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Anti microbials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784886/-legionella-pneumophila-is-directly-sensitive-to-2-deoxyglucose-phosphate-via-its-uhpc-transporter-but-is-indifferent-to-shifts-in-host-cell-glycolytic-metabolism
#1
Jordan V Price, Kallie Jiang, Abigail Galantowicz, Alana Freifeld, Russell E Vance
Toll-like receptor stimulation induces a pronounced shift to increased glycolytic metabolism in mammalian macrophages. We observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) increase glycolysis in response to infection with Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ), but the role of host macrophage glycolysis on intracellular L. pneumophila replication is not currently understood. Treatment with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) blocks L. pneumophila replication in mammalian macrophages but has no effect on bacteria grown in broth...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782199/bacteriolysis-a-mere-laboratory-curiosity
#2
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779382/specific-stereoisomeric-conformations-determine-the-drug-potency-of-cladosporin-scaffold-against-malarial-parasite
#3
Pronay Das, Palak Babbar, Nipun Malhotra, Manmohan Sharma, Gorakhnath R Jachak, Rajesh G Gonnade, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Karl Harlos, Manickam Yogavel, Amit Sharma, D Srinivasa Reddy
The dependence of drug potency on diastereomeric configurations is a key facet. Using a novel general divergent synthetic route for a three-chiral centre anti-malarial natural product cladosporin, we built its complete library of stereoisomers (cladologs) and assessed their inhibitory potential using parasite-, enzyme- and structure-based assays. We show that potency is manifest via tetrahyropyran ring conformations that are housed in the ribose binding pocket of parasite lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Strikingly, drug potency between top and worst enantiomers varied 500-fold, and structures of KRS-cladolog complexes reveal that alterations at C3 and C10 are detrimental to drug potency where changes at C3 are sensed by rotameric flipping of Glutamate332...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778822/formulation-techniques-for-high-dose-dry-powders
#4
Ashlee D Brunaugh, Hugh D C Smyth
Delivery of drugs to the lungs via dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a promising approach for the treatment of both local pulmonary conditions and systemic diseases. Though DPIs are widely used for the pulmonary deposition of potent bronchodilators, anticholinergics, and corticosteroids, there is growing interest in the utilization of this delivery system for the administration of high drug doses to the lungs, as made evident by recent regulatory approvals for anti-microbial, anti-viral and osmotic agents. However, the formulation of high dose DPIs carries several challenges from both a physiological and physicochemical standpoint...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778319/anti-infective-biomaterials-with-surface-decorated-tachyplesin-i
#5
Qiong Xue, Xiao-Bin Liu, Yeh-Hsing Lao, Lin-Ping Wu, Dong Wang, Zhen-Qiang Zuo, Jun-Yu Chen, Jing Hou, Yuan-Yuan Bei, Xue-Fei Wu, Kam W Leong, Hua Xiang, Jing Han
Implants decorated with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can prevent infection and reduce the risk of creating antibiotic resistance. Yet the restricted mobility of surficial AMP often compromises its activity. Here, we report a simple but effective strategy to allow a more flexible display of AMP on the biomaterial surface and demonstrate its efficacy for wound healing. The AMP, tachyplesin I (Tac), is tagged with the polyhydroxyalkanoate-granule-associated protein (PhaP) and immobilized on haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) via hydrophobic interaction...
May 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775211/proanthocyanidins-will-they-effectively-restrain-conspicuous-bacterial-strains-devolving-on-urinary-tract-infection
#6
REVIEW
Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774759/melatonin-stimulated-biosynthesis-of-anti-microbial-znonps-by-enhancing-bio-reductive-prospective-in-callus-cultures-of-catharanthus-roseus-var-alba
#7
Hafiza Rida Riaz, Syed Salman Hashmi, Tariq Khan, Christophe Hano, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Bilal Haider Abbasi
Melatonin as plant growth regulator induces differential effects on metabolites that are responsible for reduction, capping and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Phytochemical analysis of callus cultures was performed and results were compared with callus cultures supplemented with other plant growth regulators (α-napthalene acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and thidiazuron). Highest total phenolic and flavonoid content [42.23 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g-1 DW and 36.4 mg of (quercetin equivalent) g-1 DW, respectively] were recorded at melatonin (1...
May 18, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#8
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#9
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770369/nanomaterial-microbe-cross-talk-physicochemical-principles-and-patho-biological-consequences
#10
REVIEW
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768219/efficacy-of-green-nanoparticles-against-cancerous-and-normal-cell-lines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Hamed Barabadi, Ahad Alizadeh, Muhammad Ovais, Amirhossein Ahmadi, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muthupandian Saravanan
This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers discussing the efficacy of microbial synthesised metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) against cancerous and normal cell lines by exploiting Bayesian generalised linear (BGL) model. Data was systematically collected from published papers via Cochrane library, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, Scopus, and Embase. Impressively, most of the studies were carried out on HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. Specifically, a hefty 65.67% of studies employed bacteria to biofabricate MNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766793/engineering-of-microbial-cell-factories-for-the-production-of-plant-polyphenols-with-health-beneficial-properties
#13
Alexey Dudnik, Paula Gaspar, Ana Rute Neves, Jochen Forster
Polyphenols form a group of important natural bioactive compounds with numerous ascribed health-beneficial attributes (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and tumor-suppressing properties). Some polyphenols can also be used as natural dyes or plastic precursors. Notwithstanding their relevance, production of most of these compounds still relies on extraction from plant material, which for most of it is a costly and an inefficient procedure. The use of microbial cell factories for this purpose is an emerging alternative that could allow a more efficient and sustainable production...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765069/de-novo-characterization-of-phenacoccus-solenopsis-transcriptome-and-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiling-during-development-and-hormone-biosynthesis
#14
Surjeet Kumar Arya, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay, Mehar Hasan Asif, Praveen Chandra Verma
The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is a devastating pest of cotton causing tremendous loss in the yield of crops each year. Widespread physiological and biological studies on P. solenopsis have been carried out, but the lack of genetic information has constrained our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its growth and development. To understand and characterize the different developmental stages, RNA-Seq platform was used to execute de-novo transcriptome assembly and differential gene expression profiling for the eggs, first, second, third instar and adult female stages...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763807/positional-scanning-library-applied-to-the-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-rnase3-n-terminus-reveals-novel-and-potent-anti-biofilm-peptides
#15
David Pulido, Guillem Prats-Ejarque, Clara Villalba, Marcel Albacar, Mohammed Moussaoui, David Andreu, Rudolf Volkmer, Marc Torrent, Ester Boix
Eradication of established biofilm communities of pathogenic bacteria is one of the pending challenges in the development of new antimicrobial agents. In particular, the dreaded nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms microbial communities that offer an enhanced resistance to conventional antibiotics. Recently, we have described an engineered antimicrobial peptide derived from the human RNase3, also named the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), RN3 (5-36), which combines bactericidal activity with high cell agglutination and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#16
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761622/host-heme-oxygenase-1-friend-or-foe-in-tackling-pathogens
#17
REVIEW
Nisha Singh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Navin Baid, Ashwani Kumar
Infectious diseases are a major challenge in management of human health worldwide. Recent literature suggests that host immune system could be modulated to ameliorate the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Heme oxygenase (HMOX1) is a key regulator of cellular signaling and it could be modulated using pharmacological reagents. HMOX1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and molecular iron. CO and biliverdin (or bilirubin derived from it) can restrict the growth of a few pathogens...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760684/bioprospecting-deep-sea-actinobacteria-for-novel-anti-infective-natural-products
#18
Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J McCarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang
The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans , Clostridium difficile , Staphylococcus aureus , and methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759945/diagnosis-of-local-hepatic-tuberculosis-through-next-generation-sequencing-smarter-faster-and-better
#19
Jing-Wen Ai, Yang Li, Qi Cheng, Peng Cui, Hong-Long Wu, Bin Xu, Wen-Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: A 45-year-old man who complained of continuous fever and multiple hepatic masses was admitted to our hospital. Repeated MRI manifestations were similar while each radiological report suggested contradictory diagnosis pointing to infections or malignances respectively. Pathologic examination of the liver tissue showed no direct evidence of either infections or tumor. We performed next-generation sequencing on the liver tissue and peripheral blood to further investigate the possible etiology...
May 11, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756573/lactoferrin-major-physiological-functions-and-applications
#20
Liyuan Hao, Qiang Shan, Jingya Wei, Fengtao Ma, Peng Sun
Lactoferrin (lactotransferrin; Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein and one of the most important bioactivators in milk and other external secretions. It has numerous biological roles, including the regulation of iron absorption and modulation of immune responses, and has anti-microbial, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Lf regulates the quantity of iron absorbed in the intestine via its role in iron transport and can also chelate iron, directly or indirectly. Notably, it has been used as an adjuvant therapy for some intestinal diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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