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Anti viral

Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Takeomi Murata, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Toshio Kawahara, Yohei Watanabe, Yasushi Kanai, Takao Ono, Jun Hirabayashi, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki
The rapidly evolvable influenza A virus has caused pandemics linked to millions of deaths in the past century. Influenza A viruses are categorized by H (hemagglutinin; HA) and N (neuraminidase; NA) proteins expressed on the viral envelope surface. Analyses of past pandemics suggest that the HA gene segment comes from a nonhuman virus, which is then introduced into an immunologically naïve human population with potentially devastating consequences. As a prerequisite for infection, the nonhuman HA molecules of H1-H16 viruses must be able to bind to specific sialyl receptors on the host cell surface along the human respiratory tract...
March 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
Lin Cao, Jizheng Chen, Yaxin Wang, Yuting Yang, Jie Qing, Zihe Rao, Xinwen Chen, Zhiyong Lou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A R) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy...
March 14, 2018: Protein & Cell
Lina Rustanti, Hongping Jin, Dongsheng Li, Mary Lor, Haran Sivakumaran, David Harrich
Nullbasic is a mutant form of HIV-1 Tat that has strong ability to protect cells from HIV-1 replication by inhibiting three different steps of viral replication: reverse transcription, Rev export of viral mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and transcription of viral mRNA by RNA polymerase II. We previously showed that Nullbasic inhibits transduction of human cells including T cells by HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. Here we investigated whether the Nullbasic antagonists huTat2 (a Tat targeting intrabody), HIV-1 Tat or Rev proteins or cellular DDX1 protein could improve transduction by a HIV-1 lentiviral vector conveying Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 to human T cells...
March 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Richard B Pyles, Marc M Baum, John A Moss
Introduction: In the absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for the identification of effective agents that prevent HIV transmission in uninfected individuals. Non-vaccine Biomedical Prevention (nBP) methods, such as topical or systemic pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are promising strategies to slow down the spread of AIDS. Methods: In this study, we investigated the microbicidal efficacy of the viral membrane-disrupting amphipathic SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK peptide called C5A...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Yong Gao, Chanuka Wijewardhana, Jamie F S Mann
It is acknowledged that vaccines remain the best hope for eliminating the HIV-1 epidemic. However, the failure to produce effective vaccine immunogens and the inability of conventional delivery strategies to elicit the desired immune responses remains a central theme and has ultimately led to a significant roadblock in HIV vaccine development. Consequently, significant efforts have been applied to generate novel vaccine antigens and delivery agents, which mimic viral structures for optimal immune induction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Dingchun Li, Wu Li, Yihui Chen, Lihui Liu, Dehong Ma, Hongtu Wang, Lu Zhang, Shenjun Zhao, Qin Peng
Hepatic fibrosis is resulted from sustained wound-healing responses to various harmful stimuli, including viral infection, drug toxicity, alcohol, and autoimmune hepatopathy, and it has recently attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers and clinical workers. The aims of this study were to examine the anti-fibrotic effects of extracts of Periplaneta americana (EPA) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, to preliminary determine the anti-fibrotic efficacy of EPA, and to identify a potential and effective therapeutic agent to attenuate hepatic fibrosis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Li-Hao Huang, Elaina M Melton, Haibo Li, Paul Sohn, DaeYoung Jung, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Hiroyuki Sano, HyeKyung Ha, Randall H Friedline, Jason K Kim, Edward Usherwood, Catherine Cy Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang
Macrophages are phagocytes that play important roles in health and diseases. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 [ACAT1] converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters, and is expressed in many cell types. Unlike global Acat1 knockout [KO], myeloid-specific Acat1 KO [Acat1-M/-M ] does not cause overt abnormalities in mice. Here we performed analyses in age and sex matched Acat1-M/-M and wild-type mice on chow or Western diet, and discovered that Acat1-M/-M mice exhibit resistance to Western diet-induced obesity...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiao-Zhen Kang, Xue-Ran Guo, Bin-Bing Chen, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Pei-Jer Chen, Jun Zhang, Ning-Shao Xia
There are estimated 248 million individuals worldwide persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), if without timely and effective treatment, about 25%-40% of whom would develop to liver cancer, cirrhosis or other HBV related end-stage liver diseases. Our previously study has reported a unique antibody named E6F6, that recognizes HBsAg-aa119-125 and is capable of prolonged suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA levels in mice. In this study, data revealed that the consecutive E6F6 treatments can not only effectively inhibit HBV viremia, but also significantly reduce HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in DEN-treated HBV-Tg mice...
March 13, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A Deethae, Y Peerapornpisal, J Pekkoh, P Sangthong, Y Tragoolpua
AIMS: To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml-1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Cynthuja Thilakanathan, Gabrielle Wark, Michael Maley, Scott Davison, Joseph Lawler, Aimei Lee, Nicholas Shackel, Vi Nguyen, Kathy Jackson, Anne Glass, Stephen A Locarnini, Miriam T Levy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-partum antiviral therapy in the setting of high viral load is recommended to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B although recommended viral load cut-offs vary. Quantitative HBsAg has been proposed as an alternative screening strategy to identify high viral load in this setting. Guidelines suggest testing all infants for vaccine response and infection. We set out to re-examine viral load cut-offs; the predictive value of quantitative HBsAg and the need for follow-up infant testing in our cohort...
March 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Kelly H Schlendorf, Sandip Zalawadiya, Ashish S Shah, Mark Wigger, Chan Y Chung, Sarah Smith, Matthew Danter, Chun W Choi, Mary E Keebler, D Marshall Brinkley, Suzanne Brown Sacks, Henry Ooi, Roman Perri, Joseph A Awad, Samuel Lewis, Rachel Hayes, Heather O'Dell, Callie Darragh, Alicia Carver, Cori Edmonds, Shelley Ruzevich-Scholl, JoAnn Lindenfeld
BACKGROUND: Given the shortage of suitable donor hearts for cardiac transplantation, and the favorable safety and efficacy of current agents used to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), our institution recently piloted transplantation of select patients using HCV-positive donors. METHODS: Between September 2016 and March 2017, 12 HCV-naive patients and 1 patient with a history of treated HCV underwent heart transplantation (HT) using hearts from HCV-positive donors after informed consent...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Jing-Lun Chen, Guang-Min Nong
Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Masahiko Mori, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Reiko Miyahara, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Panita Pathipvanich, Toshiyuki Miura, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
BACKGROUND: Class I HLA molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Contribution of CTLs to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of NK cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-KIR pairs, remain incomplete. METHODS: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected (n=209)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Antía Moreira, Ana Zabalza, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Elvira Munteis, Andrea Vera, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Luisa Maria Villar, Miguel López-Botet, Jose E Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been recently associated with a lower multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, remaining controversial whether it has a protective role or is merely an epiphenomenon related to westernization and early-life viral infections. We aimed to evaluate whether CMV serostatus may differ in early MS as compared to non-early MS patients, analyzing the putative association of this virus with MS clinical course and humoral immune responses against other herpesviruses...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Ilona Baraniak, Barbara Kropff, Gary R McLean, Sylvie Pichon, Fabienne Piras-Douce, Richard S B Milne, Colette Smith, Michael Mach, Paul D Griffiths, Matthew B Reeves
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) virion envelope protein glycoprotein B (gB) is essential for viral entry and represents a major target for humoral responses following infection. Previously, a phase-2 placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in solid organ transplant candidates demonstrated that vaccination with gB plus MF59 adjuvant significantly increased gB ELISA antibody levels whose titer correlated directly with protection against post-transplant viremia. The aim of the current study was to investigate in more detail this protective humoral response in vaccinated seropositive transplant recipients...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marcel Wiesweg, Henning Reis, Tobias Köster, Moritz Goetz, Karl Worm, Thomas Herold, Andreas Paul, Alexander Dechêne, Brigitte Schumacher, Peter Markus, Isabel Virchow, Karina Kostbade, Nathalie Wolf, Gregor Zaun, Martin Metzenmacher, Kurt W Schmid, Martin Schuler, Stefan Kasper
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of signal transduction pathways plays a critical role in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and directly affects sensitivity to targeted therapies. Against this background we developed a comprehensive biomarker profiling program including markers of downstream signaling to study their association with clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively studied cohort of 160 patients with metastatic CRC was included. Standard diagnostic workup included mutational analyses of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Carmina Pallarés, Ângela Carvalho-Gomes, Vanessa Hontangas, Isabel Conde, Tomasso Di Maira, Victoria Aguilera, Salvador Benlloch, Marina Berenguer, F Xavier López-Labrador
BACKGROUND: A reliable population screening strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be based in easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) tests for HCV antibodies, but validation data is needed before their potential widespread use in primary care or outreach practice. Besides, the sensitivity of these POC tests in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced viral clearance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of a non-invasive POC anti-HCV test (OraQuick HCV rapid test) in oral mucosal transudate (OMT) and fingerstick blood from patients with known anti-HCV serostatus and with or without active viremia (after treatment-induced clearance)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Leen Delang, Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts
Favipiravir, also known as T-705, is an antiviral drug that has been approved in 2014 in Japan to treat pandemic influenza virus infections. The drug is converted intracellularly into its active, phosphoribosylated form, which is recognized as a substrate by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Interestingly, besides its anti-influenza virus activity, this molecule is also able to inhibit the replication of flavi-, alpha-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, noro-, and of other RNA viruses, which include neglected and (re)emerging viruses for which no antiviral therapy is currently available...
March 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
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