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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550395/a-critical-role-for-il-21-receptor-signaling-in-the-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#1
Fan Yang, Xiao-Mou Wei, Wen-Wu Liang, Wen-Hong Mo, Bao-Ping Tan, Hong Wang
To determine whether IL-21 receptor signaling plays a significant role in promoting Tfh cell-mediated cardiac injury in viral myocarditis (VMC), we compared IL-21R-deficient mice for some parameters of VMC. Balb/c and IL-21R(-/-) mice were infected with CVB3. Frequencies of splenic Tfh cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis, and productions of anti-adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) autoantibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the effects of IL-21R signal on the proliferation of B cells, lymphocytes from spleens of the IL-21R(-/-) and Balb/c mice infected by CVB3 were tagged with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and then were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides plus IL-21 or anti-IL-21 neutralizing antibody for 3 days...
May 26, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548102/replicating-viral-vector-platform-exploits-alarmin-signals-for-potent-cd8-t-cell-mediated-tumour-immunotherapy
#2
Sandra M Kallert, Stephanie Darbre, Weldy V Bonilla, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Nicolas Page, Philipp Müller, Matthias Kreuzaler, Min Lu, Stéphanie Favre, Florian Kreppel, Max Löhning, Sanjiv A Luther, Alfred Zippelius, Doron Merkler, Daniel D Pinschewer
Viral infections lead to alarmin release and elicit potent cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte (CTL(eff)) responses. Conversely, the induction of protective tumour-specific CTL(eff) and their recruitment into the tumour remain challenging tasks. Here we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be engineered to serve as a replication competent, stably-attenuated immunotherapy vector (artLCMV). artLCMV delivers tumour-associated antigens to dendritic cells for efficient CTL priming. Unlike replication-deficient vectors, artLCMV targets also lymphoid tissue stroma cells expressing the alarmin interleukin-33...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547385/flavonoids-promising-natural-compounds-against-viral-infections
#3
REVIEW
Hovakim Zakaryan, Erik Arabyan, Adrian Oo, Keivan Zandi
Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545228/aberrant-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-and-a-therapeutic-target-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545034/characterization-of-sudan-ebolavirus-infection-in-ferrets
#5
Andrea Kroeker, Shihua He, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Gary Wong, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Xiangguo Qiu
Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreaks in Africa are highly lethal; however, the development and testing of novel antivirals and vaccines for this virus has been limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Non-human primates (NHP) remain the gold standard for modeling filovirus disease, but they are not conducive to screening large numbers of experimental compounds and should only be used to test the most promising candidates. Therefore, other smaller animal models are a valuable asset. We have recently developed a guinea-pig adapted SUDV virus that is lethal in guinea pigs...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545002/pd169316-a-specific-p38-inhibitor-shows-antiviral-activity-against-enterovirus71
#6
Zhe Zhang, Busen Wang, Shipo Wu, Yanbo Wen, Xinyi Wang, Xiaohong Song, Jinlong Zhang, Lihua Hou, Wei Chen
Enterovirus71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which threatens the health of infants and young children. The expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by this viral infection aggravate the illness. Here, we describe the anti-EV71 activity of a specific p38 inhibitor that regulates the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. PD169316 was specifically selected from a MAPK compound library due to its significant inhibitory effect on EV71 replication. PD169316 also reduced EV71-induced apoptosis...
May 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543875/unconjugated-interferon-stimulated-gene-15-specifically-interacts-with-the-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-protein-via-domain-i
#7
Nanae Minami, Takayuki Abe, Lin Deng, Chieko Matsui, Takasuke Fukuhara, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Ikuo Shoji
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein induced by type I interferon. Although several groups have reported ISGylation of the HCV NS5A protein, it is still unclear whether ISGylation of NS5A has anti-viral or pro-viral effects in HCV infection. In the present study, we examined the role of ISGylation-independent, unconjugated ISG15 in HCV infection. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that ISG15 specifically interacted with NS5A domain I. The ISG15 mutants lacking a C-terminal glycine residue essential for ISGylation still interacted with NS5A protein...
May 25, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543299/low-occurrence-of-hbsag-but-high-frequency-of-transient-occult-hbv-infection-in-vaccinated-and-hbig-administered-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#8
Shan Zhou, Tingting Li, Jean-Pierre Allain, Bin Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li
The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3 to 36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542661/-benign-acute-childhood-myositis-clinical-series-and-literature-review
#9
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Alejandra Aird G, Ingrid Harwardt R, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542611/no-molecular-or-serological-evidence-of-zikavirus-infection-among-healthy-blood-donors-living-in-or-travelling-to-regions-where-aedes-albopictus-circulates
#10
Wegene Borena, Tamara Hofer, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Manfred Gaber, Dorothee von Laer, Harald Schennach
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO) has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in western Austria (Tyrol) especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions. METHODS: The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542292/development-of-a-versatile-oncolytic-virus-platform-for-local-intra-tumoural-expression-of-therapeutic-transgenes
#11
Nalini Marino, Sam Illingworth, Prithvi Kodialbail, Ashvin Patel, Hugo Calderon, Rochelle Lear, Kerry D Fisher, Brian R Champion, Alice C N Brown
Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542284/haemocytes-collected-from-experimentally-infected-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-detection-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-dna-rna-and-proteins-in-relation-with-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#12
Claire Martenot, Ophélie Gervais, Bruno Chollet, Maryline Houssin, Tristan Renault
Recent transcriptomic approaches focused on anti-viral immunity in molluscs lead to the assumption that the innate immune system, such as apoptosis, plays a crucial role against ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1), infecting Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Apoptosis constitutes a major mechanism of anti-viral response by limiting viral spread and eliminating infected cells. In this way, an OsHV-1 challenge was performed and oysters were monitored at three times post injection to investigate viral infection and host response: 2h (early after viral injection in the adductor muscle), 24h (intermediate time), and 48h (just before first oyster mortality record)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541072/associations-between-spontaneous-parental-perspective-taking-and-stimulated-cytokine-responses-in-children-with-asthma
#13
Erika M Manczak, Cynthia S Levine, Katherine B Ehrlich, Devika Basu, Dan P McAdams, Edith Chen
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive empathy in parents-reflecting the extent to which one considers the perspectives and emotions of others-is hypothesized to contribute to family social environments in ways that affect youths' physical health. Using a novel assessment technique for cognitive empathy, the current study examined associations between spontaneous parental perspective-taking and key inflammatory processes implicated in pediatric asthma. METHOD: One hundred thirty children (ages 9-17) with physician-diagnosed asthma, along with 1 parent, participated in the current study...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540936/antigen-presenting-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vectors-do-not-support-the-development-of-productive-t-cell-effector-responses-implications-for-in-vivo-targeted-vaccine-delivery
#14
C Goyvaerts, Y De Vlaeminck, D Escors, S Lienenklaus, M Keyaerts, G Raes, K Breckpot
Targeting transgene expression specifically to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been put forward as a promising strategy to direct the immune system towards immunity. We developed the nanobody-display technology to restrict the tropism of lentiviral vectors (LVs) to APCs. However, we observed that immunization with APC-targeted LVs (DC2.1-LVs) did not evoke strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity when compared to immunization with broad tropism LVs (VSV.G-LVs). In this study, we report that VSV.G-LVs are more immunogenic than DC2...
May 25, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539449/anti-hiv-1-adcc-antibodies-following-latency-reversal-and-treatment-interruption
#15
Wen Shi Lee, Anne B Kristensen, Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Arnold Reynaldi, Miles P Davenport, Sean Emery, Janaki Amin, David A Cooper, Virginia L Kan, Julie Fox, Henning Gruell, Matthew S Parsons, Stephen J Kent
There is growing interest in utilizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate infected cells following reactivation from HIV-1 latency. A potential barrier is that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies decline in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may not be sufficient to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells. It is not known whether reactivation from latency with latency-reversing agents (LRA) could provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific ADCC...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539448/virological-control-by-the-cd4-binding-site-antibody-n6-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-monkeys
#16
Boris Julg, Amarendra Pegu, Peter Abbink, Jinyan Liu, Amanda Brinkman, Katherine Molloy, Shanell Mojta, Abishek Chandrashekar, Katherine Callow, Keyun Wang, Xuejun Chen, Stephen D Schmidt, Jinghe Huang, Richard A Koup, Michael S Seaman, Brandon F Keele, John R Mascola, Mark Connors, Dan H Barouch
Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#17
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537231/-viral-component-of-the-human-genome
#18
V M Blinov, V V Zverev, G S Krasnov, F P Filatov, A V Shargunov
Relationships between viruses and their human host are traditionally described from the point of view taking into consideration hosts as victims of viral aggression, which results in infectious diseases. However, these relations are in fact two-sided and involve modifications of both the virus and host genomes. Mutations that accumulate in the populations of viruses and hosts may provide them advantages such as the ability to overcome defense barriers of host cells or to create more efficient barriers to deal with the attack of the viral agent...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#19
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536382/fifty-years-of-clinical-application-of-newcastle-disease-virus-time-to-celebrate
#20
REVIEW
Volker Schirrmacher
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile...
July 20, 2016: Biomedicines
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