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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350867/dissociation-between-skin-test-reactivity-and-anti-aeroallergen-ige-determinants-among-urban-brazilian-children
#1
Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Rafael V Veiga, João C M Ponte, Sérgio S da Cunha, Silvia M Simões, Álvaro A Cruz, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Sheila M Matos, Thiago Magalhães Silva, Camila A Figueiredo, Lain C Pontes-de-Carvalho, Laura C Rodrigues, Rosemeire L Fiaccone, Philip J Cooper, Maurício L Barreto
BACKGROUND: The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350810/risky-sexual-practice-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-positive-adults-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-clinic-at-gondar-university-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#2
Abiyot Abeje Molla, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual practice among people living with HIV/AIDS is a public health concern because of the risk of transmission of the virus to sero-discordant partner/s. There is also the risk of re-infection with new, drug resistant viral strains between sero-concordant partners. However, there is lack of information on risky sexual practices among HIV positive adults. Therefore, this study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among adult HIV positive clients at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350454/structural-optimizations-of-thieno-3-2-b-pyrrole-derivatives-for-the-development-of-metabolically-stable-inhibitors-of-chikungunya-virus
#3
Kuan Chieh Ching, Thi Ngoc Quy Tran, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Yiu Wing Kam, Lisa F P Ng, Christina Li Lin Chai
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging vector-borne alphavirus and there is no approved effective antiviral treatment currently available for CHIKV. We previously reported the discovery of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 1b that displayed good antiviral activity against CHIKV infection in vitro. However, it has a short half-life in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) (T1/2 = 2.91 min). Herein, we report further optimization studies in which potential metabolically labile sites on compound 1b were removed or modified, resulting in the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 20 and pyrrolo[2,3-d]thiazole 23c possessing up to 17-fold increase in metabolic half-lives in HLMs and good in vivo pharmacokinetic properties...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346011/various-plus-unique-viral-protein-u-as-a-plurifunctional-protein-for-hiv-1-replication
#4
Andrew Soper, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Hirofumi Aso, Miyu Moriwaki, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, encodes four accessory genes, one of which is viral protein U (Vpu). Recently, the study of Vpu has been of great interest. For instance, various cellular proteins are degraded (e.g. CD4) and down-modulated (e.g. tetherin) by Vpu. Vpu also antagonizes the function of tetherin and inhibits NF-κB. Moreover, Vpu is a viroporin forming ion channels and may represent a promising target for anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this review, we summarize the domains/residues that are responsible for Vpu's functions, describe the current understanding of the role of Vpu in HIV-1-infected cells, and review the effect of Vpu on HIV-1 in replication and pathogenesis...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345163/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-letermovir-a-novel-anti-human-cytomegalovirus-drug-in-patients-with-renal-impairment
#5
D Kropeit, J Scheuenpflug, K Erb-Zohar, A Halabi, H-P Stobernack, E G J Hulskotte, A van Schanke, H Zimmermann, H Rübsamen-Schaeff
AIMS: Human cytomegalovirus remains a significant issue for immunocompromised patients and existing viral polymerase targeting therapies are associated with significant toxicity. Accordingly, the viral terminase complex inhibitor, letermovir, is in development. We assessed letermovir pharmacokinetics in renal impairment. METHODS: This was a Phase 1, open-label, non-randomised trial. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on the Modification of Diet Renal Disease equation was used to create 3 groups of 8 subjects: healthy function (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1...
March 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345112/experience-with-direct-acting-anti-viral-agents-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#6
Amit Goel, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Anupma Kaul, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta, Raj Kumar Sharma, Praveer Rai, Rakesh Aggarwal
In recent past, direct-acting anti-viral drugs (DAAs) have become the standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the experience with the use of these drugs in Indian renal transplant recipients is limited. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with DAA-based treatment for HCV infection in such patients. Between April 2015 and December 2016, six adults (median age 41 [range 34-52] years, male 5; GT1 2, GT3 3, and GT4 1; including three with prior failed interferon-based treatment) had received genotype-guided, DAA-based anti-HCV treatment 1 to 158 (median 15) months after renal transplantation...
March 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345027/pre-clinical-assessment-of-c134-a-chimeric-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#7
Kevin A Cassady, David F Bauer, Justin Roth, Melissa R Chambers, Trent Shoeb, Jennifer Coleman, Mark Prichard, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type I constructs are investigational anti-neoplastic agents for a variety of malignancies, including malignant glioma. Clinical trials to date have supported the safety of these agents even when directly administered in the CNS. Traditional pre-clinical US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicity studies for these agents have included the use of two species, generally including murine and primate studies. Recently, the FDA has decreased its requirement of non-human primates as an animal model for ethical reasons, especially for established viral systems where there are good alternative model systems...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344998/low-dose-liver-targeted-gene-therapy-for-pompe-disease-enhances-therapeutic-efficacy-of-ert-via-immune-tolerance-induction
#8
Sang-Oh Han, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Benjamin Arnson, Christian Leborgne, Songtao Li, Federico Mingozzi, Dwight Koeberl
Pompe disease results from acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency, and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human (rh) GAA has clinical benefits, although its limitations include the short half-life of GAA and the formation of antibody responses. The present study compared the efficacy of ERT against gene transfer with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing a liver-specific promoter. GAA knockout (KO) mice were administered either a weekly injection of rhGAA (20 mg/kg) or a single injection of AAV2/8-LSPhGAA (8 × 10(11) vector genomes [vg]/kg)...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344639/aflatoxin-b1-inhibits-the-type-1-interferon-response-pathway-via-stat1-suggesting-another-mechanism-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Patrick W Narkwa, David J Blackbourn, Mohamed Mutocheluh
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of food is very high in most sub-Saharan African countries. AFB1 is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing mutation in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. The number of new HCC cases is high in West Africa with an accompanying high mortality. The type I interferon (IFN) pathway of the innate immune system limits viral infections and exerts its anti-cancer property by up-regulating tumour suppressor activities and pro-apoptotic pathways...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344580/a-perspective-on-the-development-of-plant-made-vaccines-in-the-fight-against-ebola-virus
#10
REVIEW
Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Ricardo Nieto-Gómez, Carlos Angulo
The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic indicated a great need for prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. The use of plants for the production of biopharmaceuticals is a concept being adopted by the pharmaceutical industry, with an enzyme for human use currently commercialized since 2012 and some plant-based vaccines close to being commercialized. Although plant-based antibodies against EBOV are under clinical evaluation, the development of plant-based vaccines against EBOV essentially remains an unexplored area...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342865/kshv-encoded-viral-interferon-regulatory-factor-4-virf4-interacts-with-irf7-and-inhibits-interferon-alpha-production
#11
Sung-Woo Hwang, DongIk Kim, Jae U Jung, Hye-Ra Lee
Before an infection can be completely established, the host immediately turns on the innate immune system through activating the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) utilizes a unique antagonistic mechanism of type I IFN-mediated host antiviral immunity by incorporating four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRF1-4). Herein, we characterized novel immune evasion strategies of vIRF4 to inhibit the IRF7-mediated IFN-α production. KSHV vIRF4 specifically interacts with IRF7, resulting in inhibition of IRF7 dimerization and ultimately suppresses IRF7-mediated activation of type I IFN...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342861/microrna-548j-inhibits-type-i-interferon-production-by-targeting-zbtb11-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Kangkang Yu, Qian Li, Qi Cheng, Chong Huang, Jianming Zheng, Shengsen Chen, Qingxia Ling, Mengqi Zhu, Mingquan Chen, Guangfeng Shi, Ning Li
Type I IFNs play crucial roles in antiviral immune responses. By inducing cellular resistance to viral infection and apoptosis of virus-infected cells, they impair virus replication and eliminate the invading pathogens. However, in CHB patients, generation of type I IFN was significantly impaired and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. MicroRNA-548 family has been implicated in regulating antiviral response upon various infections. Here we explored the potential role of miR-548j in modulating type I IFN production in CHB...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342803/antigen-specific-ctls-to-produce-autologous-cells-product-for-adoptive-cellular-therapy
#13
Sai Liu, Yi Shao, Jie Xu, Na Jiang, Yanchao Dai, Yu Wang, Huanqin Sun, Jianping Sun, Yonghong Zhang
As antiretroviral therapy provides long term viral suppression but no cure, alternative therapies such as adoptive cellular therapy have thus been investigated in anti-AIDS field. OBJECTIVE: This study is to established a HLA-A02 specific CTL cell culture method with comparison of the effects of different cytokines used in CTLs cultivation to decide the best cultivation environment. In order to produce CTLs with targeted HLA-A02 restricted antigen specificity for adoptive cellular therapy, we evaluated autologous PBMC cultivation in different cytokine environment to select a better expansion condition to produce qualified CTLs production...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342642/performance-comparison-of-new-generation-hcv-core-antigen-test-versus-hcv-rna-test-in-management-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
Salih Çetiner, Alev Çetin Duran, Filiz Kibar, Akgün Yaman
The study has evaluated the performance of HCV core antigen (Cag) test by comparing HCV RNA PCR assay which is considered the gold standard for management of HCV infection. Totally, 132 samples sent for HCV RNA (real-time PCR) test were included in the study. Anti-HCV antibody test and HCV Cag test were performed by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CMEI). Anti-HCV test was positive in all samples. HCV RNA was detected in 112/132 (84.8%) samples, and HCV Cag in 105/132 (79.5%). The most common HCV genotype was genotype 1 (86%)...
March 6, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342241/overt-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-community-children-in-northwest-china
#15
Haixia Su, Zhongjun Shao, Zhongshu Pu, Yang Wang, Lei Zhang, Weilu Zhang, Bo Wang, Anhui Wang, Zhaohua Ji, Yongping Yan, Yuhai Zhang
Although a universal newborn hepatitis B (HB) immunization program has been implemented in China, hepatitis B virus (HBV) breakthrough infection, including HB surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive infection and occult HBV infection (OBI), still occurs during infancy or childhood. Obtaining the actual prevalence of HBV infection in general children is important for preventing and controlling the spread of HB. Accordingly, we investigated the prevalence of overt infection and OBI in community children and compared the serological and virological characteristics of OBI and HBsAg-carrier children to clarify the mechanisms related to OBI...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341822/berberine-restricts-coxsackievirus-b-type-3-replication-via-inhibition-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-and-p38-mapk-activation-in-vitro
#16
Qian Dai, Di Zhang, Hua Yu, Wei Xie, Rong Xin, Lei Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaomei He, Junzhi Xiong, Halei Sheng, Le Zhang, Kebin Zhang, Xiaomei Hu
BACKGROUND At present, the treatment of coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis remains difficult. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, exhibits significant anti-viral efficacy against various viruses. However, the underlying mechanism by which BBR controls CVB3 infection has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-viral efficacy of BBR against CVB3 infection and its mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our experiments, the protein levels of VP1 and MAPKs signal pathway were measured by Western blot...
March 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341749/suppression-of-interferon-mediated-anti-hbv-response-by-single-cpg-methylation-in-the-5-utr-of-trim22
#17
Keo-Heun Lim, Eun-Sook Park, Doo Hyun Kim, Kyung Cho Cho, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yong Kwang Park, Sung Hyun Ahn, Seung Hwa Park, Kee-Hwan Kim, Chang Wook Kim, Hong Seok Kang, Ah Ram Lee, Soree Park, Heewoo Sim, Juhee Won, Kieun Seok, Jueng Soo You, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Nam-Joon Yi, Kwang-Woong Lee, Kyung-Suk Suh, Baik L Seong, Kyun-Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: Interferons (IFNs) mediate direct antiviral activity. They play a crucial role in the early host immune response against viral infections. However, IFN therapy for HBV infection is less effective than for other viral infections. DESIGN: We explored the cellular targets of HBV in response to IFNs using proteome-wide screening. RESULTS: Using LC-MS/MS, we identified proteins downregulated and upregulated by IFN treatment in HBV X protein (HBx)-stable and control cells...
March 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340951/epstein-barr-virus-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-related-to-rituximab-use-and-immunopathogenetic-insights
#18
Sotirios G Papageorgiou, Sotirios Tsiodras, Georgios Siakallis, Efthimia Bazani, Aris Spathis, Garyfalia Poulakou, Penelope Korkolopoulou, Ioannis Panayiotides, Vasiliki Pappa
Anti-CD20-based chemo-immunotherapeutic regimens have been suggested to assist in the management of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-PTLD), by reducing EBV viral load and EBV-induced inflammation. Herein we report a fatal EBV-related HLH in the context of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)-like Richter's transformation of B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), two months after rituximab treatment. The complex balance between EBV driven T-cell stimulation and immunosuppressive therapy in the context of multiple immune deficits is discussed...
December 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340580/toll-like-receptors-genes-polymorphisms-and-the-occurrence-of-hcmv-infection-among-pregnant-women
#19
Wioletta Wujcicka, Edyta Paradowska, Mirosława Studzińska, Jan Wilczyński, Dorota Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of intrauterine infections worldwide. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported as important factors in immune response against HCMV. Particularly, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 have been shown to be involved in antiviral immunity. Evaluation of the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genes, in the development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnant women and their fetuses and neonates, was performed...
March 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340349/structure-reveals-mechanisms-of-viral-suppressors-that-intercept-a-crispr-rna-guided-surveillance-complex
#20
Saikat Chowdhury, Joshua Carter, MaryClare F Rollins, Sarah M Golden, Ryan N Jackson, Connor Hoffmann, Lyn'Al Nosaka, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Karen L Maxwell, Alan R Davidson, Elizabeth R Fischer, Gabriel C Lander, Blake Wiedenheft
Genetic conflict between viruses and their hosts drives evolution and genetic innovation. Prokaryotes evolved CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems for protection from viral infection, and viruses have evolved diverse anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that subvert these immune systems. The adaptive immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (type I-F) relies on a 350 kDa CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to bind foreign DNA and recruit a trans-acting nuclease for target degradation. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Csy complex bound to two different Acr proteins, AcrF1 and AcrF2, at an average resolution of 3...
March 23, 2017: Cell
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