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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738521/ginkgo-biloba-exocarp-extracts-induces-autophagy-in-lewis-lung-cancer-cells-involving-ampk-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#1
Chenjie Cao, Dongdong Han, Ya Su, Yu Ge, Huasheng Chen, Aihua Xu
OBJECTIVES: Ginkgo biloba L. is called a living fossil plant, and could be used for the treatment of cancer thousands of years ago in China. The extracts prepared from the Ginkgo biloba exocarp (Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts, GBEE) has a significant anti-cancer effect. Autophagy plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer as programmed cell death (PCD) type II. Thus it would be interesting to study the effects and mechanisms of GBEE inducing autophagy in Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738424/use-of-high-throughput-in-vitro-toxicity-screening-data-in-cancer-hazard-evaluations-by-iarc-monograph-working-groups
#2
Weihsueh A Chiu, Kathryn Z Guyton, Matthew T Martin, David M Reif, Ivan Rusyn
Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream...
July 24, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738055/pd-1-inhibitor-therapy-consensus-statement-from-the-faculty-of-the-melanoma-nursing-initiative-on-managing-adverse-events%C3%A2
#3
Suzanne McGettigan, Krista M Rubin
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapies are now a standard treatment for advanced melanoma and other tumor types. The immune-related adverse events (irAEs) associated with PD-1 inhibitor therapy are drastically different from the AEs associated with chemotherapy. Because these irAEs reflect immune system activation rather than side effects of therapy, nurses should be cognizant of the range of organ systems potentially affected as well as likely clinical presentations...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738040/clinical-nurse-consultant-support-management-of-patients-with-melanoma-receiving-immunotherapy-%C3%A2-and-targeted-therapy%C3%A2
#4
Anna J Lomax, Theresa Nielsen, Lydia Visintin, Brent O'Carrigan, Florian Honeyball, Benjamin Shum, Robyn P M Saw, Catriona McNeil
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapy and immunotherapy agents for advanced melanoma are associated with novel toxicities. Melanoma clinical nurse consultants (CNCs) provide multifaceted clinical care.
. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the type of support, excluding clinic and inpatient care, provided by CNCs for patients not enrolled in a clinical trial.
. METHODS: A prospective review of CNC support provided during a 12-week period was conducted...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738020/resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-skin-mediate-durable-immunity-to-melanoma
#5
Brian T Malik, Katelyn T Byrne, Jennifer L Vella, Peisheng Zhang, Tamer B Shabaneh, Shannon M Steinberg, Aleksey K Molodtsov, Jacob S Bowers, Christina V Angeles, Chrystal M Paulos, Yina H Huang, Mary Jo Turk
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been widely characterized in infectious disease settings; however, their role in mediating immunity to cancer remains unknown. We report that skin-resident memory T cell responses to melanoma are generated naturally as a result of autoimmune vitiligo. Melanoma antigen-specific TRM cells resided predominantly in melanocyte-depleted hair follicles and were maintained without recirculation or replenishment from the lymphoid compartment. These cells expressed CD103, CD69, and CLA (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen), but lacked PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) or LAG-3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3), and were capable of making IFN-γ (interferon-γ)...
April 14, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736574/elucidating-the-role-of-highly-homologous-nicotiana-benthamiana-ubiquitin-e2-gene-family-members-in-plant-immunity-through-an-improved-virus-induced-gene-silencing-approach
#6
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. RESULTS: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736552/asiatic-acid-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activities-against-lipopolysaccharide-and-d-galactosamine-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#7
Hongming Lv, Zhimin Qi, Sisi Wang, Haihua Feng, Xuming Deng, Xinxin Ci
Inflammation and oxidative stress are essential for the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Asiatic acid (AA), which is a pentacyclic triterpene that widely occurs in various vegetables and fruits, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (GalN)-induced FHF and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings suggested that AA treatment effectively protected against LPS/d-GalN-induced FHF by lessening the lethality; decreasing the alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α production, malondialdehyde formation, myeloperoxidase level and reactive oxygen species generation (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735389/the-fundamental-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-plant-stress-response
#8
Michael Liebthal, Karl-Josef Dietz
Chemical, physical, and biotic factors continuously vary in the natural environment. Such parameters are considered as stressors if the magnitude of their change exceeds the current acclimation norm of the plant. Activation of genetic programs allows for conditional expansion of the acclimation norm and depends on specific sensing mechanisms, intracellular communication, and regulation. The redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network plays a fundamental role in directing the acclimation response. These highly reactive compounds like H2O2 are generated and scavenged under normal conditions and participate in realizing a basal acclimation level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734635/programmed-cell-death-and-inflammation-winter-is-coming
#9
REVIEW
Joseph P Kolb, Thomas H Oguin, Andrew Oberst, Jennifer Martinez
The life of an organism requires the assistance of an unlikely process: programmed cell death. Both development and the maintenance of homeostasis result in the production of superfluous cells that must eventually be disposed of. Furthermore, programmed cell death can also represent a defense mechanism; for example, by depriving pathogens of a replication niche. The responsibility of handling these dead cells falls on phagocytes of the immune system, which surveil their surroundings for dying or dead cells and efficiently clear them in a quiescent manner...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734041/mir-103-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-directly-targeting-programmed-cell-death-10-in-nsclc
#10
Dong Yang, Jian-Jun Wang, Jin-Song Li, Qian-Yu Xu
NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancer cases. Absence of miR-103 has recently identified to be associated withmetastatic capacity of primary lung tumors. However, the exact role of miR-103 in NSCLC and the molecular mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we showed that miR-103 expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues and cells. miR-103 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size and stage. The overall survival was longer in patients with higher miR-103 level than in those with lower miR-103 expression...
July 21, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733390/triphosphate-tunnel-metalloenzyme-function-in-senescence-highlights-a-biological-diversification-of-this-protein-superfamily
#11
Huoi Ung, Purva KAria, Kazuo Ebine, Wolfgang Moeder, Takashi Ueda, Keiko Yoshioka
The triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily comprises a group of enzymes that hydrolyze organophosphate substrates. They exist in all domains of life, yet the biological role of most family members is unclear. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three TTM genes. We have previously reported that AtTTM2 displays pyrophosphatase activity and is involved in pathogen resistance. Here we report the biochemical activity and biological function of AtTTM1 and diversification of the biological roles between AtTTM1 and 2...
July 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733192/pharmacological-evaluation-of-phytochemicals-from-south-indian-black-turmeric-curcuma-caesia-roxb-to-target-cancer-apoptosis
#12
K S Mukunthan, R S Satyan, T N Patel
Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Black turmeric), a perennial herb of the family Zingiberaceae is indigenous to India. C. caesia is used as a spice, food preservative and coloring agent commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Functional parametric pharmacological evaluations like drug ability and toxicity profile of this endangered species is poorly documented. In our present study, among all the extracts of dried C. caesia rhizome viz- hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water tested for free radical scavenging capacity by total antioxidant activity (TAO) method, Hexane Rhizome Extract (HRE) wzs found to possess remarkable activity (1200mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100g)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733033/discovery-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-for-the-c-elegans-caspase-ced-3-by-high-throughput-screening
#13
Scott Brantley, Steven W Cotten, David R Lamson, Ginger R Smith, Rihe Liu, Kevin P Williams
C.elegans has been widely used as a model organism for programmed cell death and apoptosis. Although, the CED-3 caspase is the primary effector of cell death in C. elegans, no selective inhibitors have been identified. Utilizing high-throughput screening with recombinant C. elegans CED-3 protein, we have discovered and confirmed 21 novel small molecule inhibitors. Six compounds had IC50 values < 10 μM. From these, four distinct chemotypes were identified. The inhibitor scaffolds described here could lead to the development of selective molecular probes to facilitate our understanding of programmed cell death in this model organism...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732383/radiation-alters-pd-l1-nkg2d-ligand-levels-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-leads-to-immune-escape-from-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-via-il-6-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#14
Ming Jing Shen, Li Jun Xu, Li Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
We investigated whether radiation influences the susceptibility of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. We found radiation treatment increased expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), but decreased NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligand expressions in A549 and H157 NSCLC cells. Both types of changes would have protected tumor cells from the cytotoxic action of NK cells. Consistently, we detected similar alteration in these molecules in radioresistant A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 subline cells...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730266/-malignant-melanoma-current-status
#15
REVIEW
J K Winkler, K Buder-Bakhaya, A Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A Enk, J C Hassel
CLINICAL ISSUE: The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. STANDARD TREATMENT: Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. TREATMENT INNOVATIONS: Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. DIAGNOSTIC WORK-UP: Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used...
July 20, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730140/current-advances-in-checkpoint-inhibitors-lessons-from-non-central-nervous-system-cancers-and-potential-for-glioblastoma
#16
REVIEW
Natasha Lakin, Robert Rulach, Stefan Nowicki, Kathreena M Kurian
The adaptive immune system depends on the sequence of antigen presentation, activation, and then inhibition to mount a proportionate response to a threat. Tumors evade the immune response partly by suppressing T-cell activity using immune checkpoints. The use of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies counteract this suppression, thereby enhancing the antitumor activity of the immune system. This approach has proven efficacy in melanoma, renal cancer, and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#17
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729821/optimized-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-in-situ-for-the-long-lasting-assessment-of-hippocampal-cell-death
#18
Oksana Rybachuk, Olga Kopach, Volodymyr Krotov, Nana Voitenko, Tatyana Pivneva
Among all the brain, the hippocampus is the most susceptible region to ischemic lesion, with the highest vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to ischemic damage. This damage may cause either prompt neuronal death (within hours) or with a delayed appearance (over days), providing a window for applying potential therapies to reduce or prevent ischemic impairments. However, the time course when ischemic damage turns to neuronal death strictly depends on experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia and, up to now, studies were predominantly focused on a short time-window-from hours to up to a few days post-lesion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729608/programmed-death-one-homolog-maintains-the-pool-size-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-promoting-their-differentiation-and-stability
#19
Qi Wang, Jianwei He, Dallas B Flies, Liqun Luo, Lieping Chen
Programmed death one homolog (PD-1H) is an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule and primarily acts as a coinhibitor in the initiation of T cell response to antigens. Here, we report that genetic ablation of PD-1H in mice blocks the differentiation of naive T cells to Foxp3(+) inducible Treg cells (iTreg) with a significant decrease of iTreg in lymphoid organs. This effect of PD-1H is highly specific for iTreg because both naturally generated iTreg in gut-related tissues and in vitro induced iTreg by TGF-β were decreased whereas the genesis of natural Treg (nTreg) remains normal...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729419/the-exocyst-is-required-for-photoreceptor-ciliogenesis-and-retinal-development
#20
Glenn P Lobo, Diana Fulmer, Lilong Guo, Xiaofeng Zuo, Yujing Dang, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yanhui Su, Kola George, Elisabeth Obert, Ben Fogelgren, Deepak Nihalani, Russell A Norris, Bärbel Rohrer, Joshua H Lipschutz
We previously have shown that the highly-conserved eight-protein exocyst trafficking complex is required for ciliogenesis in kidney tubule cells. We hypothesized here that ciliogenic programs are conserved across organs and species. To determine if renal primary ciliogenic programs are conserved in the eye, and to characterize the function and mechanisms by which the exocyst regulates eye development in zebrafish, we focused on exoc5, a central component of the exocyst complex, by analyzing both exoc5 zebrafish mutants, and photoreceptor-specific Exoc5 knockout mice...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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