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Anti microbials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#1
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142307/genetic-polymorphism-related-to-monocyte-macrophage-function-is-associated-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Kati Hyvärinen, Jarmo Ritari, Satu Koskela, Riitta Niittyvuopio, Anne Nihtinen, Liisa Volin, David Gallardo, Jukka Partanen
Despite detailed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and modern immunosuppressive therapy, severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a major hurdle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As the genetic diversity in GvHD complicates the systematic discovery of associated variants across populations, we studied 122 GvHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 492 HLA-matched sibling HSCT donor-recipient pairs from Finland and Spain. The association between these candidate SNPs and grade III-IV acute GvHD and extensive chronic GvHD was assessed...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142248/the-psoriasis-associated-il-17a-induces-and-cooperates-with-il-36-cytokines-to-control-keratinocyte-differentiation-and-function
#3
Carolina M Pfaff, Yvonne Marquardt, Katharina Fietkau, Jens M Baron, Bernhard Lüscher
Psoriasis is a TH17-driven inflammatory disease affecting a significant proportion of the world population. The molecular consequences of IL-17 signaling in the skin are only partially understood. Therefore, we evaluated the IL-17A effects on organotypic 3-dimensional skin models and observed that IL-17A interfered with keratinocyte differentiation. In agreement with this phenotype, IL-17A repressed the expression of many genes encoding structural proteins. Moreover, genes encoding anti-microbial peptides were induced, resulting in a strengthening of the chemical barrier...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140690/new-sesquiterpenoids-from-eugenia-jambolana-seeds-and-their-anti-microbial-activities
#4
Feifei Liu, Chengbin Liu, Wei Liu, Zhanjun Ding, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Li Xu, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
Twenty four sesquiterpenoids, 1-24, including 11 new sesquiterpenoids, jambolanins A-K, and two new norsesquiterpenoids, jambolanes A and B, along with six known triterpenoids, were isolated from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana fruit. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectrometry data analysis. Among the isolates, compound 13 possessed a rare 6,7-seco-guaiene skeleton, and compounds 14 and 15 were norsesquiterpenoids containing a spiro[4.4]nonane skeleton. Antimicrobial assay evaluation revealed that sesquiterpenoids, 4, 5/6, 17, 19, 21, 23, and 24 inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134404/curcumin-mediated-anti-microbial-photodynamic-therapy-against-candida-dubliniensis-biofilms
#5
Paula Volpato Sanitá, Ana Cláudia Pavarina, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Ana Paula Dias Ribeiro, Mariana Carvalho Andrade, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by curcumin (Cur) associated with LED light against biofilms of Candida dubliniensis, and further, investigate cellular uptake and drug penetration through the biofilms under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Four C. dubliniensis strains were tested: three clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients and one reference strain (CBS 7987). Biofilms were treated with three Cur concentrations (20...
November 13, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126317/inflammation-friend-or-foe-for-animal-production
#6
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
Inflammation is an essential immune response that seeks to contain microbial infection and repair damaged tissue. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators have been associated with enhanced resistance to a range of important poultry and pig pathogens. However, inflammation may also have undesirable consequences, including potentially exacerbating tissue damage and diverting nutrients away from productive purposes. The negative effects of inflammation have led to the active pursuit of anti-inflammatory feed additives and/or strategies...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125543/a-mediated-bod-biosensor-based-on-immobilized-b-subtilis-on-three-dimensional-porous-graphene-polypyrrole-composite
#7
Jingfang Hu, Yueqi Li, Guowei Gao, Shanhong Xia
We have developed a novel mediated biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor based on immobilized Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) on three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-polypyrrole (rGO-PPy) composite. The 3D porous rGO-PPy composite was prepared using hydrothermal method following with electropolymerization. Then the 3D porous rGO-PPy composite was used as a support for immobilizing negatively charged B. subtilis denoted as rGO-PPy-B through coordination and electrostatic interaction. Further, the prepared rGO-PPy-B was used as a microbial biofilm for establishing a mediated BOD biosensor with ferricyanide as an electronic acceptor...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124656/enzymatic-activation-of-the-emerging-drug-resveratrol
#8
Rina D Koyani, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
The plant originated stilbene "resveratrol" (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is well known for its diverse health benefits including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidant properties. Besides a significant amount of reports on different aspects of its application as prodrug in the last 50 years, still, a strategy leading to the production of the active drug is missing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enzymatic activation of prodrug resveratrol to the effective drug piceatannol, without engaging expensive cofactors...
November 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124070/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-induces-remission-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-via-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
Dawei Gong, Xinjuan Yu, Lili Wang, Lingling Kong, Xiaojie Gong, Quanjiang Dong
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been proven to be effective and safe in treating pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). EEN induces pediatric CD remission possibly through three pathways: (1) direct anti-inflammatory effects, (2) improved epithelial barrier function, and (3) modulation of the gut microbiota. Recent studies have demonstrated that modulation of the gut microbiota plays a major role in EEN-induced remission. Variations of microbial components, which directly influence the diversity and metabolic functions of the gut microbiota, are closely associated with the immunological conditions of the gut and the susceptibility to diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121034/the-impact-of-advanced-opioid-drugs-and-analgesic-adjuvants-on-murine-macrophage-oxygen-burst
#10
Michael Kozlowski, Katarzyna Nazimek, Magdalena Wąsik, Iwona Filipczak-Bryniarska, Krzysztof Bryniarski
Macrophages (Mf) are a versatile group of phagocytic cells responsible for fulfilling a variety of immune functions, most notably for mounting the initial anti-microbial response and for the clearance of cellular debris and apoptotic bodies. The key processes for fulfilling these functions include the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and nitric oxide (NO). Mf also express a variety of receptors, including opioid, serotonin, and norepinephrine receptors, and thus can react to various substances...
2017: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119936/recent-patents-on-light-based-anti-infective-approaches
#11
Imran Ahmed, Yanyan Fang, Min Lu, Quan Yan, Ahmed Mohamed Kamel El-Hussein, Michael R Hamblin, Tianhong Dai
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious health threats to modern medicine. The lack of potent antibiotics puts us at a disadvantage in the fight against infectious diseases, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. To this end, an urgent need to search for alternative antimicrobial approaches has arisen. In the last decade, light-based therapy has made significant strides in this fight to combat antibiotic resistance among various microbial strains...
November 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118761/immunological-and-clinical-effect-of-diet-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Marina Saresella, Laura Mendozzi, Valentina Rossi, Franca Mazzali, Federica Piancone, Francesca LaRosa, Ivana Marventano, Domenico Caputo, Giovanna E Felis, Mario Clerici
Pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), has been linked to an alteration of the resident microbial commensal community and of the interplay between the microbiota and the immune system. Dietary components such as fiber, acting on microbiota composition, could, in principle, result in immune modulation and, thus, could be used to obtain beneficial outcomes for patients. We verified this hypothesis in a pilot study involving two groups of clinically similar relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients who had undergone either a high-vegetable/low-protein diet (HV/LP diet group; N = 10) or a "Western Diet" (WD group; N = 10) for at least 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118756/th17-cell-and-epithelial-cell-crosstalk-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-carcinogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Jan Kempski, Leonie Brockmann, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The intestine is colonized by hundreds of different species of commensal bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Therefore, the intestinal immune system is constantly being challenged by foreign antigens. The immune system, the commensal microbiota, and the intestinal epithelial surface have to maintain a tight balance to guarantee defense against potential pathogens and to prevent chronic inflammatory conditions at the same time. Failure of these mechanisms can lead to a vicious cycle in which a perpetual tissue damage/repair process results in a pathological reorganization of the normal mucosal surface...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118744/two-lactobacillus-species-inhibit-the-growth-and-%C3%AE-toxin-production-of-clostridium-perfringens-and-induced-proinflammatory-factors-in-chicken-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#14
Shuangshuang Guo, Dan Liu, Beibei Zhang, Zhui Li, Yehan Li, Binying Ding, Yuming Guo
Clostridium perfringens is the causative pathogen of avian necrotic enteritis. Lactobacillus spp. are well-characterized probiotics with anti-microbial and immune-modulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum on the growth, α-toxin production and inflammatory responses of C. perfringens. In in vitro culture experiments, both lactobacilli inhibited the growth of C. perfringens (P < 0.01), accompanied with a decrease in pH (P < 0.01). Supernatants from lactobacilli cultures also suppressed the growth of C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114245/the-selective-interaction-of-pistacia-lentiscus-oil-vs-human-streptococci-an-old-functional-food-revisited-with-new-tools
#15
Germano Orrù, Cristina Demontis, Antonello Mameli, Enrica Tuveri, Pierpaolo Coni, Giuseppina Pichiri, Ferdinando Coghe, Antonella Rosa, Paola Rossi, Guy D'hallewin
Pistacia lentiscus berry oil (LBO) represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with Streptococcus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#16
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112157/vitamin-d-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-role-current-uses-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Rita Del Pinto, Claudio Ferri, Fabio Cominelli
Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D's pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111688/durable-anti-superbug-polymers-covalent-bonding-of-ionic-liquid-onto-the-polymer-chains
#18
Jipeng Guan, Yanyuan Wang, Shilu Wu, Yongjin Li, Jingye Li
Here, we fabricated the ionic liquid (IL) grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (PVDF-g-IL) via electron-beam irradiation to fight common bacteria and multidrug-resistant "superbugs". Two types of ILs, 1-vinyl-3-butylimmidazolium chloride (IL (Cl)) and 1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL (BF4)), were used. It was found that the PVDF-g-IL exhibited superior antibacterial performance, with almost the same mechanical and thermal performance as unmodified PVDF. Nonwovens and films made from PVDF-g-IL materials exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against common bacteria and "superbugs" with the strong electrostatic interactions between ILs and microbial cell membranes...
November 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111574/laccase-mediated-grafting-on-biopolymers-and-synthetic-polymers-a-critical-review
#19
Sjoerd Slagman, Han Zuilhof, Maurice Charles René Franssen
Laccase-mediated grafting on lignocelluloses has gained considerable attention as an environmentally benign method to covalently modify wood, paper and cork. Over the past decades this technique has been employed to also modify fibres with a polysaccharide backbone such as cellulose or chitosan to infer colouration, anti-microbial activity or anti-oxidant activity to the material. The scope of this approach has been further widened by researchers who apply mediators or high redox potential laccases and those that modify synthetic polymers and proteins...
November 7, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110743/rosmarinic-acid-modes-of-action-medicinal-values-and-health-benefits
#20
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mayada Ragab Farag, Marappan Gopi, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Yashpal Singh Malik, Kuldeep Dhama
The supplementation of livestock rations with herbs containing bioactive components, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown promising results as a natural feed additive in promoting growth, productive and reproductive performance, feed utilization, fertility, anti-oxidant status and immunologic indices. Furthermore, RA reportedly reduces the risks of various animal diseases and mitigates side effects of chemical and synthetic drugs. RA is a natural polyphenol present in several Lamiaceae herbs like Perilla frutescens, and RA is becoming an integral component of animal nutrition as it counters the effect of reactive oxygen species induced in the body as a consequence of different kinds of stressors...
November 7, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
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