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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208680/anti-bacterial-and-anti-fungal-activity-of-xanthones-obtained-via-semi-synthetic-modification-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-from-garcinia-mangostana
#1
Srinivasan Narasimhan, Shanmugam Maheshwaran, Imad A Abu-Yousef, Amin F Majdalawieh, Janarthanam Rethavathi, Prince Edwin Das, Palmiro Poltronieri
The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C), alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed high anti-bacterial activity whereas I I showed the highest anti-fungal activity...
February 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207754/ascofuranone-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-via-nf-kappab-and-ap-1-p-erk-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-1%C3%AE-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#2
Jun-Young Park, Tae-Wook Chung, Yun-Jeong Jeong, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Sun-Hyung Ha, Kyung-Min Kwon, Fukushi Abekura, Seung-Hak Cho, Young-Choon Lee, Ki-Tae Ha, Junji Magae, Young-Chae Chang, Cheorl-Ho Kim
The natural fungal compound ascofuranone (5-chloro-3-[(2E,6E)-7-[(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-3-methyl-octa-2,6-dienyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-benzaldehyde, MW 420.93) (AF) isolated from Ascochyta viciae has been known to promote cell cycle arrest and inhibit invasion of tumor cells. We have previously studied a structurally similar compound ascochlorin (ASC; MW 404.93) with regard to its anti-inflammatory activity in LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In order to examine the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activities and the molecular differences between AF and ASC, the activity of AF is herein studied, because ASC has a unique trimethyl oxocyclohexyl structure, while AF has a unique dimethyl-oxo-tetrahydrofuran structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202081/use-of-ethanol-extracts-of-terminalia-chebula-to-prevent-periodontal-disease-induced-by-dental-plaque-bacteria
#3
Jongsung Lee, Youn Hwa Nho, Seok Kyun Yun, Young Sun Hwang
BACKGROUND: The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption...
February 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198173/delphi-based-study-and-analysis-of-key-risk-factors-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-haematological-patients
#4
L Vázquez, M Salavert, J Gayoso, M Lizasoaín, I Ruiz Camps, N Di Benedetto
OBJECTIVE: Mortality caused by invasive fungal infections due to filamentous fungi (IFI-FF) is high. Predisposing factors to IFI-FF are multiple and should be stratified. The objective of this study was to identify key risk factors for IFI-FF in onco-haematological patients in different clinical settings. METHODS: Prospective national Delphi study. Risk factors for IFI-FF in patients with onco-haematological diseases were identified by a systematic review of the literature...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195065/effect-of-econazole-and-benzydamine-on-sensory-neurons-in-culture
#5
S Mathivanan, R de la Torre-Martinez, C Wolf, G Mangano, L Polenzani, C Milanese, A Ferrer-Montiel
Econazole is an anti-mycotic agent widely used for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections, and for the therapy of vaginal candidiasis. Topical application of this azole is generally safe, although some patients have complained of mild burning sensation/cutaneous irritation and itching, especially when administered intravaginally. The underlying mechanisms responsible of these adverse effects are poorly understood, though they suggest excitation of cutaneous nociceptor terminals. We report that exposure of primary cultures of rat nociceptors to econazole augments neuronal excitability...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194146/modulation-of-replicative-lifespan-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-implications-for-virulence
#6
Tejas Bouklas, Neena Jain, Bettina C Fries
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, has been shown to undergo replicative aging. Old cells are characterized by advanced generational age and phenotypic changes that appear to mediate enhanced resistance to host and antifungal-based killing. As a consequence of this age-associated resilience, old cells accumulate during chronic infection. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that shifting the generational age of a pathogenic yeast population would alter its vulnerability to the host and affect its virulence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179997/the-plant-defensin-nad1-induces-tumor-cell-death-via-a-non-apoptotic-membranolytic-process
#7
Amy A Baxter, Ivan Kh Poon, Mark D Hulett
Cationic anti-microbial peptides (CAPs) have an important role in host innate defense against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Many CAPs including defensins also exhibit selective cytotoxic activity towards mammalian cells via both apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes, and are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. The anti-fungal plant defensin from ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata Defensin 1 (NaD1), was recently shown to induce necrotic-like cell death in a number of tumor cell types within 30 min of treatment, at a concentration of 10 μM...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179513/immune-responses-in-hibernating-little-brown-myotis-myotis-lucifugus-with-white-nose-syndrome
#8
T M Lilley, J M Prokkola, J S Johnson, E J Rogers, S Gronsky, A Kurta, D M Reeder, K A Field
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd, but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection during hibernation, we studied the effect of Pd inoculation on the survival and gene expression of captive hibernating Myotis lucifugus with varying pre-hibernation antifungal antibody titres...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168875/structural-and-dynamic-insights-into-a-glycine-mediated-short-analogue-of-a-designed-peptide-in-lipopolysaccharide-micelles-correlation-between-compact-structure-and-anti-endotoxin-activity
#9
Aritreyee Datta, Nancy Jaiswal, Humaira Ilyas, Shibjyoti Debnath, Kaushik Biswas, Dinesh Kumar, Anirban Bhunia
In this study, we report an interaction study of a 13-residue analogue peptide VG13P (VARGWGRKCPLFG), derived from designed VG16KRKP peptide (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG), with Lys6Gly mutation and removal of last three residues Lys14-Gly15-Gly16, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and responsible for sepsis or septic shock. VG13P displays an enhanced anti-endotoxin property as evident from significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α gene expression levels in monocytic cell line, while it retains almost unchanged antimicrobial activity as its parent VG16KRKP against Gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal pathogens...
February 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168624/antimicrobial-activity-of-endophytic-fungi-from-olive-tree-leaves
#10
Cynthia Malhadas, Ricardo Malheiro, José Alberto Pereira, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Paula Baptista
In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167553/troponoids-can-inhibit-growth-of-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#11
Maureen J Donlin, Anthony Zunica, Ashlyn Lipnicky, Aswin K Garimallaprabhakaran, Alex J Berkowitz, Alexandre Grigoryan, Marvin J Meyers, John E Tavis, Ryan P Murelli
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common pathogen of the immunosuppressed. It can be treated with amphotericin B and fluconazole, but the mortality rate remains 15-30%, thus novel and more effective anti-cryptococcal therapies are needed. The troponoids are based on natural products isolated from Western redcedar and have broad antimicrobial activity. Extracts of Western redcedar inhibit growth of several fungal species, but neither Western redcedar extracts nor troponoid derivatives have been tested against C. neoformans...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167474/regulatory-effect-of-caspase-11-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-the-fungal-keratitis
#12
Keke Zhu, Hongmei Mu, Baimu Pi
Caused by fungus, fungal keratitis is a kind of infections corneal disease with high rate of blindness, which patients are mainly farmers in developing countries. Interleukin, as important proinflammatory cytokines, involve in immune defense process against fungal infection of cornea. The expression of interleukin in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis, especially the main source of its cells, is not clear and the cell signaling pathways which regulate the synthesis and modification of interleukin is still unknown...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166254/establishing-a-cost-per-result-of-laboratory-based-reflex-cryptococcal-antigenaemia-screening-crag-in-hiv-patients-with-cd4-counts-less-than-100-cells-%C3%AE-l-using-a-lateral-flow-assay-lfa-at-a-typical-busy-cd4-laboratory-in-south-africa
#13
Naseem Cassim, Kathryn Schnippel, Lindi Marie Coetzee, Deborah Kim Glencross
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in countries with high HIV prevalence, primarily affecting patients whose CD4 are < = 100 cells/μl. Routine Cryptococcal Antigen (CrAg) screening is thus recommended in the South African HIV treatment guidelines for all patients with CD4 counts < = 100 cells/μl, followed by pre-emptive anti-fungal therapy where CrAg results are positive. A laboratory-based reflexed CrAg screening approach, using a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) on remnant EDTA CD4 blood samples, was piloted at three CD4 laboratories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165677/structure-of-the-sliding-clamp-from-the-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-afumpcna-and-interactions-with-human-p21
#14
Andrew C Marshall, Alice J Kroker, Lauren A M Murray, Kahlia Gronthos, Harinda Rajapaksha, Kate L Wegener, John B Bruning
The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been implicated in a drastic increase in life-threatening infections over the past decade. However, compared to other microbial pathogens, little is known about the essential molecular processes of this organism. One such fundamental process is DNA replication. The protein responsible for ensuring processive DNA replication is PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, also known as the sliding clamp), which clamps the replicative polymerase to DNA. Here we present the first crystal structure of a sliding clamp from a pathogenic fungus (A...
February 6, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163074/epidihydropinidine-the-main-piperidine-alkaloid-compound-of-norway-spruce-picea-abies-shows-promising-antibacterial-and-anti-candida-activity
#15
Pia Fyhrquist, Virpi Virjamo, Eveliina Hiltunen, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
This study reports for the first time promising antibacterial and antifungal effects of epidihydropinidine, the major piperidine alkaloid in the needles and bark of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Epidihydropinidine was growth inhibitory against all bacterial and fungal strains used in our investigation, showing the lowest MIC value of 5.37μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida glabrata and C. albicans. Epidihydropinidine was nearly three times more active than tetracycline against P...
February 2, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159413/broad-spectrum-anti-infective-properties-of-benzisothiazolones-and-the-parallels-in-their-anti-bacterial-and-anti-fungal-effects
#16
P Gopinath, R K Yadav, P K Shukla, K Srivastava, S K Puri, K M Muraleedharan
Various mono- and bis-benzisothiazolone derivatives were synthesized and screened against different strains of bacteria and fungi in order to understand the effect of multiple electrophilic sulfur atoms and substitution pattern in the immediate vicinity of reactive sulfur. Staphyllococcus aureus-ATCC 7000699, MRSA and S. aureus-ATCC 29213 (Quality Control strain) were more susceptible to this class of compounds, and the most potent derivative 1.15 had MIC50 of 0.4μg/mL (cf. Gentamicin=0.78μg/mL). CLogP value, optimally in the range of 2...
January 12, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157653/efficacy-of-vitamin-b-complex-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#17
Mei-Guo Sun, Ying Huang, Yuan-Hong Xu, Yun-Xia Cao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: One-hundred fifty-eight complicated VVC patients were randomly divided into group A (treated with suppository+oral antifungal agents), group B (treated with suppository+vaginal cream), and group C (treated with suppository+vaginal cream+oral vitamin B complex). A mouse model of VVC was established...
January 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155334/inhibitory-effects-of-the-essential-oils-%C3%AE-longipinene-and-linalool-on-biofilm-formation-and-hyphal-growth-of-candida-albicans
#18
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Soon-Il Kim, Jintae Lee
Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens, and causes systemic and invasive infections in humans. C. albicans biofilms are composed of yeast and hyphal and pseudohyphal elements, and the transition of yeast to the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. In this study, diverse essential oils were initially investigated for anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans strains, and cascarilla bark oil and helichrysum oil and their components α-longipinene (a major constituent of both) and linalool were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth...
February 3, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153846/miconazole-protects-blood-vessels-from-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-dependent-rupture-and-hemorrhage
#19
Ran Yang, Yunpei Zhang, Dandan Huang, Xiao Luo, Liangren Zhang, Xiaojun Zhu, Xiaolin Zhang, Zhenming Liu, Jingyan Han, Jing-Wei Xiong
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide, but its prevention and therapeutic interventions remain a major challenge. Here, we report the identification of miconazole as a hemorrhagic suppressor by a small-molecule screen in zebrafish. We found that a hypomorphic mutant fn40a, one of known β-pix mutant alleles in zebrafish, had the major symptoms of brain hemorrhage, vessel rupture, and inflammation as those in hemorrhagic stroke patients...
February 2, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150900/discovery-of-antimicrobial-and-antitubercular-molecules-from-fusarium-solani-an-endophyte-of-glycyrrhiza-glabra
#20
Aiyatullah Shah, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Parvaiz H Qazi, Mushtaq A Aga, Saleem Mushtaq, Aabid Manzoor Shah, Aehtesham Hussain, Shoib A Baba, Zahoor Ahmad
AIM: Glycyrrhiza glabra is a high value medicinal plant thriving in biodiversity rich Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was designed to explore the fungal endophytes from G glabra as a source of bioactive molecules. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extracts prepared from the isolated endophytes were evaluated for antimicrobial activities using broth micro-dilution assay. The endophytic strain coded as A2 exhibiting promising antibacterial as well as antituberculosis activity was identified as Fusarium solani by ITS-5...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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