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Infection risk

Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Ashley Howard, John Visintine, Jaime Fergie, Miguel Deleon
Since 2007, Zika virus has spread through the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Beginning in 2016, women in Brownsville, Texas, USA, were identified as possibly being exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Two infants were evaluated for congenital Zika syndrome after identification of prenatal microcephaly. Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Adriely Goes, Gregor Fuhrmann
Biogenic and biomimetic therapeutics are a relatively new class of systems that are of physiological origin and/or take advantage of natural pathways, or aim at mimicking these to improve selective interaction with target tissue. The number of biogenic and bioengineered avenues for drug therapy and diagnostics has multiplied over the past years for many applications, indicating the high expectations associated with this biological route. Nevertheless, the use of "bio"-related approaches for treating or diagnosing infectious diseases is still rare...
March 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Saahir Khan, Audrey Nakasone, Minoo Ghajar, Mariam Zhowandai, Sunita Prabhu, Rick Alexander, Julie Low, Ellena Peterson, Lauri Thrupp
For 94 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, time-to-detection (TTD), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were reviewed. All 12 patients whose first specimen was negative by AFB smear and NAAT had prolonged TTD, indicating low transmissibility and supporting discontinuing isolation for low-risk patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ruihong Luo, Janice M Weinberg, Tamar F Barlam
OBJECTIVE Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few studies have examined long-term outcomes. We studied the impact of CDI after SOT on mortality and transplant organ complication-related hospitalizations (TOH). METHODS SOT recipients ≥18 years of age with at least 1 year of posttransplant data were analyzed using the MarketScan database for 2007-2014. Patients who died within one year of transplant were followed until death. Patients were grouped as early CDI (ie, first occurrence ≤90 days posttransplant), late CDI (ie, first occurrence >90 days posttransplant) and controls (ie, no CDI occurrence during follow-up)...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Mini Kamboj, Teresa Childers, Jessica Sugalski, Donna Antonelli, Juliane Bingener-Casey, Jamie Cannon, Karie Cluff, Kimberly A Davis, E Patchen Dellinger, Sean C Dowdy, Kim Duncan, Julie Fedderson, Robert Glasgow, Bruce Hall, Marilyn Hirsch, Matthew Hutter, Lisa Kimbro, Boris Kuvshinoff, Martin Makary, Melanie Morris, Sharon Nehring, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Rebekah Scott, Mindy Sovel, Vivian Strong, Ashley Webster, Elizabeth Wick, Julio Garcia Aguilar, Robert Carlson, Kent Sepkowitz
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement. OBJECTIVE To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS DESIGN American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011-2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bart N Ford, Robert H Yolken, Faith B Dickerson, T Kent Teague, Michael R Irwin, Martin P Paulus, Jonathan Savitz
BACKGROUND: Depression can impair the immunogenicity of vaccine administration in adults. Whereas many vaccinations are administered in childhood, it is not known whether adolescent or adult onset depression is associated with impairments in the maintenance of protection of childhood vaccines. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with adolescent or adult onset mood disorders would display compromised immunity to measles, a target of childhood vaccination. METHODS: IgG antibodies to measles were quantified using a solid phase immunoassay in volunteers with bipolar disorder (BD, n = 64, mean age of onset = 16...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Mariusz Kusztal, Krzysztof Nowak
For arrhythmia treatment or sudden cardiac death prevention in hemodialysis patients, there is a frequent need for placement of a cardiac implantable electronic device (pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or cardiac resynchronization device). Leads from a cardiac implantable electronic device can cause central vein stenosis and carry the risk of tricuspid regurgitation or contribute to infective endocarditis. In patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring vascular access and cardiac implantable electronic device, the best strategy is to create an arteriovenous fistula on the contralateral upper limb for a cardiac implantable electronic device and avoidance of central vein catheter...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Jale Moradi, Maryam Izad, Mina Tabrizi, Nader Mosavari, Behnaz Esmaeili, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
One third of the world population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are at the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). The most effective strategy for control of TB worldwide is the development of a vaccine that inhibits progression of latent TB to active infection. In this study, two optimized constructs consisting of multi-epitopes DNA derived from three latency antigens Rv2029c, Rv2031c, and Rv2627c fused with or without light chain 3 (LC3) are synthetized. The immunogenicity effectiveness of two DNA constructs was evaluated in the mouse model...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Aikaterini D Lianou, Vasileios Ragos, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Evangelos Tsiambas, Anna Batistatou, Ioannis Kastanioudakis
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis represents a well analyzed model of viral implication in epithelial malignant transformation. Mechanisms of high risk (HR) HPV-related infection seem to demonstrate a similar action regarding its implication in head and neck (HN) carcinomas, predominantly in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histological type. The prevalence of HR HPV subtypes - mainly HPV16 - is characterized by a broad geographic heterogeneity. Furthermore, HPV-associated HNSCCs demonstrate differences regarding sexual, molecular, epidemiological, and prognostic features compared to alcohol and tobacco dependent ones...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Aleksandar Stepanovic, Marina Nikitovic
Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With the number of symptoms and signs, it belongs to diseases where a lot of treatment modalities are often applied. A standard treatment for patients with glioblastoma includes surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Each type of treatment has its own toxicity. Temozolomide is an oral alkylating cytotoxic drug and like any other alkylating agent can induce side effects. Although temozolomide is generally a well tolerated drug, with rare severe toxic effects, sometimes certain toxicities can overcome the life risk of the underlying malignancy...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Joseph M Statz, Eric R Wagner, John W Sperling, Robert H Cofield
PURPOSE: Although diabetes mellitus (DM) has an adverse effect on complication rates in orthopaedic surgery, neither the effect of DM nor the association between haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty (SA) has been studied. METHODS: A retrospective review of 406 SAs (70 HAs, 188 total shoulder arthroplasties [TSAs], 148 reverse total shoulder arthroplasties [RSAs]) with HbA1Cs within 90 days of surgery was conducted. The average age was 70 years (range 27-97) and 55% were female...
March 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Ramon A Juste, Patricia Vazquez, Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Mikel Agirre, Andone Estonba, Maria V Geijo, Elena Molina, Iker A Sevilla, Marta Alonso-Hearn, Nieves Gomez, Valentin Perez, Adoracion Cortes, Joseba M Garrido
Control of major mycobacterial diseases affecting livestock is a challenging issue that requires different approaches. The use of genetic markers for improving resistance to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle has been explored as a promising population strategy We performed paratuberculosis epidemiopathogenic phenotypic and genotypic characterization involving 24 SNPs in six candidate genes ( NOD2, CD209, SLC11A1, SP110, TLR2 and TLR4 ) on 502 slaughtered Friesian cows. In the current study, we investigate whether recently proposed paratuberculosis (PTB) epidemiopathogenic (EP) forms (apparently free-AF, latent-LAT and patent-PAT) could be associated with some combination of these 24 SNPs...
February 2018: Heliyon
Daniel J Liechti, Gilbert Moatshe, Jonathon D Backus, Daniel Cole Marchetti, Thomas O Clanton
Achilles tendon ruptures are a common tendon injury, usually occurring in middle-aged men during recreational sporting activities. Both nonoperative and operative management are employed to treat these injuries. Several operative treatments are described in the literature, including percutaneous Achilles repair, mini-open repair, and open repair. Open Achilles repair is associated with higher rates of impaired wound healing and infection, whereas minimally invasive techniques have been reported to have an increased risk of iatrogenic sural nerve injury...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Christina de Castro, Natale Wasef, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Syim Salahuddin, Bertrand Lebouché, Joseph Cox, Jason Szabo, Marina Klein, Larry Lands, Adam J Shapiro
Introduction: Low levels of nasal NO have been associated with increased propensity to rhinosinusitis and respiratory tract infections. Our objective was to describe nasal NO levels in HIV-infected individuals versus healthy controls and determine possible risk factors for reduced nasal NO levels. Materials and Methods: HIV-infected individuals and healthy controls were recruited. Participants underwent nasal NO testing by standardized methods using a CLD88 chemiluminescence analyzer and completed the Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20) on symptoms of rhinosinusitis...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Chung-Feng Huang, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Po-Lin Kuo, Hsing-Tao Kuo, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
We investigated the long-term risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in dual-infected hepatitis B and C patients after eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 164 (62% male, median age, 50.5 years) hepatitis B and C dual-infected patients who achieved HCV sustained virological response were recruited. Half the patients were HCV genotype 1 with a median viral load of 5.5 log10 IU/mL, and 22.6%had an HBV DNA level ≥ 2000 IU/mL before therapy. HCC developed in 14 patients (8.5%), with an annual incidence of 1...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Saajida Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: Appropriate infection control policies and practices are key to reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Objective: To evaluate infection control in ICUs using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT). Methods: Six public and five private adult ICUs were included. Seven modules from the ICAT were administered including ICU, hand hygiene, and isolation and standard precautions...
March 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
Melissa Rochon, Julian We Jarman, Joseph Gabriel, Lisa Butcher, Carlos Morais, Martin Still, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Mario Petrou, Richard Trimlett, Anthony DeSouza, Rashmi Yadav, Shahzad G Raja
Background: Previously, we reported that the Brompton Harefield Infection Score (BHIS) accurately predicts surgical site infection (SSI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The BHIS was developed using two-centre data and stratifies SSI risk into three groups based on female gender, diabetes or HbA1c > 7.5%, body mass index ≥ 35, left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and emergency surgery. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate BHIS internally as well as externally...
March 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
Jessica Da Gama Duarte, Sagun Parakh, Miles C Andrews, Katherine Woods, Anupama Pasam, Candani Tutuka, Simone Ostrouska, Jonathan M Blackburn, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma. The first ICI to demonstrate clinical benefit, ipilimumab, targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4); however, the long-term overall survival is just 22%. More than 40 years ago intralesional (IL) bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a living attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis , was found to induce tumor regression by stimulating cell-mediated immunity following a localized and self-limiting infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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