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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449484/clinical-presentation-and-characteristics-of-25-adult-cases-of-pulmonary-sequestration
#1
Mateusz Polaczek, Inga Baranska, Malgorzata Szolkowska, Jacek Zych, Piotr Rudzinski, Janusz Szopinski, Tadeusz Orlowski, Kazimierz Roszkowski-Sliz
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital abnormality of lung tissue. Only few series of adult cases are reported. The aim was to describe clinical characteristics in adult cases of PS and to compare outcomes in different clinical situations. METHODS: Using MSD engine we searched for cases of PS that have been diagnosed between Jan 1st, 2005 and Dec 31st, 2015. Clinical data was retrospectively gathered. Statistica v.12 (StatSoft, Inc.) was used for statistical analyses...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449403/effects-of-malnutrition-on-treatment-related-morbidity-and-survival-of-children-with-cancer-in-nicaragua
#2
Allison K Pribnow, Roberta Ortiz, Luis Fulgencio Báez, Luvy Mendieta, Sandra Luna-Fineman
BACKGROUND: Most children with cancer live in resource-limited countries where malnutrition is often prevalent. We identified the relationship between malnutrition and treatment-related morbidity (TRM), abandonment of therapy, and survival of children with cancer in Nicaragua to better inform targeted nutritional interventions. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective review of patients aged 6 months to 18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Wilms tumor, Hodgkin lymphoma, or Burkitt lymphoma (BL) who were treated between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007 at Children's Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera in Managua, Nicaragua...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449385/linkage-to-hiv-care-after-home-based-hiv-counselling-and-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Eugene Ruzagira, Kathy Baisley, Anatoli Kamali, Samuel Biraro, Heiner Grosskurth
BACKGROUND: Home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) has the potential to increase HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but data on linkage to HIV care after HBHCT are scarce. We conducted a systematic review of linkage to care after HBHCT in SSA. METHODS: Five databases were searched for studies published between 1(st) January 2000 and 19(th) August 2016 that reported on linkage to care among adults newly identified with HIV infection through HBHCT...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449332/behavioural-disinhibition-in-the-general-population-during-the-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Eva M Legemate, Jan A C Hontelez, Caspar W N Looman, Sake J De Vlas
OBJECTIVES: Improved life expectancy and reduced transmission probabilities due to ART may result in behavioural disinhibition - i.e. an increase in sexual risk behaviour in response to a perceived lower risk of HIV. We examined trends in sexual risk behaviour in the general population of sub-Saharan African countries 1999 - 2015. METHODS: We systematically reviewed scientific literature of sexual behaviour, and reviewed trends in Demographic and Health Surveys...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449278/seroepidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-and-occupationally-exposed-workers-in-punjab-india
#5
M Bansal, S Kaur, D Deka, R Singh, J P S Gill
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as the occupational risk to exposed human population in Punjab state of north-western India. The occupational risk-exposed group comprised of swine farmers (organized - mixed feed feeders and unorganized - swill feeders), slaughterhouse workers, sewage workers and veterinary internes...
April 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449273/systematic-review-the-safety-of-vedolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
W A Bye, V Jairath, S P L Travis
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab specifically recognises the α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut lymphocyte trafficking: potentially, it offers gut-specific immunosuppression. AIM: To review the safety of vedolizumab and summarise post-marketing data to assess if any safety concerns that differ from registration trials have emerged. METHOD: A systematic bibliographic search identified six registration trials and nine cohort studies. RESULTS: Integrated data from registration trials included 2830 vedolizumab-exposed patients (4811 person-years exposure [PYs]) and 513 placebo patients...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449246/review-article-hepatitis-e-a-concise-review-of-virology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
M C Donnelly, L Scobie, C L Crossan, H Dalton, P C Hayes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing world. During the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of autochthonous (locally acquired) HEV infection in developed countries. Chronic HEV infection is now recognised, and in transplant recipients this may lead to cirrhosis and organ failure. AIM: To detail current understanding of the molecular biology of HEV, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and propose future directions for basic science and clinical research...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#8
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449187/distinctive-clinical-characteristics-and-favorable-outcomes-in-patients-with-large-granular-lymphocytosis-after-allo-hct-12-years-follow-up-data
#9
Marc Poch Martell, Nada Hamad, Elizabeth Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Sang Kyun Sohn, Jieun Uhm, Fotios V Michelis, Auro Viswabandya, Jeffrey H Lipton, Hans A Messner, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim
An increase in large granular lymphocytes (LGL) is frequently seen in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and it has been associated with better outcomes in some reports. We assessed 826 consecutive patients at our institution with over 12 years of follow-up for the occurrence of LGL lymphocytosis after allo-HCT. The 3 year cumulative incidence of LGL lymphocytosis was 14.5% with a median duration of over 3.5 years. The developmnet of LGL lymphocytosis was strongly correlated with CMV viremia and GVHD...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449059/marijuana-use-impacts-midlife-cardiovascular-events-in-hiv-infected-men
#10
David R Lorenz, Anupriya Dutta, Shibani S Mukerji, Alex Holman, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
Background.: Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with HIV, but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown. Methods.: A prospective study of 558 HIV-infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1990-2010: 182 HIV seroconverters and 376 with viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Associations between heavy marijuana use and HIV disease markers or white blood cell (WBC) count were examined using mixed-effects and linear regression models...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448615/emphysema-is-associated-with-thoracic-vertebral-bone-attenuation-on-chest-ct-scan-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#11
Alycia Petraglia, Joseph K Leader, Matthew Gingo, Meghan Fitzpatrick, John Ries, Cathy Kessinger, Lorrie Lucht, Danielle Camp, Alison Morris, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Age-related chronic diseases are prevalent in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Bone mineral density (BMD) loss and emphysema have separately been shown to occur at a younger age and with lesser risk exposure in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. In non-HIV infected smokers, emphysema has been shown to independently predict low BMD. We hypothesized that emphysema would independently associate with thoracic vertebral bone attenuation, a surrogate for bone mineral density, in HIV-infected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448535/alpha-1-antitrypsin-supplementation-improves-alveolar-macrophages-efferocytosis-and-phagocytosis-following-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#12
Karina A Serban, Daniela N Petrusca, Andrew Mikosz, Christophe Poirier, Angelia D Lockett, Lauren Saint, Matthew J Justice, Homer L Twigg, Michael A Campos, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoking (CS), the main risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in developed countries, decreases alveolar macrophages (AM) clearance of both apoptotic cells and bacterial pathogens. This global deficit of AM engulfment may explain why active smokers have worse outcomes of COPD exacerbations, episodes characterized by airway infection and inflammation that carry high morbidity and healthcare cost. When administered as intravenous supplementation, the acute phase-reactant alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces the severity of COPD exacerbations in A1AT deficient (AATD) individuals and of bacterial pneumonia in murine models, but the effect of A1AT on AM scavenging functions has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448527/meat-consumption-is-a-major-risk-factor-for-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#13
Ed Slot, Hans L Zaaijer, Michel Molier, Katja Van den Hurk, Femmeke Prinsze, Boris M Hogema
BACKGROUND: The incidence of autochthonous hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV gt3) infections in Western Europe is high. Although pigs are a major reservoir of the virus, the exact sources and transmission route(s) of HEV gt3 to humans remain unclear. METHODS: To determine the role of meat consumption at a population level, the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was compared between Dutch blood donors with a vegetarian lifestyle and donors who consume meat on a daily basis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448490/the-value-of-daily-platelet-counts-for-predicting-dengue-shock-syndrome-results-from-a-prospective-observational-study-of-2301-vietnamese-children-with-dengue
#14
Phung Khanh Lam, Tran Van Ngoc, Truong Thi Thu Thuy, Nguyen Thi Hong Van, Tran Thi Nhu Thuy, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Nguyen Minh Dung, Nguyen Thi Hanh Tien, Nguyen Tan Thanh Kieu, Cameron Simmons, Bridget Wills, Marcel Wolbers
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection to affect humans. Although it usually manifests as a self-limited febrile illness, complications may occur as the fever subsides. A systemic vascular leak syndrome that sometimes progresses to life-threatening hypovolaemic shock is the most serious complication seen in children, typically accompanied by haemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia. Robust evidence on risk factors, especially features present early in the illness course, for progression to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is lacking...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448488/the-potential-economic-burden-of-zika-in-the-continental-united-states
#15
Bruce Y Lee, Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo, Alyssa S Parpia, Lindsey Asti, Patrick T Wedlock, Peter J Hotez, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: As the Zika virus epidemic continues to spread internationally, countries such as the United States must determine how much to invest in prevention, control, and response. Fundamental to these decisions is quantifying the potential economic burden of Zika under different scenarios. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: To inform such decision making, our team developed a computational model to forecast the potential economic burden of Zika across six states in the US (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) which are at greatest risk of Zika emergence, under a wide range of attack rates, scenarios and circumstances...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448262/an-unusually-large-carbuncle-of-the-temporofacial-region-demonstrating-remarkable-post-debridement-wound-healing-process-a-case-report
#16
Humaid Ahmad, Sheeraz Shakoor Siddiqui
Skin carbuncles are debilitating skin infections commonly seen in elderly patients with diabetes. These infections develop when a cluster of adjacent furuncles coalesce to form one inflammatory mass. While they commonly occur on the nape of the neck and back, rarer sites involving the face and head have been noted. Management of these rare sites is urgent because of the potential intracranial complications and the surgical outcome is often unsatisfactory due to associated facial scarring. Intraoral drainage is advocated to avoid this; however, when the carbuncle involves a larger area, debridement from the exterior is necessary...
April 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448204/future-research-opportunities-in-peri-prosthetic-joint-infection-prevention
#17
Elie Berbari, John Segreti, Javad Parvizi, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448197/surgical-site-infections-and-associated-operative-characteristics
#18
Paul K Waltz, Brian S Zuckerbraun
Surgical site infection (SSI) contributes significantly to surgical morbidity. Patient factors and operative factors contribute to the risk of development of SSI. This review focuses on understanding operative characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of SSI. Much attention has been given to protocol care to reduce SSI, such as hair removal, skin preparation, and pre-operative antibiotic agents. Even with this, the appropriate antibiotic and re-dosing regimens often remain a challenge. Other operative factors such as blood loss/transfusion, emergency/urgent cases, duration of the operation, type of anesthesia, and resident involvement are also potentially modifiable to reduce the risk of SSI...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447585/metabolic-profiles-of-individuals-switched-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-after-failing-standard-first-line-therapy-for-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Amanda H Yao, Cecilia L Moore, Poh Lian Lim, Jean-Michel Molina, Juan Sierra Madero, Stephen Kerr, Paddy Wg Mallon, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd
BACKGROUND: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART. METHODS: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96...
April 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447465/transferrin-dressed-virus-like-ternary-nanoparticles-with-aggregation-induced-emission-for-targeted-delivery-and-rapid-cytosolic-release-of-sirna
#20
Tingbin Zhang, Weisheng Guo, Chunqiu Zhang, Jing Yu, Jing Xu, Shuyi Li, Jian-Hua Tian, Paul C Wang, Jinfeng Xing, Xing-Jie Liang
Viruses have evolved to be outstandingly efficient at gene delivery, but their use as vectors is limited by safety risks. Inspired by the structure of viruses, we constructed a virus-mimicking vector (denoted as TR4@siRNA@Tf NCs) with virus-like architecture and infection properties. Composed of a hydrophilic peptide, an AIEgen and a lipophilic tail, TR4 imitates the viral capsid and endows the vector with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties as well as efficient siRNA compaction. The outer glycoprotein transferrin (Tf) mimics the viral envelope protein, and endows the vector with reduced cytotoxicity as well as enhanced targeting capability...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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