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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684893/comparison-of-the-moca-and-bearni-tests-for-detection-of-cognitive-impairment-in-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#1
Stéphanie Pelletier, Régis Alarcon, Valérie Ewert, Margot Forest, Bertrand Nalpas, Pascal Perney
INTRODUCTION: Screening of cognitive impairment is a major challenge in alcoholics seeking treatment, since cognitive dysfunction may impair the overall efficacy of rehabilitation programs and consequently increase relapse rate. We compared the performance of two screening tools: the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), which is widely used in patients with neurological diseases and already used in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and the BEARNI (Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments), a recent test specifically developed for the alcoholic population...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684892/effects-of-anxiety-and-mood-disorders-on-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#2
Melina Fatseas, Fuschia Serre, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidity on addictive disorders, the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The present investigation applied mobile technologies to examine the effect of comorbid mood or anxiety disorders on craving intensity and substance use within the natural conditions of daily life. METHODS: A total of 159 participants were recruited from a French outpatient addiction clinic and completed two weeks of computerized ambulatory monitoring of daily life experiences using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)...
April 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684891/considering-high-alcohol-and-violence-neighborhood-context-using-daily-diaries-and-gps-a-pilot-study-among-people-living-with-hiv
#3
Katherine P Theall, Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Xiao Zhang, Christopher N Morrison, Douglas J Wiebe
Our understanding of how community-level context impacts care of persons living with HIV (PLWH), including antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the activity spaces of PLWH from an urban area in Southeastern U.S., where the epidemic is among the nation's highest, and to examine how such activity spaces are associated with daily mood and health behaviors. In this small, pilot study, 11 participants were tracked with a global positioning system (GPS)-enabled application on their smartphones for 2 weeks...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684863/psychological-and-genetic-risk-factors-associated-with-suicidal-behavior-in-korean-patients-with-mood-disorders
#4
Hee-Yeon Choi, Ga Eun Kim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Yu Jin Lee, Weon-Jeong Lim, So-Hyun Park, Su Hee Ha, Soo In Kim
INTRODUCTION: To prevent suicide, a nationwide important issue in Korea, understanding its etiology is essential. This study aimed to delineate the risk factors for suicidal behavior in mood disorder patients in Korea. METHODS: 216 patients with mood disorders were recruited. We measured suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history and the association of six gene polymorphisms with SB: COMT (rs4680), HTR1A (rs6295), TPH1 (rs1800532), BDNF (rs6265), SLC1A3 (rs2269272), and SLC1A2 (rs4755404)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684764/poor-mental-health-peer-drinking-norms-and-alcohol-risk-in-a-social-network-of-first-year-college-students
#5
Shannon R Kenney, Graham T DiGuiseppi, Matthew K Meisel, Sara G Balestrieri, Nancy P Barnett
OBJECTIVE: College students with anxiety and depressive symptomatology face escalated risk for alcohol-related negative consequences. While it is well-established that normative perceptions of proximal peers' drinking behaviors influence students' own drinking behaviors, it is not clear how mental health status impacts this association. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional relationships between anxiety and depressed mood, perceived drinking behaviors and attitudes of important peers, and past month alcohol consumption and related problems in a first-semester college student social network...
April 16, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684763/regular-past-year-cannabis-use-in-women-veterans-and-associations-with-sexual-trauma
#6
Kendall C Browne, Marketa Dolan, Tracy L Simpson, John C Fortney, Keren Lehavot
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to describe the prevalence of regular past year cannabis use (i.e., at least monthly use) in women veterans, to characterize women veterans reporting this level of use, and to examine the independent contributions of sexual trauma across the lifespan on regular past year cannabis use. METHODS: A national online survey on women veterans' health, with targeted oversampling of lesbian and bisexual women, collected data from US armed forces women veterans, 18 or older, living in the US (N = 636)...
April 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684695/effective-seeding-strategy-using-flat-type-poly-vinyl-alcohol-cryogel-for-anammox-enrichment
#7
Minkyu Choi, Kyungjin Cho, Seockheon Lee, Yun-Chul Chung, Joonhong Park, Hyokwan Bae
In this study, anammox enrichment reactors were operated using flat type poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (cryoPVAG) with precultured anammox bacteria (PAB) and activated sludge (AS) from an anoxic tack of the A2O process to evaluate the effect of different seeding sources on anammox enrichment. In addition, cryoPVAGs with different thicknesses (1, 2, and 3 mm) were used to investigate the effects of the thickness on anammox enrichment. The regression analysis with a modified Gompertz model showed that the start-up period of the anammox enrichment using PAB inoculum was approximately 14 days earlier than that of AS inoculum at a nitrogen loading rate of approximately 1 kg-N m-3 day-1 ...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684560/formulation-characteristics-and-in-vitro-release-testing-of-cyclosporine-ophthalmic-ointments
#8
Yixuan Dong, Haiou Qu, Naresh Pavurala, Jiang Wang, Vasanthakumar Sekar, Marilyn Martinez, Raafat Fahmy, Muhammad Ashraf, Celia N Cruz, Xiaoming Xu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between formulation/process variables versus the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of cyclosporine ophthalmic ointments and to explore the feasibility of using an in vitro approach to assess product sameness. A definitive screening design (DSD) was used to evaluate the impact of formulation and process variables. The formulation variables included drug percentage, percentage of corn oil and lanolin alcohol. The process variables studied were mixing temperature, mixing time and the method of mixing...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684534/towards-a-maraviroc-long-acting-injectable-nanoformulation
#9
Lee M Tatham, Alison C Savage, Andrew Dwyer, Marco Siccardi, Trevor Scott, Manoli Vourvahis, Andrew Clark, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy can lead to insufficient drug exposure leading to viral rebound and increased likelihood of resistance. This has driven the development of long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations which may mitigate some of these problems. Maraviroc (MVC) is an orally dosed CCR5 antagonist approved for use in patients infected with CCR5-trophic HIV-1. MVC prevents viral entry into host cells, is readily distributed to biologically relevant tissues and has an alternative resistance profile compared to more commonly used therapies...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684472/reserpine-induced-depression-is-associated-in-female-but-not-in-male-adolescent-rats-with-heightened-fluoxetine-sensitive-ethanol-consumption
#10
Paul Ruiz, Aldo Calliari, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Depression usually emerges during adolescence, is significantly more frequent in women, and exhibits comorbidity with alcohol (ethanol) use disorders. Most of the pre-clinical studies assessing the link between depression and ethanol intake, however, have employed only males or relied on stress-induced depression, or induced the experimentally-induced, depressive-like phenotype, during adolescence yet measured ethanol intake at adulthood. This study assessed, in Wistar male and female adolescent rats, the effects of inducing experimental depression (via administration of 1...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684468/bile-acid-regulation-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Qinwei Yu, Zhenzhou Jiang, Luyong Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive fat deposition in the liver in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. Dysregulated bile acid (BA) metabolism is an important indicator in the pathology of NAFLD, which could progress into more severe forms of liver injury. Lipid metabolism, immune environment and intestinal bacteria are all affected by dysregulated BA metabolism directly, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Several drug candidates that target BA metabolism, either used alone or in combination with other agents, are currently under development for treatment of NAFLD...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684388/sorbitol-production-and-optimization-of-photosynthetic-supply-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#12
Taejun Chin, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Biochemicals production is a major theme in the application of photosynthesis to address global warming and organic-resource problems. Among biochemicals, sugar alcohols have attracted research attention because they are directly derived from two photosynthetic products, sugars and reductants. Here, we produced sorbitol photosynthetically by using cyanobacteria and modified the supply of its substrates through genetic engineering. Expression of an NADPH-dependent enzyme that generates sorbitol-6-phosphate, S6PDH, was highly toxic to cyanobacteria likely due to the sorbitol production, whereas expression of an NADH-dependent enzyme, SrlD2, yielded no sorbitol...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684315/sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Ali A El-Solh, Usman Riaz, Jasmine Roberts
A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684296/alcohol-and-drug-intoxications-in-adolescents-admitted-to-paediatric-wards-in-the-czech-republic-5-year-retrospective-study-2006-2010
#14
Pavel Kabíček, Jiří Kobr, Lumír Šašek, Zita Obdržálková, Ludmila Svitálková, Věra Hůrková, Jiří Zeman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish frequency, severity and circumstances of alcohol and drug intoxications in adolescents admitted to inpatient wards in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Chief physician of each participating ward (or their designated deputy) searched the patient records for required information. The data was then statistically processed. RESULTS: Thirty inpatient paediatric wards participated in the study (27 district wards and 3 university hospital wards), amounting to more than a third of all paediatric wards in the country...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684290/determinants-of-healthy-ageing-and-its-relation-to-10-year-cardiovascular-disease-incidence-the-attica-study
#15
Natasa Kollia, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Christina Chrysohoou, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Charalabos Papageorgiou, Christos Pitsavos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand determinants of ageing in relation to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events at population level, and to explore determinants of healthy ageing and its relation to 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: In the context of the ATTICA study 453 apparently healthy men (45±13 years) and 400 women (44±18 years) with complete psychological evaluation were studied and followed during 2002-2012...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684245/commentary-on-intestinal-fungi-contribute-to-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-yang-et-al-j-clin-invest-127-2829-2841-2017
#16
Gyongyi Szabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683847/psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-tobacco-consumption-in-hiv-infected-outpatients
#17
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683791/is-clinical-assessment-of-addiction-severity-of-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder-using-the-addiction-severity-index-a-predictor-of-future-inpatient-mental-health-hospitalization-a-nine-year-registry-study
#18
Mojgan Padyab, Bengt-Åke Armelius, Kerstin Armelius, Siv Nyström, Björn Blom, Ann-Sofie Grönlund, Lena Lundgren
OBJECTIVE: In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder (SUD) assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for SUD with the ASI, used nine years of the National Patient Register, and examined if clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). METHODS: ASI Composite Scores (CS) and Interviewer severity rating were used to measure client's problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, alcohol, drug use, health and legal) at baseline...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683734/six-year-review-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-regional-trauma-unit-demographics-contributing-factors-and-service-provision-in-ireland
#19
Patrick W Owens, Noel P Lynch, Donal P O'Leary, Aoife J Lowery, Michael J Kerin
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant burden of care for acute surgical services, particularly in the absence of on-site neurosurgical cover or sufficient post-acute rehabilitation facilities. We examine factors contributing to TBI, prolonged lengths of stay (LoS) and implications for hospital resources. Long-term outcomes are assessed. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a regional trauma unit with TBI from 2008 to 2013...
April 23, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683702/changes-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-depressive-symptoms-over-the-course-of-prolonged-exposure
#20
Lily A Brown, Alissa Jerud, Anu Asnaani, Julie Petersen, Yinyin Zang, Edna B Foa
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) suggested that reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) precedes reduction in depression, yet no research has collapsed data across multiple studies to examine whether the directionality of reduction remains consistent in larger and diagnostically diverse samples. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct an evaluation of bidirectional associations between PTSD and depression in PE. METHOD: Participants (n = 216) from three randomized controlled trials of PE alone, PE + alcohol use disorder treatment, and PE + nicotine use disorder treatment completed weekly PTSD and depression severity measures...
May 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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