karbowska, Michal Mysliwiec, Waldemar Grzegorzewski, Jakub Kuna, Dariusz Pawlak
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an estimated risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity due to fibrinolytic system disturbances. Progressive loss of renal function leads to retention of uremic toxins. Anthranilic acid (AA) is a tryptophan-derived uremic toxin with multidirectional properties that can affect the hemostatic system. The goal of this study was to examine the association between AA and the parameters of fibrinolysis at different stages of CKD. METHODS: Patients with CKD were divided into two groups: mild-to-moderate (n = 20) and severe-to-end-stage CKD (n = 28)...
October 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
Peter W Santos, Jianghua He, Ahmad Tuffaha, James B Wetmore
BACKGROUND: Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is an often-fatal condition in dialysis patients. The clinical descriptions and treatments of CUA patients have been confined mostly to case reports. We report a comprehensive characterization of CUA and its associated diagnosis, treatment patterns, and outcome. METHODS: An internet-based registry collected information about CUA in dialysis patients. Univariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios of the association between clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and treatments with all-cause mortality...
October 20, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
Sahana Pai Dongerkery, Pamela R Schroeder, Mansur E Shomali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we examine the nature of the complex relationship between insulin and cardiovascular disease. With metabolic abnormalities comes increased risk for cardiovascular complications. We discuss the key factors implicated in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, its relationship to insulin therapy, and what can be learned from large, recent cardiovascular outcome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies suggest that insulin has positive effects of facilitating glucose entry into cells and maintaining euglycemia and negative effects of favoring obesity and atherogenesis under certain conditions...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
Duygu Gündüz, Anita Lesjak, Angela Wiedemann, Marion Avanzini, Walther-Benedikt Winkler, Hadice Ucar-Altenberger, Claudia Stöllberger, Franz Weidinger
BACKGROUND: There are indications that immigrant patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) differ in demographic characteristics and clinical presentation from non-immigrant patients. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to gather clinical and sociodemographic data from patients with ACS and to compare immigrants with non-immigrants. METHODS: Included were consecutive patients who underwent acute coronary angiography in one cardiological department for ACS from September 2011 to September 2013...
October 20, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Peng Gao, Qiwei Zhu, Suyan Bian, Hongwei Liu, Hongping Xie
BACKGROUND: The N‑terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has an important prognostic value in chronic renal insufficiency; however, most studies have been conducted in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this study we evaluated the prognostic significance of NT-proBNP in very old patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) and compared its prognostic value in CKD3a versus CKD3b patients. METHODS: Patients (age ≥80 years old) hospitalized with stage 3 CKD from 2007 to 2010 who were eligible for this prospective study underwent follow-up examinations in 2015...
October 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Ming-Jing He, Ting Yang, Zhi-Hao Yang, Hong Zhou, Shi-Qiang Wei
Phthalate esters (PAEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils from farmland and riparian areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), western China. Generally, the mean values of PAEs and OPEs were 618 and 266 ng/g dry weight (dw) in farmland soil and 560 and 499 ng/g dw in riparian soil, respectively. The occurrence of OPEs should be regarded as a risk factor in the TGR region. Analogous spatial distribution patterns for PAEs were observed with higher concentrations observed at site WZ in both types of soil, which might relate to the anthropogenic activities...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
H E Syddall, L D Westbury, S C Shaw, E M Dennison, C Cooper, C R Gale
Characterisation of grip strength (GS) using isometric dynamometry is central to the definition of sarcopenia. Determinants of low GS include: older age, shorter stature, low physical activity, poor nutrition, socioeconomic disadvantage and multimorbidity. Less is known about risk factors for accelerated loss of GS. We investigated determinants of level and 8-year loss of GS in 3703 men and women (aged 52-82 years) in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Four hundred and forty-one men and women (aged 59-71 years) who participated in a 10-year follow-up of the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS) were used for replication...
October 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
A B Versluys, H B Grotenhuis, M J J Boelens, A M C Mavinkurve-Groothuis, J M P J Breur
Pericardial Effusion (PE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT). Our study aim was to identify incidence, risk factors, response to treatment, and outcome of PE after pediatric HCT. All patients after HCT at our tertiary center between 2005 and 2010 were included. Endpoints were PE development and overall survival. We analyzed patient factors, HCT details, and complications and used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to identify predictors for PE...
October 23, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
Adam L Ware, Paul C Young, Cindy Weng, Angela P Presson, L LuAnn Minich, Shaji C Menon
Children with acquired and congenital heart disease (CHD) are increasingly surviving to adulthood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in children at known risk for early CAD or with severe CHD. We recruited children (8-19 years) at risk for early CAD-Kawasaki disease (KD, N = 36) and coarctation (69) or severe CHD: > 1 cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (60), single ventricle (15), prosthetic valves (13). Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting lipid data were compared with summaries from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publications (1999-2012)...
October 23, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
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