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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223026/mandatory-helmet-legislation-as-a-policy-tool-for-reducing-motorcycle-fatalities-pinpointing-the-efficacy-of-universal-helmet-laws
#1
Jonathan M Lee
This study uses repeated cross-sections of individual level crash data to study the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet legislation. Results suggest that motorcycle helmet laws reduce average individual fatality risks by 20.5%. From a policy standpoint, large states such as Florida and Texas can reduce annual motorcycle fatalities by an average 100 deaths through reinstating universal helmet laws. Valuing these fatality reductions at the U.S. DOT suggested $9.4 million value of a statistical life yields aggregate annual state benefits of approximately $940 million...
December 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223014/differentiation-of-dry-cured-hams-from-different-processing-methods-by-means-of-volatile-compounds-physico-chemical-and-sensory-analysis
#2
Sandra Petričević, Nives Marušić Radovčić, Katarina Lukić, Eddy Listeš, Helga Medić
The aim of this study was to characterize dry-cured hams from four different processing methods (differences in primary leg treatment, salting and smoking phase). Volatile compounds were isolated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Samples were also evaluated by sensory and physico-chemical characteristics (moisture, protein, fat and NaCl content, aw, colour). 149 volatile compounds of dry-cured hams were identified and 15 of them were quantified...
December 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222991/salivary-immune-proteins-monitoring-can-help-detection-of-binge-and-chronic-alcohol-drinkers-preliminary-findings
#3
Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Beata Galińska-Skok, Anna Zalewska, Sławomir Dariusz Szajda, Krzysztof Zwierz, Magdalena Więdłocha, Agata Szulc
BACKGROUND: We compared effects of binge and chronic alcohol drinking on oral health and salivary immunity proteins. METHODS: The study involved males: 13 healthy social-drinking (C), 10 alcohol-dependent after chronic alcohol-intoxication (A), and 8 binge-drinkers after a single binge-drinking session (B). We compared periodontal/dental state and salivary immune proteins (lactoferrin -Lf, lysozyme -Lz, oral peroxidase -OPO, immunoglobulin A -IgA) in all groups...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222923/co-administration-of-low-dose-naltrexone-and-bupropion-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats
#4
Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Janice C Froehlich
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether combining naltrexone (NTX) with bupropion (BUP) is more effective in reducing alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a genetic predisposition toward high voluntary alcohol intake than is either drug alone. METHODS: Alcohol-experienced, adult, male, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were fed NTX alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 20.0 mg/kg BW, NTX (10.0 mg/kg BW) + BUP (10...
December 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222919/pyroptosis-a-novel-player-for-alcoholic-hepatitis
#5
EDITORIAL
Shaogui Wang, Hua Wang, Wen-Xing Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222917/diagnostic-modalities-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-associated-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Quentin M Anstee, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Zachary D Goodman, Naga P Chalasani, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Keith Lindor
NAFLD is a spectrum comprised of isolated steatosis, NASH, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of NAFLD subjects do not have NASH and don't carry a significant risk for adverse outcomes (cirrhosis and mortality). Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD is approximately 25%. In Asia, a gradient of high prevalence rates to low rates are noted from urban to rural areas. Given the prevalence of NAFLD, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD and NASH can be substantial. With increasing recognition as an important liver disease, the diagnosis of NASH still requires a liver biopsy which is suboptimal...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222911/current-and-future-therapeutic-regimens-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#7
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
NASH/NAFLD is rapidly becoming one of top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and indication for liver transplantation. Except for life style modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is hard to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD and has been shown to improve liver histology. In order to have approved regimens for treatment of NASH/NAFLD, a number of issues that must be addressed...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222910/associations-between-maoa-uvntr-genotype-maltreatment-maoa-methylation-and-alcohol-consumption-in-young-adult-males
#8
Megha Bendre, Erika Comasco, Dave Checknita, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins, Kent W Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms are candidate moderators of the effect of maltreatment on brain and behavior. Interactions between maltreatment and the Monoamine Oxidase A upstream variable number tandem repeat genotype (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with alcohol-related problems. However, presently it is not known whether DNA methylation moderates this association. The study focused on fifty-three young adult males and aimed to determine: whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment; and whether alcohol consumption moderated the association of MAOA methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment...
December 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222878/non-communicable-diseases-food-and-nutrition-in-vietnam-from-1975-to-2015-the-burden-and-national-response
#9
Tuan T Nguyen, Minh V Hoang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam. RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222874/a-homochiral-porous-organic-cage-with-large-cavity-and-pore-windows-for-the-efficient-gc-separation-of-enantiomers-and-positional-isomers
#10
Jun-Hui Zhang, Sheng-Ming Xie, Bang-Jin Wang, Pin-Gang He, Li-Ming Yuan
Porous organic cages composed of discrete cage molecules have attracted considerable recent attention as gas adsorption materials and separation media. In this study, we report a homochiral porous organic cage CC5 with a large cavity and pore windows as a novel stationary phase for high-resolution gas chromatographic separations. The capillary column was prepared by a static coating method. A large number of racemic compounds have been resolved on the coated capillary column, including derivatized amino acids, alcohols, alcohol amines, esters, ethers, ketones, and epoxides...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222867/asymmetric-total-syntheses-and-structure-confirmation-of-chlorofucins-and-bromofucins
#11
Deukjoon Kim, Byungsook Kim, Te-Ik Sohn, Robert S Paton
Substrate-controlled asymmetric total syntheses and structure confirmation of (+)-(3E)- and (-)-(3Z)-chlorofucin [(E)-1a and (Z)-1a], and (+)-(3E)- and (-)-(3Z)-bromofucin [(E)-1b and (Z)-1b] were accomplished. Our syntheses feature as key steps haloetherification (either 'conventional' or 'one-pot organoselenium-mediated') of alpha,alpha'-trans-gamma, delta-unsaturated oxocene alcohol 9 and our (E)- and (Z)-selective cross-metathesis (CM) protocols. More importantly, a rationale is provided for the strikingly different pathways followed by alpha,alpha'-trans-gamma, delta -unsaturated oxocene alcohol 9 and its ,'-cis isomer 9' in the presence of different electrophiles during the intramolecular electrophilic addition reactions...
December 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222767/platelet-counts-and-liver-enzymes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#12
Hans-Erik Johansson, Anna Wåhlén, Erica Aldenbäck, Arvo Haenni
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, liver steatosis and increased liver enzymes such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content. Increased platelet counts (PCs) are a biomarker reflecting inflammation and the degree of fibrosis in NAFLD. We investigated alterations in PCs, GGT, ALT, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)...
December 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222577/occupational-prestige-trajectory-and-the-risk-of-lung-and-head-and-neck-cancer-among-men-and-women-in-france
#13
Gwenn Menvielle, Julien Dugas, Jeanna-Eve Franck, Matthieu Carton, Brigitte Trétarre, Isabelle Stücker, Danièle Luce
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the associations between occupational prestige trajectories and lung and head and neck (HN) cancer risk and to assess to what extent smoking, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposures contribute to these associations. METHODS: Using data from the ICARE case-control study (controls (2676 men/715 women), lung cancers (2019 men/558 women), HN cancers (1793 men/305 women), we defined occupational prestige trajectories using group-based modeling of longitudinal data...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222557/accentuate-the-negative-grammatical-errors-during-narrative-production-as-a-clinical-marker-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
John C Thorne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate of grammatical errors with the rate of cohesive referencing errors can improve utility of a standardized narrative assessment task for FASD diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222520/smoking-and-alcohol-drinking-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-china
#15
Xiaorong Yang, Xingdong Chen, Maoqiang Zhuang, Ziyu Yuan, Shuping Nie, Ming Lu, Li Jin, Weimin Ye
Previous results regarding the associations between esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk and smoking/alcohol drinking in high-risk areas are inconsistent. We performed a large population-based case-control study from 2010 to 2013 in a high-incidence area of China, and enrolled 1353 ESCC cases and 1961 controls. Data regarding smoking and alcohol drinking were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#16
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222420/effect-of-high-pressure-treatment-and-short-term-storage-on-changes-in-main-volatile-compounds-of-chinese-liquor
#17
Menglong Xu, Songming Zhu, Hosahalli S Ramaswamy, Yong Yu
Changes in main volatile compounds of Chinese liquor after high pressure (HP) treatment and following short term storage were investigated. 400 MPa-15 min & 400 MPa-30 min were applied to young liquor. Results from gas chromatography (GC) analysis revealed decreasing trends in alcohols, aldehydes and ethyl acetate immediately after HP treatments, which was in consistent with those in natural aging process; but no significant change was found in acids. However, differences in main volatile compounds between young liquor and pressurized liquors disappeared after two to six months of storage...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222336/taking-control-of-alcohol-related-emergency-department-visits
#18
EDITORIAL
Fiona Wisniacki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222221/acute-pancreatitis-following-oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
#19
Nnamdi Arinze Nwafo
Acute pancreatitis is a well-recognised complication of endoscopic procedures like endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but not oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). I report a case of a 33-year-old woman, admitted with severe epigastric pain and vomiting 2 hours after an elective OGD for evaluation of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated lipase (40 790 U/L; normal 11-82) and findings on imaging studies. Other common causes of acute pancreatitis such as gallstones, alcohol and medications were ruled out...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222138/application-of-large-scale-aptamer-based-proteomic-profiling-to-planned-myocardial-infarctions
#20
Jaison Jacob, Debby Ngo, Nancy Finkel, Rebecca Pitts, Scott Gleim, Mark D Benson, Michelle J Keyes, Laurie A Farrell, Thomas Morgan, Lori L Jennings, Robert Gerszten
Background -Emerging proteomic technologies using novel affinity-based reagents allow for efficient multiplexing with high sample throughput. To identify early biomarkers of myocardial injury, we recently applied an aptamer-based proteomic profiling platform that measures 1,129 proteins to samples from patients undergoing septal alcohol ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a human model of "planned myocardial injury" (PMI). Here we examined the scalability of this approach using a markedly expanded platform to study a far broader range of human proteins in the context of myocardial injury...
December 8, 2017: Circulation
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