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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820902/from-hospitalization-records-to-surveillance-the-use-of-local-patient-profiles-to-characterize-cholera-in-vellore-india
#1
Melissa S Cruz, Tania M AlarconFalconi, Meghan A Hartwick, Aishwarya Venkat, Hanna Y Ehrlich, Shalini Anandan, Honorine D Ward, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Elena N Naumova
Despite availability of high quality medical records, health care systems often do not have the resources or tools to utilize these data efficiently. Yet, hospital-based, laboratory-confirmed records may pave the way for building reliable surveillance systems capable of monitoring temporal trends of emerging infections. In this communication, we present a new tool to compress and visualize medical records with a local population profile (LPP) approach, which transforms information into statistically comparable patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820883/spatial-clustering-of-patent-and-sub-patent-malaria-infections-in-northern-namibia-implications-for-surveillance-and-response-strategies-for-elimination
#2
Jennifer L Smith, Joyce Auala, Munyaradzi Tambo, Erastus Haindongo, Stark Katokele, Petrina Uusiku, Roly Gosling, Immo Kleinschmidt, Davis Mumbengegwi, Hugh J W Sturrock
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) around passively detected malaria cases is a strategy to identify and treat hotspots of malaria transmission. This study investigated the unproven assumption on which this approach is based, that in low transmission settings, infections cluster over small scales. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2014 in Ohangwena and Omusati regions in north central Namibia. Patients attending health facilities who tested positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (index cases) were traced back to their home...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#3
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820730/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-control-practices-among-dental-students-in-an-indian-city
#4
Vishal Khandelwal, Sushma Khandelwal, Neetu Gupta, Ullal Anand Nayak, Namrata Kulshreshtha, Sudhindra Baliga
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#5
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820720/dengue-virus-serotypes-1-and-2-responsible-for-major-dengue-outbreaks-in-nepal-clinical-laboratory-and-epidemiological-features
#6
Shyam Prakash Dumre, Renu Bhandari, Geeta Shakya, Sanjay Kumar Shrestha, Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Prakash Ghimire, Chonticha Klungthong, In-Kyu Yoon, Kenji Hirayama, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Stefan Fernandez
Dengue virus (DENV) is expanding toward previously nonendemic areas. DENV has recently been introduced in Nepal with limited information. We report the clinical features and serotype distribution of DENV in Nepal during the major outbreaks. A total of 1,215 clinical dengue cases at two major hospitals of central and western Nepal were investigated. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. Serum specimens were tested for DENV by IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820714/epidemiology-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-colombian-municipality
#7
Diego Alejandro Medina-Morales, Manuel E Machado-Duque, Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba
This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820707/prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-and-other-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-school-children-in-a-rural-area-of-angola-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
María Luisa Ruíz de Alegría Aznar, Karen Colmenares, Mateu Espasa, Arancha Amor, Isabel Lopez, Arlette Ninda, Joaquina Kanjala, Domingas Guilherme, Elena Sulleiro, Begoña Barriga, Eva Gil, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Bocanegra, Teresa López, Milagros Moreno, Israel Molina
Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820706/high-prevalence-of-treponema-pallidum-infection-in-brazilian-prisoners
#9
Maisa Estopa Correa, Julio Croda, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta de Castro, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Maurício Antonio Pompilio, Ronaldo Omizolo de Souza, Júlio Henrique Ferreira de Sá Queiroz, Kesia Esther da Silva, Albert L Ko, Simone Simionatto
The number of new syphilis cases in Brazil has risen alarmingly in recent years. However, there is limited data regarding syphilis prevalence in the Brazilian prison population. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Treponema pallidum infection, active syphilis, and associated risk factors among Brazilian prisoners. We administered a questionnaire to a population-based sample of prisoners from 12 prisons in Central-West Brazil and collected sera for syphilis testing, from January to December 2013...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820703/assessment-of-u-s-pediatrician-knowledge-of-toxocariasis
#10
Dana M Woodhall, Amanda P Garcia, Craig A Shapiro, Shequenta L Wray, Andi L Shane, Chitra S Mani, Kelly K Stimpert, LeAnne M Fox, Susan P Montgomery
Toxocariasis, one of a group of parasitic diseases known as neglected parasitic infections, is a disease caused by the larvae of two species of Toxocara roundworms, Toxocara canis, from dogs, and less commonly Toxocara cati, from cats. Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic, clinical manifestations may include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain (visceral toxocariasis) or vision loss, retina damage, or eye inflammation (ocular toxocariasis). To assess U.S. pediatrician knowledge of toxocariasis, we conducted an electronic survey of American Academy of Pediatrics members...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820695/prevalence-and-seroprevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-a-military-population-in-texas
#11
Bryant J Webber, Mary T Pawlak, Sandra Valtier, Candelaria C Daniels, Charla C Tully, Edward J Wozniak, Walter D Roachell, Francisco X Sanchez, Audra A Blasi, Thomas L Cropper
Recent biosurveillance findings at Joint Base San Antonio (JBSA), a large military installation located in south-central Texas, indicate the potential for vector-borne human Chagas disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in highest risk subpopulations on the installation, including students and instructors who work and sleep in triatomine-endemic field settings. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay were performed on enrolled subjects (N = 1,033), none of whom tested positive for T...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820691/field-trial-of-the-carestart-biosensor-analyzer-for-the-determination-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-haiti
#12
Thomas A Weppelmann, Michael E von Fricken, Tara D Wilfong, Elisa Aguenza, Taina T Philippe, Bernard A Okech
Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren (N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820648/natural-bioactive-food-components-for-improving-enteral-tube-feeding-tolerance-in-adult-patient-populations
#13
Adam J Kuchnia, Beth Conlon, Norman Greenberg
Tube feeding (TF) is the most common form of nutrition support. In recent years, TF administration has increased among patient populations within and outside hospital settings, in part due to greater insurance coverage, reduced use of parenteral nutrition, and improved formularies suitable for sole source nutrition. With increasing life expectancy and improved access to TFs, the number of adults dependent on enteral nutrition is expected to grow. However, enteral TF intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication of TFs, typically presenting with at least 1 adverse gastrointestinal event, including nausea, diarrhea, and constipation...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820514/topical-opioids-and-antimicrobials-for-the-management-of-pain-infection-and-infection-related-odors-in-malignant-wounds-a-systematic-review
#14
Kathleen Finlayson, Laisa Teleni, Alexandra L McCarthy
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Patients with malignant wounds report pain, distress from odor and exudate, decreased self-esteem, and poor quality of life. This systematic review explores topical opioids, antimicrobials, and odor-reducing agents for preventing or managing malignant wound pain, infection, and odor.
. LITERATURE SEARCH: MEDLINE®, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL®, and reference lists were searched to identify relevant studies.
. DATA EVALUATION: Eligible study designs included interventions with pre- and postintervention data...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820495/human-papillomavirus-and-the-dna-damage-response-exploiting-host-repair-pathways-for-viral-replication
#15
REVIEW
Chelsey C Spriggs, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other genital cancers. In addition, HPV infections are associated with the development of many oropharyngeal cancers. HPVs activate and repress a number of host cellular pathways to promote their viral life cycles, including those of the DNA damage response. High-risk HPVs activate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways, which are essential for viral replication (particularly differentiation-dependent genome amplification)...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#16
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820423/-risk-factors-and-special-aspects-forgenital-tuberculosis-diagnostics
#17
G Lortkipanidze, N Kintraia, K Vacharadze, F Tsaava
Was examined 453 women, who applied to National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases for genital tuberculosis diagnostics. GTB was detected in 289 cases, in 164 cases GTB results was negative (control group). In 10 cases GTB was combined with pulmonary tuberculosis (OR-1,13). Risk factors are previous diseases of female reproductive organs- intracellular infection (OR-1,08), sexually transmitted diseases (OR-1,25), nonspecific inflammatory diseases (OR-1,009), interruption of pregnancy (OR-1,26), artificial abortions (OR-1,11), the most specific signs of Genital Tuberculosis is a pain in the stomach area (P-0,023), dysmenorrhoea (P-0,00001), intestinal obstruction (P-0,0006), heat (P-0,00001), liquid presence in posterior vault (P-0,007), hydrosalpinx (P-0,00001), Fallopian tubes deformation (P-0,000003), oophoritic cyst (P-0,067), adhesive process in small pelvis (P-0,0006)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820347/association-between-eye-diagnosis-and-positive-syphilis-test-results-in-a-large-urban-sexually-transmitted-infection-primary-care-clinic-population
#18
Ann-Marie Lobo, Yan Gao, Laura Rusie, Magda Houlberg, Supriya D Mehta
In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820130/convergence-of-humans-bats-trees-and-culture-in-nipah-virus-transmission-bangladesh
#19
Emily S Gurley, Sonia T Hegde, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahmudur Rahman, M A Yushuf Sharker, Henrik Salje, M Saiful Islam, Jonathan H Epstein, Salah U Khan, A Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, Stephen P Luby
Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820129/role-of-food-insecurity-in-outbreak-of-anthrax-infections-among-humans-and-hippopotamuses-living-in-a-game-reserve-area-rural-zambia
#20
Mark W Lehman, Allen S Craig, Constantine Malama, Muzala Kapina-Kany'anga, Philip Malenga, Fanny Munsaka, Sergio Muwowo, Sean Shadomy, Melissa A Marx
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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