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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934149/oncolytic-reovirus-infection-is-facilitated-by-the-autophagic-machinery
#1
Vera Kemp, Iris J C Dautzenberg, Ronald W Limpens, Diana J M van den Wollenberg, Rob C Hoeben
Mammalian reovirus is a double-stranded RNA virus that selectively infects and lyses transformed cells, making it an attractive oncolytic agent. Despite clinical evidence for anti-tumor activity, its efficacy as a stand-alone therapy remains to be improved. The success of future trials can be greatly influenced by the identification and the regulation of the cellular pathways that are important for reovirus replication and oncolysis. Here, we demonstrate that reovirus induces autophagy in several cell lines, evident from the formation of Atg5-Atg12 complexes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, p62 degradation, the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles, and LC3 puncta...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933686/heparan-sulfate-as-a-receptor-for-poxvirus-infections-and-as-a-target-for-antiviral-agents
#2
Mayank Khanna, Charani Ranasinghe, Ronald Jackson, Christopher Richard Parish
To establish the importance of virus-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions in virus infectivity, the poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) was used, as it binds HS and has both enveloped virus (EV) and non-enveloped mature virus (MV) forms. Initial studies showed that heparin inhibited plaque formation by both MV-rich WR and EV-rich IHD-J strains of VACV, with the EV-rich strain also losing trademark 'comet'-shaped plaques. However, using GFP-tagged EV and MV forms of VACV, based on IC50 values, heparin was 16-fold more effective at inhibiting the infectivity of the EV form compared to the MV form...
September 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931922/efficacy-of-recombinant-measles-virus-expressing-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-hpaiv-antigen-against-hpaiv-infection-in-monkeys
#3
Tomoko Fujiyuki, Ryo Horie, Misako Yoneda, Takeshi Kuraishi, Fumihiko Yasui, Hyun-Jeong Kwon, Keisuke Munekata, Fusako Ikeda, Miho Hoshi, Yuri Kiso, Mio Omi, Hiroki Sato, Hiroshi Kida, Shosaku Hattori, Michinori Kohara, Chieko Kai
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a serious threat not only to domestic fowls but also to humans. Vaccines inducing long-lasting immunity against HPAIV are required. In the present study, we generated recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing the hemagglutinin protein of HPAIV without the multibasic site necessary for its pathogenicity in chickens using the backbone of an MV vaccine strain (rMV-Ed-H5HA) or a wild-type MV-derived mutant (rMV-HL-Vko-H5HA). We examined protective efficacy of the candidate vaccines in the monkey infection model by the challenge with a HPAIV (H5N1)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931605/structural-basis-for-clonal-diversity-of-the-human-t-cell-response-to-a-dominant-influenza-virus-epitope
#4
Xinbo Yang, Guobing Chen, Nan-Ping Weng, Roy A Mariuzza
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes an acute infection in humans that is normally eliminated by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Individuals expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A2 produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize the immunodominant IAV epitope GILGFVFTL (GIL). Most GIL-specific TCRs utilize α/β pairs encoded by the TRAV27/TRBV19 gene combination to recognize this relatively featureless peptide epitope (canonical TCRs). However, ~40% of GIL-specific TCRs express a wide variety of other TRAV/TRBV combinations (non-canonical TCRs)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930589/procoagulant-activity-during-viral-infections
#5
Saravanan Subramaniam, Inge Scharrer
The abundance of evidence suggest that inflammation of immune and non-immune cells may lead to an imbalance of the pro- and anti-coagulant state during viral infections. During systemic infections, the endothelium plays a critical role in regulating hemostasis, and severe imbalances of endothelial function and activation can contribute to organ failure. Viral infections may elevate plasma levels of procoagulant markers such as TAT and D-dimer TF-positive MPs as well as von Willebrand factor (vWF). Although multiple clinical studies are showing the association of viral infection and increased prothrombotic risk, the pathological mechanisms have not been fully identified for most viral infections...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930265/a-review-on-ethno-medicinal-and-pharmacological-activities-of-sphenocentrum-jollyanum-pierre
#6
REVIEW
Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Olumide Samuel Fadahunsi, Peter Adegbola
Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre is a member of a diverse family of plants known as Menispermaceae. They are famous for a plethora of important biological functions. S. jollyanum is a shrub native to the tropical forest zones of West Africa and thrives in deep shade. It is widely cultivated in Cameroun, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire. S. jollyanum is employed in folk medicine as a cure for wounds, fever, coughs, high blood pressure, breast tumor, constipation, and as an aphrodisiac. Phytochemical investigations revealed that the plant is a rich source of secondary metabolites such as annin, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids...
July 3, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929455/role-of-mast-cells-in-regulation-of-t-cell-responses-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Korneel Grauwet
Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929125/the-association-of-inflammatory-markers-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-differs-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-serostatus
#8
Jennifer C Price, Ruibin Wang, Eric C Seaberg, Matthew J Budoff, Lawrence A Kingsley, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Wendy S Post, Chloe L Thio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship of circulating adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers with fatty liver among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Noncontrast computed tomography was used to assess fatty liver and measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in 526 participants without history of cardiovascular disease, heavy alcohol use, or viral hepatitis infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations of circulating biomarker levels with fatty liver...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928855/association-between-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-and-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-a-case-control-study
#9
Kefeng Wang, Hang Yang, Wenjun He, Yi Xia, Zhongjun Xia, Su Li, Huiqiang Huang, Zhiming Li, Panpan Liu, Wenqi Jiang
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma that is often associated with poor clinical prognosis. Several studies have shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be associated with increased risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, because of the rarity of ENKTL, little is known about its association with HBV. Our study aimed to assess whether HBV infection was associated with increased odds of ENKTL. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 417 ENKTL cases and 488 age- and sex-matched subjects with nonmalignant diseases unrelated to HBV infection...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926962/anti-nkg2d-mab-a-new-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Kasper Vadstrup, Flemming Bendtsen
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immunologically-mediated, debilitating conditions resulting from destructive inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of IBD is incompletely understood, but is considered to be the result of an abnormal immune response with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926402/reversing-hiv-latency-via-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling
#11
Charline Duquenne, Sandrine Gimenez, Adeline Guigues, Benjamin Viala, Caroline Boulouis, Clément Mettling, Damien Maurel, Noëlie Campos, Etienne Doumazane, Laetitia Comps-Agrar, Jamal Tazi, Laurent Prézeau, Pierre Corbeau, Vincent François
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we looked for a new family of latency reversing agents. DESIGN: We searched for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) coexpressed with CCR5 in primary CD4+ T cells that activate infected cells and boost HIV production. METHODS: GPCR coexpression was unveiled by RT-PCR. We used FRET to analyze the dimerization with CCR5 of the expressed GPCR. Viral entry was measured by flow cytometry, reverse transcription by quantitative PCR, NFkB translocation by immunofluorescence, LTR activation using a gene reporter assay, and viral production by p24 quantification...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926399/natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-1-infection-and-therapy
#12
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Elisa Zaghi, Clara Di Vito, Domenico Mavilio
: Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of innate immunity playing a key role in the eradication and clearance of viral infections. Over the recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 pathologically changes NK cell homeostasis and hampers their antiviral effector functions. Moreover, high levels of chronic HIV-1 viremia markedly impair those NK cell regulatory features that normally regulate the cross-talks between innate and adaptive immune responses. These pathogenic events take place early in the infection and are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets that includes the expansion of anergic CD56 NK cells with an aberrant repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925950/targeting-host-cell-surface-nucleolin-for-rsv-therapy-challenges-and-opportunities
#13
Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G Barrett, Theo J Moraes, Richard G Hegele
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925655/pleuritic-chest-pain-sorting-through-the-differential-diagnosis
#14
Brian V Reamy, Pamela M Williams, Michael Ryan Odom
Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A validated clinical decision rule for pulmonary embolism should be employed to guide the use of additional tests such as d-dimer assays, ventilation-perfusion scans, or computed tomography angiography. Myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aortic dissection, pneumonia, and pneumothorax are other serious causes that should be ruled out using history and physical examination, electrocardiography, troponin assays, and chest radiography before another diagnosis is made...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924462/quantification-of-active-and-latent-form-of-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-umbilical-cord-blood-donors-by-real-time-pcr
#15
E Abedi, M Kheirandish, Z Sharifi, S Samiee, P Kokhaei, Z Pourpak, M J Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is believed to be a highly valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of active and latent human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in UCB donors in Iranian population. METHODS: A total of 825 UCB samples was collected under standard procedures and analyzed for the presence of CMV DNAs in buffy coat (latent infection) and plasma (active infection). DNA was extracted from buffy coat and plasma samples separately and tested with quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924090/porcine-alveolar-macrophage-polarization-is-involved-in-inhibition-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-replication
#16
Longtao Wang, Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Yiru Li, Lu Xu, Zhuo Zhang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Macrophage polarization is a process by which macrophages acquire a distinct phenotypic and functional profile in response to microenvironmental signals. The classically and alternatively activated (M1 and M2, respectively) macrophage phenotypes are defined by the specific molecular characteristics induced in response to prototypic pro- and anti-inflammatory cues. In this study, we used LPS/IFN-γ and IL-4 to stimulate porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in vitro and investigated the expression changes of several novel markers during macrophage polarization...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923084/viral-based-vaccine-tg4010-induces-broadening-of-specific-immune-response-and-improves-outcome-in-advanced-nsclc
#17
Caroline Tosch, Bérangère Bastien, Luc Barraud, Benoit Grellier, Virginie Nourtier, Murielle Gantzer, Jean Marc Limacher, Eric Quemeneur, Kaïdre Bendjama, Xavier Préville
BACKGROUND: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving TG4010, a therapeutic viral vaccine encoding human Mucin 1 and interleukin-2 in addition to standard chemotherapy, displayed longer overall survival in comparison to that of patients treated with standard chemotherapy alone. Our study intended to establish the association between overall survival and vaccine-induced T cell responses against tumor associated antigens (TAA) targeted by the vaccine. METHOD: The TIME trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study aimed at assessing efficacy of TG4010 with chemotherapy in NSCLC...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922464/molecular-dynamics-simulation-revealed-binding-of-nucleotide-inhibitors-to-zikv-polymerase-over-444-nanoseconds
#18
Abdo A Elfiky, Wael M Elshemey
In the year 2015, new Zika virus (ZIKV) broke out in Brazil and spread away in more than 80 countries. Scientists directed their efforts toward viral polymerase in attempt to find inhibitors that might interfere with its function. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was performed over 444 ns for a ZIKV polymerase model. Molecular docking (MD) was then performed every 10 ns during the MDS course to ensure the binding of small molecules to the polymerase over the entire time of the simulation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921638/graft-infiltrating-pd-l1-hi-cross-dressed-dendritic-cells-regulate-anti-donor-t-cell-responses-in-mouse-liver-transplant-tolerance
#19
Yoshihiro Ono, Angelica Perez-Gutierrez, Toshimasa Nakao, Helong Dai, Geoffrey Camirand, Osamu Yoshida, Shinichiro Yokota, Donna Beer Stolz, Mark A Ross, Adrian E Morelli, David A Geller, Angus W Thomson
While a key role of cross-dressing has been established in immunity to viral infection and more recently in the instigation of transplant rejection, its role in tolerance is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of intra-graft dendritic cells (DC) and cross-dressing in mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched liver transplant tolerance that occurs without therapeutic immunosuppression. While donor interstitial DC diminished rapidly following transplantation, they were replaced in the liver by host DC that peaked on postoperative day (POD) 7 and persisted indefinitely...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921579/material-basis-studies-of-anti-influenza-a-active-ingredients-in-tanreqing-injection
#20
Haiyan Zhu, Mingchang Chen, Xunlong Shi, Chenchen Shi, Chenggang Huang
Tanreqing Injection (TRQ) has been used primarily in treating infections of the upper respiratory tract and serious influenza in China, as a classical compound herbal recipe. TRQ had been demonstrated its effects of clearing heat, eliminating phlegm, detoxification, reducing inflammation and alleviating cough. The survival rate, histopathology of lungs and viral titers in mice were evaluated in this study to verify the curative effect of TRQ. However, there is not enough information about the components. In the present study, a high-performance and practical LC/QTOF/MS method was developed for characterization and identification of the natural ingredients in TRQ...
September 15, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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