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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161757/impact-of-cyp3a5-genomic-variances-on-clinical-outcomes-among-african-american-kidney-transplant-recipients
#1
Tomefa E Asempa, Lorita M Rebellato, Suzanne Hudson, Kimberly Briley, Angela Q Maldonado
Little is known about the impact of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on transplantation outcomes among African-American (AA) kidney transplant recipients. To assess this issue, clinical outcomes were compared between AA CYP3A5*1 expressers versus non-expressers. This retrospective cohort study analyzed AA kidney transplant recipients. Biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), delayed graft function (DGF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), infections and tacrolimus dosing requirements were examined in 106 immunologically high-risk AA kidney transplant patients over a 2 year follow-up period...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#2
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161491/dengue-virus-detection-in-aedes-aegypti-larvae-and-pupae-collected-in-rural-areas-of-anapoima-cundinamarca-colombia
#3
Myriam Lucía Velandia-Romero, Víctor Alberto Olano, Carolina Coronel-Ruiz, Laura Cabezas, María Angélica Calderón-Peláez, Jaime Eduardo Castellanos, María Inés Matiz
INTRODUCTION: There is a high incidence and prevalence of dengue in the department of Cundinamarca, and recently Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus (DENV), was detected in some of its rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral transovarial transmission in larvae and pupae collected in rural areas of the municipality of Anapoima, Cundinamarca. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Live larvae and pupae were collected from 53 homes and later they were taken to the laboratory in Anapoima, where they were classified, pooled and frozen...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161422/prevalence-and-genetic-variability-of-human-polyomaviruses-6-and-7-in-healthy-skin-among-asymptomatic-individuals
#4
Yumiko Hashida, Tomonori Higuchi, Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Kimiko Nakajima, Shigetoshi Sano, Masanori Daibata
Background: Despite the pathogenetic potential of human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) and human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7), they have been found in the normal skin of healthy individuals. However, little is known about the prevalence, infection levels, and geographical variations of these polyomaviruses in the skin. Methods: Using skin swabs from 470 participants aged 2-98 years, we estimated the prevalence of copy numbers of HPyV6 and HPyV7 with respect to age and ethnicity...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161405/quantifying-infective-endocarditis-risk-in-patients-with-predisposing-cardiac-conditions
#5
Martin H Thornhill, Simon Jones, Bernard Prendergast, Larry M Baddour, John B Chambers, Peter B Lockhart, Mark J Dayer
Aims: There are scant comparative data quantifying the risk of infective endocarditis (IE) and associated mortality in individuals with predisposing cardiac conditions. Methods and results: English hospital admissions for conditions associated with increased IE risk were followed for 5 years to quantify subsequent IE admissions. The 5-year risk of IE or dying during an IE admission was calculated for each condition and compared with the entire English population as a control...
November 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161385/are-we-close-to-the-ideal-intravenous-fluid
#6
N MacDonald, R M Pearse
The approach to i.v. fluid therapy for hypovolaemia may significantly influence outcomes for patients who experience a systemic inflammatory response after sepsis, trauma, or major surgery. Currently, there is no single i.v. fluid agent that meets all the criteria for the ideal treatment for hypovolaemia. The physician must choose the best available agent(s) for each patient, and then decide when and how much to administer. Findings from large randomized trials suggest that some colloid-based fluids, particularly starch-based colloids, may be harmful in some situations, but it is unclear whether they should be withdrawn from use completely...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161285/hpv-genotypes-co-infections-associated-with-cervical-carcinoma-special-focus-on-phylogenetically-related-and-non-vaccine-targeted-genotypes
#7
Rashmirani Senapati, Bhagyalaxmi Nayak, Shantanu Kumar Kar, Bhagirathi Dwibedi
HPV is the major causative agent for cervical cancer. Study on the risk of cervical cancer associated with different hr-HPV genotypes would be useful for disease management and new vaccine strategy. With limited reports available, the present study aimed to investigate the pattern of HPV genotypes coinfections and risk of cervical carcinoma associated with them in Indian population. 15 HPV genotypes were detected by E6/E7 multiplex nested type-specific PCR in the HPV-positive cervical samples of 172 cervical cancer cases and 174 subjects with normal cytology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161275/hiv-prevalence-and-behavioral-risk-factors-in-the-sudan-people-s-liberation-army-data-from-south-sudan
#8
Lauren P Courtney, Norman Goco, John Woja, Tonya Farris, Chris Cummiskey, Emily Smith, Lia Makuach, Helen M Chun
OVERVIEW: After two decades of civil war, South Sudan has limited published data on HIV prevalence and behavioral determinants of HIV infection risk. A surge in HIV/AIDS prevalence is a real concern for this new country with limited access to medical or HIV preventive services, and low education and literacy levels. We present findings from the first bio-behavioral surveillance survey conducted within the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,149 randomly selected soldiers from thirteen SPLA bases was conducted in two phases: July to August 2010 and April to May 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161129/research-validity-of-measurements-when-reusing-icare-probes
#9
Michelle S Lee, Brad Barnett, Jing Tian, Scott McCabe, Eric L Singman
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that reusing Icare tonometer probes may not pose a considerable risk of transmission of infection, thereby supporting this practice under extraordinary circumstances, such as mass glaucoma screenings in developing countries. The present study sought to determine whether reusing the probes reduced the validity of pressure readings. METHODS: Thousands of measurements were made with the same Icare probe on a purpose-built calibration device...
November 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161078/obesity-impairs-the-adaptive-immune-response-to-influenza-virus
#10
William D Green, Melinda A Beck
Influenza, a highly contagious respiratory tract infection, affects millions of adults and children each year. Several high-risk populations include children, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and recently the obese. Given the dramatic rise in obesity over the past few decades, this increased risk for influenza infection poses a serious public health threat because nearly 500 million adults and children worldwide are classified as obese. Obesity impairs the immune response to influenza and influenza vaccination through alterations of the cellular immune system...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160902/proportion-and-number-of-cancer-cases-and-deaths-attributable-to-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#11
Farhad Islami, Ann Goding Sauer, Kimberly D Miller, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Marjorie L McCullough, Alpa V Patel, Jiemin Ma, Isabelle Soerjomataram, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Susan M Gapstur, Ahmedin Jemal
Contemporary information on the fraction of cancers that potentially could be prevented is useful for priority setting in cancer prevention and control. Herein, the authors estimate the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths, overall (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) and for 26 cancer types, in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014, that were attributable to major, potentially modifiable exposures (cigarette smoking; secondhand smoke; excess body weight; alcohol intake; consumption of red and processed meat; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, dietary fiber, and dietary calcium; physical inactivity; ultraviolet radiation; and 6 cancer-associated infections)...
November 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160896/influence-of-fracture-stability-on-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-a-murine-femoral-fracture-model
#12
M Sabaté Brescó, L O'Mahony, S Zeiter, K Kluge, M Ziegler, C Berset, D Nehrbass, R G Richards, T F Moriarty
Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a major complication in surgically fixed fractures. Instability of the fracture after fixation is considered a risk factor for infection; however, few experimental data are available confirming this belief. To study whether stable fractures led to higher infection clearance, mouse femoral osteotomies were fixed with either stable or unstable fixation and the surgical site was contaminated with either Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis)or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)clinical isolates...
November 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160722/do-infection-patterns-of-human-papillomavirus-affect-the-cytologic-detection-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-on-papanicolaou-tests
#13
Siavash Azadmanesh Samimi, Roxanne R Mody, Steven Goodman, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody, Yimin Ge
CONTEXT: - Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. The effect of HPV infection patterns on cytologic detection of cervical lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the effect of HPV infection patterns on the sensitivity of cytologic detection of high-grade cervical lesions. DESIGN: - Papanicolaou tests from 257 women with biopsy-confirmed, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were analyzed with respect to HPV infection patterns...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160643/antithrombotic-treatment-in-neonates-and-children
#14
Cornelia H van Ommen
Despite the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolic disease in pediatric patients, it remains a rare complication in childhood. Particularly neonates and adolescents are at risk for development of venous thrombosis. Spontaneous thrombotic events are sporadic, the majority of children have multiple co-existing risk factors, including central venous catheter, asphyxia, congenital heart disease, infection, malignancy, surgery and hypovolemia. Most thrombi are diagnosed by ultrasonography. Recommendations for management of pediatric thrombosis are typically extrapolated from adult studies, despite many differences between adults and children, including developmental hemostasis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160513/detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-area-directly-affected-by-the-s%C3%A3-o-francisco-river-large-scale-water-transposition-project-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#15
José Damião da Silva, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Mariana Silva Sousa, Vivian da Silva Gomes, Issis Maria Nogueira de Castro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes Bezerra
INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160505/metabolic-disorders-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-without-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Mariana Amaral Raposo, Geyza Nogueira de Almeida Armiliato, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Camila Abrahão Caram, Raíssa Domingues de Simoni Silveira, Unaí Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160503/alert-severe-cases-and-deaths-associated-with-chikungunya-in-brazil
#17
Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito
Since the detection of the Chikungunya virus in America in 2013, two million cases of the disease have been notified worldwide. Severe cases and deaths related to Chikungunya have been reported in India and Reunion Island, estimated at 1 death per 1,000 inhabitants. Joint involvement in the acute and chronic phase is the main clinical manifestation associated with Chikungunya. The severity of the infection may be directly attributable to viral action or indirectly, owing to decompensation of preexisting comorbidities...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160359/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-feral-cats-and-rodents-from-the-fernando-de-noronha-archipelago-brazil
#18
Victor Fernando Santana Lima, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Raphael Lepold, João Carlos Gomes Borges, Carlos Diógenes Ferreira, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Leucio Câmara Alves
Gastrointestinal parasites are important pathogens affecting animals, some of them are of medical and veterinary concern. Although the dynamic of parasitic infections is a complex phenomenon that has been studied under experimental conditions, it shows several gaps in knowledge, especially in insular regions where a confined population of animals and parasites co-exists. In this study was assessed the parasitism by endoparasite gastrointestinal in feral cats (n = 37) and rodents (n = 30) from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; in addition, the risk of human infection and ecological implications of these findings were discussed...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160199/marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-non-human-primate-model-for-evaluation-of-candidate-dengue-vaccines-induction-and-maintenance-of-specific-protective-immunity-against-challenges-with-clinical-isolates
#19
Meng Ling Moi, Yasushi Ami, Nor Azila Muhammad Azami, Kenji Shirai, Sutee Yoksan, Yuriko Suzaki, Kazutaka Kitaura, Chang-Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Ryuji Suzuki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane
Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious diseases in tropical regions and approximately half of the world population is at risk of infection. Vaccines would offer an effective control measure against this disease. We previously reported on the utility of marmosets as an animal model for studying primary and secondary dengue infections. Infected marmosets consistently develop viraemia and antibody kinetics that reflect those of patients with dengue. Thus, it is important to determine the utility of marmosets as an animal model for demonstrating vaccine efficacy...
November 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160119/a-review-of-the-infection-pathogenesis-and-prophylaxis-recommendations-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#20
Tamar Tadmor, Manfred Welslau, Iwoma Hus
The majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) will obtain an infectious complication at some point during their disease, accounting for up to an estimated 60% of deaths in CLL. Patients are predisposed to infection due to inherent immune defects related to the primary disease, and as a result of therapy. The range of infectious complications has evolved alongside therapeutic advances in the treatment of CLL. More recently several novel targeted therapeutic compounds have been introduced in CLL, whose unique safety profiles will probably have an impact on the prophylaxis and management of infectious complications in these patients Areas covered: This review describes the pathogenesis of infections due to intrinsic CLL or therapy-related immunosuppression, and deals with the importance of proactive and reactive infection management as a key focus of patient care...
November 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
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