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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214257/a-comparison-of-two-dosing-regimens-of-asa-following-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasties
#1
Michael J Feldstein, Sara L Low, Antonia F Chen, Laura A Woodward, William J Hozack
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare short-term side effects of aspirin (ASA) 325 mg vs ASA 81 mg orally twice daily (PO BID) when used as thromboembolic prophylaxis following primary total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: A 1-year prospective cohort study was performed on 643 primary unilateral total joint arthroplasty patients operated on by a single surgeon. Two hundred eighty-two patients were administered ASA 325 mg PO BID and 361 patients were administered ASA 81 mg PO BID for 1 month...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214256/is-there-a-threshold-value-of-hemoglobin-a1c-that-predicts-risk-of-infection-following-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty
#2
Jourdan M Cancienne, Brian C Werner, James A Browne
BACKGROUND: There remains little evidence to support a perioperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level that could serve as a threshold for a significantly increased risk of deep postoperative infection in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) following total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: A national administrative database was queried for patients who underwent primary THA with DM. Patients with an HbA1c level within 3 months of surgery were identified and were stratified based on HbA1c level in 0...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214188/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-71-435-women-in-jiangxi-province-china
#3
Tian-Yu Zhong, Ji-Chun Zhou, Rong Hu, Xiao-Na Fan, Xiao-Ying Xie, Zhao-Xia Liu, Min Lin, Yi-Guo Chen, Xiao-Mei Hu, Wei-Hua Wang, Long Li, Hua-Ping Xiao
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an etiological factor for cervical cancer. Data on the prevalence and subtype distribution of HPV infection in Jiangxi Province are incomplete. In this study, we investigated HPV subtype distribution and prevalence in Jiangxi Province between August 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. A total of 71,435 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 77 years were recruited. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#4
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#5
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214045/factors-affecting-the-willingness-of-nursing-students-to-receive-annual-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study
#6
Kin Cheung, Sin Man Simone Ho, Winsome Lam
Nursing students are at high risk of exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases such as seasonal influenza. However, due to the limited number of studies conducted in this area, the prevalence and factors affecting annual seasonal influenza vaccination (ASIV) uptake remain unclear. This was a large-scale cross-sectional survey study conducted among 902 nursing students in different years of study. The questionnaire was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), and logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ASIV uptake...
February 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213933/evaluation-of-vegetation-size-and-its-relationship-with-septic-pulmonary-embolism-in-tricuspid-valve-infective-endocarditis-a-real-time-3dtee-study
#7
Hiroto Utsunomiya, Javier Berdejo, Sayuki Kobayashi, Hirotsugu Mihara, Yuji Itabashi, Takahiro Shiota
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) causes septic pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the impact of vegetation size on PE is not fully elucidated. METHODS: In 26 consecutive patients with definite TVIE according to Duke criteria, we tested clinical, microbiological, and echocardiographic data including real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) as potential predictors of PE. 3DTEE measurement of maximum length of vegetation (MLV) was obtained with Advanced QLAB Quantification Software by cropping the 3D volume with the appropriate 2D plane to obtain the largest value...
February 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213927/long-term-hospitalisation-rates-among-5-year-survivors-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-in-adolescence-or-young-adulthood-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#8
Kathrine Rugbjerg, Maja Maraldo, Marianne C Aznar, David J Cutter, Sarah C Darby, Lena Specht, Jørgen H Olsen
In the present study, we report on the full range of physical diseases acquired by survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in adolescence or young adulthood. In a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study, 1768 five-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed at ages 15-39 years during 1943-2004 and 228,447 comparison subjects matched to survivors on age and year of birth were included. Hospital discharge diagnoses and bed-days during 1977-2010 were obtained from the Danish Patient Register for 145 specific disease categories gathered in 14 main diagnostic groups...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213906/impact-of-dexamethasone-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#9
P Czorlich, T Sauvigny, F Ricklefs, T Abboud, A Nierhaus, E Vettorazzi, D A Reuter, J Regelsberger, M Westphal, N O Schmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has remained controversial for decades. Recent studies have suggested that the administration of corticosteroids in SAH patients is associated with favourable outcomes. Given their significant adverse effects, it is essential to identify those patients who will benefit from treatment with corticosteroids. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort (n = 306) with SAH who were treated by microsurgical clipping or endovascular intervention was performed...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#10
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213871/thieno-2-3-b-pyridine-derivatives-a-new-class-of-antiviral-drugs-against-mayaro-virus
#11
Raquel Amorim, Marcelo Damião Ferreira de Meneses, Julio Cesar Borges, Luiz Carlos da Silva Pinheiro, Lucio Ayres Caldas, Claudio Cesar Cirne-Santos, Marcos Vinícius Palmeira de Mello, Alessandra Mendonça Teles de Souza, Helena Carla Castro, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer Paixão, Renata de Mendonça Campos, Ingrid E Bergmann, Viviana Malirat, Alice Maria Rolim Bernardino, Moacyr Alcoforado Rebello, Davis Fernandes Ferreira
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arthropod-borne virus and a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Its infection leads to an acute illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. To date, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines against infection with MAYV and resources for the prevention or treatment of other alphaviruses are very limited. MAYV has served as a model to study the antiviral potential of several substances on alphavirus replication. In this work we evaluated the antiviral effect of seven new derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine against MAYV replication in a mammalian cell line...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213820/daily-marijuana-use-is-associated-with-missed-clinic-appointments-among-hiv-infected-persons-engaged-in-hiv-care
#12
Aaron M Kipp, Peter F Rebeiro, Bryan E Shepherd, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Megan Turner, Sally Bebawy, Timothy R Sterling, Todd Hulgan
We assessed the association between marijuana use and retention in HIV care through a retrospective cohort study of patients engaged in care at a large HIV clinic in 2011 and 2012. Two different retention outcomes were assessed: not meeting the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) retention definition (≥2 provider visits ≥90 days apart in a calendar year) and no-show visits. Any marijuana use and frequency of marijuana use were obtained from a substance use screening questionnaire administered at each clinic visit...
February 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#13
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#14
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213653/perceived-risk-of-avian-influenza-and-urbanization-in-northern-vietnam
#15
Melissa L Finucane, Nghiem Tuyen, Sumeet Saksena, James H Spencer, Jefferson M Fox, Nguyen Lam, Trinh Dinh Thau, Tran Duc Vien, Nancy Davis Lewis
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is an important public health concern because of potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in humans and poultry and associated devastating economic losses. We examined how perceptions of the risk of HPAI in poultry vary across communes/wards in the north of Vietnam at different levels of urbanization (rural, peri-urban, urban). Analyses of questionnaire responses from 1081 poultry raisers suggested that the perceived risk of HPAI in poultry was highest in peri-urban and rural settings...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213594/brighter-children-the-association-between-seasonality-of-birth-and-child-iq-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#16
Nina H Grootendorst-van Mil, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Albert Hofman, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. DESIGN: In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002-2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213577/economic-evaluation-of-universal-prenatal-hiv-screening-compared-with-current-at-risk-policy-in-a-very-low-prevalence-country
#17
Michal Chowers, Oren Shavit
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to economically evaluate universal HIV prenatal screening in Israel, a very low prevalence country (0.1%), compared with the current policy of testing only women belonging to high-risk (HR) groups. DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness analytical model was constructed. Life expectancies, direct medical costs and utility weights of an HIV-positive newborn and a healthy newborn were derived from the literature. Screening was assessed using fourth-generation combo tests...
March 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213528/leptospira-interrogans-serogroup-pomona-infections-in-the-uk-is-there-a-real-threat-for-farm-animals
#18
Z Arent, C Gilmore, A M Barlow, L Smith, W A Ellis
Current typing of Leptospira strains requires a combination of both serological and molecular methods. Study of the epidemiology of strains within the Pomona serogroup has proved problematic due to the limitations of serological typing methods. This is particularly true of the two main complexes within this group, namely the Pomona, Monjakov, Kennewicki cluster in Leptospira interrogans species and the Mozdok, Tsaratsovo, Kunming, Altodouro cluster in Leptospira kirschneri Strains from the south of England have been shown previously to belong to L kirschneri serovar Mozdok, strains of which are maintained by small rodents in western Europe...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213367/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-infective-endocarditis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Thomas J Cahill, James L Harrison, Paul Jewell, Igho Onakpoya, John B Chambers, Mark Dayer, Peter Lockhart, Nia Roberts, David Shanson, Martin Thornhill, Carl J Heneghan, Bernard D Prendergast
OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) is controversial. In recent years, guidelines to cardiologists and dentists have advised restriction of AP to high-risk groups (in Europe and the USA) or against its use at all (in the UK). The objective of this systematic review was to appraise the evidence for use of AP for prevention of bacteraemia or IE in patients undergoing dental procedures. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Science...
February 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213046/splenectomy-as-a-destination-improving-quality-of-care-among-asplenic-veterans-through-a-travel-clinic
#20
Aaron P Mitchell, Joel C Boggan, Karen Lau, David L Simel
BACKGROUND: Asplenic patients are at risk for severe infections, but adherence to recommended preventive education and vaccination is poor. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that a targeted intervention can improve vaccination rates in a population of asplenic veterans. METHODS: Surgically asplenic patients actively receiving care in our health care system were identified via a database search. Patients were contacted via mailed letters and encouraged to attend an existing travel clinic with a new process designed for asplenic patients...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
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