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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#1
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911040/retrospective-study-evaluating-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-blood-donors-and-in-swine-veterinarians-in-italy-2004
#2
L De Sabato, I Di Bartolo, E Montomoli, C Trombetta, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general population, ranging between 0.26% and 52.5%. A higher seroprevalence was described among workers who come in contact with pigs...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910763/il10-a-tale-of-an-evolutionarily-conserved-cytokine-across-vertebrates
#3
M Carla Piazzon, George Lutfalla, Maria Forlenza
IL10 was discovered in 1989, and since then it has been the subject of intense investigation, which has revealed its potent anti-inflammatory and regulatory activities in most immune processes during infection and disease. In 2003, the first non-mammalian IL10 sequence was identified in teleost fish, followed in 2004 by the chicken IL10 sequence. In this review, we summarize the work performed in non-mammalian vertebrates in which the IL10, IL10 receptors (IL10Rs), and their signaling components have been identified...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910206/balance-between-il-3-and-type-iinterferons-and-their-interrelationship-with-fasl-dictates-lifespan-and-effector-functions-of-human-basophils
#4
B R Hagmann, A Odermatt, T Kaufmann, C A Dahinden, M Fux
BACKGROUND: In contrast to eosinophils and neutrophils, the regulation of the lifespan of human basophils is poorly defined, with the exception of the potent anti-apoptotic effect of IL-3 that also promotes pro-inflammatory effector functions and phenotypic changes. Type I IFNs (IFN-α, IFN-β), which are well known for their anti-viral activities, have the capacity to inhibit allergic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether type I IFNs have the potential to abrogate the lifespan and/or effector functions of human basophils...
November 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910061/inhaled-gene-transfer-for-pulmonary-circulation
#5
Jaume Aguero, Lahouaria Hadri, Nadjib Hammoudi, Lauren Leonardson, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with right ventricular failure and high mortality regardless of the underlying disease. Currently, therapies can improve clinical outcomes in specific subsets of patients, but have little impact on the progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Upon new advances in vector development and delivery techniques, gene therapy is a novel strategy in this field with the potential of overcoming the main limitations of approved drug therapies: modulation of novel anti-remodeling targets and selective pulmonary vasculature targeting with minimal systemic effects...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908781/heme-oxygenase-1-metabolite-biliverdin-not-iron-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication
#6
Angke Zhang, Hong Duan, Na Li, Lijuan Zhao, Fengxing Pu, Baicheng Huang, Chunyan Wu, Yuchen Nan, Taofeng Du, Yang Mu, Qin Zhao, Yani Sun, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907975/-is-it-necessary-to-revaccinate-against-hepatitis-b-virus-when-the-titer-of-anti-hbs-drops-below-10-iu-l
#7
Pavel Polák, Petr Husa, Petr Smejkal, Jan Kamelander, Gabriela Chlupová, Miroslav Penka
Viral hepatitis B still represents a major epidemiological issue worldwide. After recombinant vaccine administration, a titer of anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 IU/L has long been considered to be seroprotective. Persons without this antibody level after complete vaccination are referred to as non-responders. A progressive decline in anti-HBs levels over years is also commonly seen in responders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence that the titer of anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L does not provide 100 % protection against infection and clinically manifest illness...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907136/immune-activation-and-bacterial-translocation-a-link-between-impaired-immune-recovery-and-frequent-visceral-leishmaniasis-relapses-in-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Glaucia Fernandes Cota, Talia S Machado-de-Assis, Carmem Giacoia-Gripp, Ana Rabello, Alda M Da-Cruz, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira
The maintenance of chronic immune activation due to leishmaniasis or even due to microbial translocation is associated with immunosenescence and may contribute to frequent relapses. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis (VL/HIV) who experience a single episode of VL have different immunological behaviors in comparison to those who experience frequent relapses. VL/HIV patients were allocated to non-relapsing (NR, n = 6) and relapsing (R, n = 11) groups and were followed from the active phase of VL up to 12 months post-treatment (mpt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906865/management-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#9
Gabriela Llaurador, Lauren McLaughlin, Birte Wistinghausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. The incidence of transplantation in childhood has been steadily rising, making PTLD the most common form of lymphoproliferation in childhood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathophysiology and discuss the management of PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 90% of pediatric PTLD is EBV-positive...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906005/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-hiv-1-protection-autologous-allogeneic-or-both
#10
REVIEW
Jef Hens, Wim Jennes, Luc Kestens
Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA)...
March 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906000/the-antiviral-compound-bit225-inhibits-hiv-1-replication-in-myeloid-dendritic-cells
#11
Gabriela Khoury, Gary Ewart, Carolyn Luscombe, Michelle Miller, John Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies with BIT225 (N-carbamimidoyl-5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-naphthamide) have demonstrated a unique antiviral activity that blocks the release of HIV-1 from monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Antagonising the ion channel formed by HIV-1 Vpu, BIT225 preferentially targets de novo intracellular virus produced in 'virus-containing compartments' of MDM. In primary infections, dendritic cells (DC) are one of the first cells infected by HIV-1 and can transfer virus to more permissive CD4(+) T cells, making these cells an important target for novel antiviral therapies...
February 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904646/hepatitis-c-among-healthcare-personnel-secondary-data-analyses-of-costs-and-trends-for-hepatitis-c-infections-with-occupational-causes
#12
Claudia Westermann, Madeleine Dulon, Dana Wendeler, Albert Nienhaus
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a global public health issue. Chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to describe the costs for occupationally-cased hepatitis C infections based on data from an accident insurance carrier. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis based on the Database of a German Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance. The analysis is based on a sample of insured parties whose hepatitis C infections were recorded as occupational diseases between 1996 and 2013...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904173/safety-of-topical-medications-for-scabies-and-lice-in-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Viral M Patel, W Clark Lambert, Robert A Schwartz
Medications should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age. Topical medications have little systemic absorption. Therefore, they are considered safer than oral or parenteral agents and less likely to be embryotoxic or fetotoxic. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously as the available data are limited. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies to provide recommendations on using topical anti-scabies and anti-lice therapy in pregnancy.
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902946/social-regulation-of-the-lymph-node-transcriptome-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#14
K Chun, J P Capitanio, D M Lamkin, E K Sloan, J M G Arevalo, S W Cole
Previous research has shown that adverse social conditions may promote a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression and down-regulation of Type I interferon anti-viral genes in circulating blood cells. However, the impact of social conditions on lymphoid tissue gene regulation remains largely unexplored. This project assessed how social instability in adult male rhesus macaques (N=10, 5 in unstable, and 5 in stable social conditions) might regulate gene expression within secondary lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes; LN)...
November 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902714/evaluation-of-the-activity-of-lamivudine-and-zidovudine-against-ebola-virus
#15
Yu Cong, Julie Dyall, Brit J Hart, Lisa Evans DeWald, Joshua C Johnson, Elena Postnikova, Huanying Zhou, Robin Gross, Oscar Rojas, Isis Alexander, Nicole Josleyn, Tengfei Zhang, Julia Michelotti, Krisztina Janosko, Pamela J Glass, Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Christina F Spiropoulou, Tim Mierzwa, Rajarshi Guha, Paul Shinn, Sam Michael, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Crystal McKnight, Craig Thomas, Ann E Eakin, Kathleen G O'Loughlin, Carol E Green, Paul Catz, Jon C Mirsalis, Anna N Honko, Gene G Olinger, Richard S Bennett, Michael R Holbrook, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling
In the fall of 2014, an international news agency reported that patients suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia were treated successfully with lamivudine, an antiviral drug used to treat human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus infections. According to the report, 13 out of 15 patients treated with lamivudine survived and were declared free from Ebola virus disease. In this study, the anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) activity of lamivudine and another antiretroviral, zidovudine, were evaluated in a diverse set of cell lines against two variants of wild-type EBOV...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902444/oncolytic-reovirus-as-a-combined-antiviral-and-anti-tumour-agent-for-the-treatment-of-liver-cancer
#16
Adel Samson, Matthew J Bentham, Karen Scott, Gerard Nuovo, Abigail Bloy, Elizabeth Appleton, Robert A Adair, Rajiv Dave, Adam Peckham-Cooper, Giles Toogood, Seishi Nagamori, Matthew Coffey, Richard Vile, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Fiona Errington-Mais, Alan Melcher, Stephen Griffin
OBJECTIVE: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent promising, proinflammatory cancer treatments. Here, we explored whether OV-induced innate immune responses could simultaneously inhibit HCV while suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, we extended this exemplar to other models of virus-associated cancer. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Clinical grade oncolytic orthoreovirus (Reo) elicited innate immune activation within primary human liver tissue in the absence of cytotoxicity and independently of viral genome replication...
November 15, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902356/luciferase-tagged-wild-type-and-tropism-deficient-mouse-cytomegaloviruses-reveal-early-dynamics-of-host-colonization-following-peripheral-challenge
#17
Helen Farrell, Martha Oliveira, Kate Macdonald, Joseph Yunis, Michael Mach, Kimberley Bruce, Philip Stevenson, Rhonda Cardin, Nicholas Davis-Poynter
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish persistent, systemic infections and cause disease by maternal-fetal transfer, suggesting that their dissemination is a key target for anti-viral intervention. Late clinical presentation has meant that human CMV dissemination is not well understood. Murine CMV provides a tractable model. Whole mouse imaging of virus-expressed luciferase has proved a useful way to track systemic infections. MCMV, in which the abundant lytic gene M78 was luciferase tagged via a self-cleaving peptide (M78-LUC), allowed serial, unbiased imaging of systemic and peripheral infection without significant virus attenuation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902336/characterization-of-the-banana-streak-virus-capsid-protein-and-mapping-of-the-immunodominant-continuous-b-cell-epitopes-to-the-surface-exposed-n-terminus
#18
Jenny Vo, Paul Campbell, Nur N Mahfuzc, Ras Ramli, Daniel Pagendam, Ross Barnard, Andrew Geering
This study identified the structural proteins of two badnavirus species, Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) and Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV), and mapped the distribution of continuous B-cell epitopes. Two different CP isoforms of about 44 and 40 kDa (CP1 and CP2) and the virion-associated protein (VAP) were consistently associated with purified virions. For both viral species, the N-terminus of CP2 was successfully sequenced by Edman degradation but that of CP1 was chemically blocked. De novo peptide sequencing of tryptic digests suggested that CP1 and CP2 derive from the same region of the P3 polyprotein but differ in the length of either the N- or C-terminus...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902333/plant-produced-anti-dengue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies-exhibit-reduced-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-infection-activity
#19
Matthew Dent, Jonathan Hurtado, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Huafang Lai, Ming Yang, Adrian Esqueda, Fengwei Bai, Herta Steinkellner, Qiang Chen
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo and subjects treated animals more susceptible to develop more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902332/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-by-activation-of-the-cgas-sting-pathway
#20
Jing He, Ruidong Hao, Dan Liu, Xing Liu, Shaoshuai Wu, Shuting Guo, Yuan Wang, Deyin Guo
Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the downstream signaling adaptor protein STING, leading to the expression of type I interferons. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus, and the cGAS-STING pathway may inhibit HBV RNA synthesis and viral assembly in cell culture, but the exact roles of cGAS pathway in the restriction of HBV replication in infection systems remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that the replication of HBV was significantly inhibited both in cell culture and in vivo in a mouse model when the cGAS-STING pathway was activated by dsDNA or cGAMP...
October 31, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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