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I Barchetta, F A Cimini, R De Gioannis, G Ciccarelli, L Bertoccini, A Lenzi, M G Baroni, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Procollagen-III peptide (PIIINP) is a marker of fibrosis associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk and progression of chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH); its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been elucidated yet. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating PIIINP levels, metabolic traits and body fat distribution in subjects with T2DM with or without NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from sixty-two T2DM subjects recruited in our Diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, were analysed...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Catherine C Lerro, Gabriella Andreotti, Stella Koutros, Won Jin Lee, Jonathan N Hofmann, Dale P Sandler, Christine G Parks, Aaron Blair, Jay H Lubin, Laura E Beane Freeman
Background: The herbicide alachlor has been widely used in US agriculture since its introduction in 1969. Experimental animal studies show that alachlor causes tumors in vivo; however, few epidemiologic studies have examined associations with human cancer risk. We evaluated alachlor use and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, updating an earlier analysis that suggested associations with lymphohematopoietic cancers with an additional 540 142 person-years of follow-up and 5113 cancer cases...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Gillian L Schauer, Erica N Peters
BACKGROUND: Past-month marijuana and tobacco use (co-use) are increasing among U.S. adults, but little is known about the prevalence of co-use among U.S. youth. This study uses nationally representative data to assess the prevalence, correlates, and trends in co-use of marijuana and tobacco, tobacco-only use, and marijuana-only use among U.S. youth. METHODS: Data came from 176,245 youth ages 12-17 who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health - a nationally representative, household interview survey - between 2005 and 2014...
February 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Loni Philip Tabb, Christina Fillmore, Steven Melly
BACKGROUND: The availability of marijuana products is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States (US), many states are allowing for the production, processing, and retailing of these products for medical and/or recreational use. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the spatial patterning of marijuana licenses, and (2) examine the impact of alcohol outlets in addition to other neighborhood characteristics on marijuana licenses within the state of Washington. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study examined 1458 census tracts in Washington state from 2017, using marijuana and alcohol data from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board as well as neighborhood characteristics data from the American Community Survey 2011-2015 5-year estimates...
February 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Meili Song, Houyong Yu, Jiping Gu, Shounuan Ye, Yuwei Zhou
Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jorge L Alvarado-Socarras, Álvaro J Idrovo, Gustavo A Contreras-García, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Tobey A Audcent, Adriana C Mogollon-Mendoza, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi
The multiple, wide and diverse etiologies of congenital microcephaly are complex and multifactorial. Recent advances in genetic testing have improved understanding, of novel genetic causes of congenital microcephaly. The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics in Latin America has highlighted the need for a better understanding on the underlying pathological mechanisms of microcephaly including both infectious and non-infectious causes. The diagnostic approach to microcephaly needs to include potential infectious and genetic etiologies, as well as environmental in-utero exposures such as alcohol, toxins, and medications...
February 19, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in pediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Emma K Eriksson, Víctor Agmo Hernández, Katarina Edwards
Ubiquinone-10 (Q10) plays a pivotal role as electron-carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and is also well known for its powerful antioxidant properties. Recent findings suggest moreover that Q10 could have an important membrane stabilizing function. In line with this, we showed in a previous study that Q10 decreases the permeability to carboxyfluorescein (CF) and increases the mechanical strength of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) membranes. In the current study we report on the effects exerted by Q10 in membranes having a more complex lipid composition designed to mimic that of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM)...
February 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Harriet de Wit, Michael Sayette
BACKGROUND: Drugs are typically used in social settings. Here, we consider two factors that may contribute to this observation: (i) the presence of other people may enhance the positive mood effects of a drug, and conversely, (ii) drugs may enhance the value of social stimuli. METHODS: We review evidence from controlled laboratory studies with human volunteers, which investigated either of these interactions between social factors and responses to drugs. We examine the bidirectional effects of social stimuli and single doses of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and cannabis...
February 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Julia Waldhauer, Benjamin Kuntz, Thomas Lampert
BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012)...
February 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Ji Hee Yu, Kyungdo Han, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim
Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h...
2018: PloS One
Penelope Truman, Moira Gilmour, Geoffrey Robinson
AIM: A feasibility/acceptability trial was undertaken at Ward 5, Kenepuru Hospital, Porirua, to ascertain whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were a useful option to replace or reduce smoking in the detoxification ward. METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. Tobacco use and dependency data were collected for each. The first group was surveyed on the usefulness of standard nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The second group were offered e-cigarettes with the option of standard NRT as well...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Avesh J Thuluvath, Po-Hung Chen, Paul J Thuluvath, Sergey Kantsevoy, Yulia Savva
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the U.S. There is a paucity of data on retransplantation (re-LT) in those who were initially transplanted for NASH. METHODS: We queried the UNOS data sets from 2002-2016 to analyze the outcomes of adults with NASH (n=128) and compared them to groups that received re-LT for cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC, n=189), alcoholic cirrhosis (AC, n=300) or autoimmune hepatitis cirrhosis (AIH-C, n=118) after excluding multiple-organ re-LT and individuals with HCC...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
Han Shen, Yongjun Li, Zhiqiang Shi
The platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) hybrided with nanostructured carbon materials with high stability are important for catalyzing hydrogenation reaction. Here we reported the fabrication of ultrastable Pt NPs anchored on graphdiyne, in which the strong interactions induced by the porous graphdiyne can prevent the thermal migration of Pt nanoparticles on the graphdiyne surface, exploiting the strong charge transfer interactions from Pt NPs to GDY substrate to tune the electron density of Pt NPs. Pt NPs catalyst with size of 2-3 nm showed high performance on hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding alcohols compared with commercial Pt-C...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuri A Blednov, Adriana J Da Costa, Tamara Tarbox, Olga Ponomareva, Robert O Messing, R Adron Harris
BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors produce widespread anti-inflammatory effects and reduce ethanol consumption in several rodent models. These drugs are potential treatments for several diseases, including central nervous system disorders, but clinical use is limited by their emetic activity. Apremilast is a selective PDE4 inhibitor with fewer gastrointestinal side effects that is FDA approved for the treatment of psoriasis. METHODS: We measured the acute and chronic effects of apremilast on ethanol consumption in male and female C57BL/6J mice using the continuous and intermittent 24-h two-bottle choice drinking models...
February 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Carla Sappino, Alessandra Mari, Agnese Mantineo, Mauro Moliterno, Matteo Palagri, Chiara Tatangelo, Lorenza Suber, Paolo Bovicelli, Alessandra Ricelli, Giuliana Righi
A study aimed at the synthesis and structure optimization of new, efficient, optically active β-amino alcohol ligands with a structure suitable for immobilization on magnetite nanoparticles has been carried out. The optimized homogeneous amino alcohol catalysts 13a and 13b, the chirality of which arises from the Sharpless epoxidation of suitable allyl alcohols, were tested by employing the well-established enantioselective amino alcohol-promoted addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde, giving the corresponding benzyl alcohol with nearly quantitative yield and ee = 95%...
February 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jakub Grabowski, Jarosław M Granda, Janusz Jurczak
A new, simple protocol for the synthesis of acetals under basic conditions from non-enolizable aldehydes and alcohols has been reported. Such reactivity is facilitated by a sodium alkoxide along with a corresponding trifluoroacetate ester, utilizing formation of sodium trifluoroacetate as a driving force for acetal formation. The usefulness of this protocol is demonstrated by its orthogonality with various acid-sensitive protecting groups and by good compatibility with functional groups, delivering synthetically useful acetals complementarily to the synthesis under acidic conditions from aldehydes and alcohols...
February 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Stephanie Chapman, Kurt Ashack, Eric Bell, Myra Ann Sendelweck, Robert Dellavalle
BACKGROUND: Understanding of associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among high school students across the United States is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning and analyze differences between state specific data. METHODS: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013 in 14 different states were analyzed...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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