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Catheter biofilms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897277/on-demand-release-of-candida-albicans-biofilms-from-urinary-catheters-by-mechanical-surface-deformation
#1
Stacey A Maskarinec, Zehra Parlak, Qing Tu, Vrad Levering, Stefan Zauscher, Gabriel P López, Vance G Fowler, John R Perfect
Candida albicans is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and elimination of these biofilm-based infections without antifungal agents would constitute a significant medical advance. A novel urinary catheter prototype that utilizes on-demand surface deformation is effective at eliminating bacterial biofilms and here the broader applicability of this prototype to remove fungal biofilms has been demonstrated. C. albicans biofilms were debonded from prototypes by selectively inflating four additional intralumens surrounding the main lumen of the catheters to provide the necessary surface strain to remove the adhered biofilm...
June 13, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893828/in-vivo-protective-effect-of-geraniol-on-colonization-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-rat-jugular-vein-catheter-model
#2
Arunachalam Kannappan, Ramar Mohankumar, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Govindaraju Archunan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Staphylococcal infections associated with indwelling medical devices are difficult to eradicate owing to its recalcitrant nature of biofilms to conventional antibiotics. In our earlier study, we reported the efficacy of geraniol (GE) in inhibiting the in vitro biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and adaptive resistant development. To examine the in vivo potential of GE in eradicating the in vivo colonization of S. epidermidis, an implanted rat jugular vein catheter model was developed. Oral supplementation of GE (GE at 200 mg/kg bw for three days) in rats infected with S...
June 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880781/inhibition-and-inactivation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-biofilms-on-urinary-catheters-by-sodium-selenite
#3
Amoolya Narayanan, Meera S Nair, Muhammed S Muyyarikkandy, Mary Anne Amalaradjou
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections in humans and are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Indwelling urinary catheters become encrusted with UPEC biofilms that are resistant to common antibiotics, resulting in chronic infections. Therefore, it is important to control UPEC biofilms on catheters to reduce the risk for UTIs. This study investigated the efficacy of selenium for inhibiting and inactivating UPEC biofilms on urinary catheters. Urinary catheters were inoculated with UPEC and treated with 0 and 35 mM selenium at 37 °C for 5 days for the biofilm inhibition assay...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866870/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-a-novel-catheter-lock-solution-against-bacterial-and-fungal-biofilms
#4
J Chandra, L Long, N Isham, P K Mukherjee, G DiSciullo, K Appelt, M A Ghannoum
Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are increasingly recognized to be associated with intralumenal microbial biofilms, and effective measures for the prevention and treatment of BSI remain lacking. This report evaluates a new commercially developed antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACL) containing trimethoprim (5 mg/ml) and ethanol (25%) and calcium Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CA-EDTA) 3% for activity against bacterial and fungal biofilms using in vitro and in vivo (rabbit) catheter biofilm models...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844050/antimicrobial-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-novel-gas-plasma-activated-catheter-lock-solution
#5
Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A Daines, Leonard A Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G Kong
Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 - 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 minutes...
May 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795121/extraction-and-quantification-of-biofilm-bacteria-method-optimized-for-urinary-catheters
#6
Kedar Diwakar Mandakhalikar, Juwita Norasmara Rahmat, Edmund Chiong, Koon Gee Neoh, Liang Shen, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for the failure of many medical devices such as urinary catheters and are associated with many infectious and non-infectious complications. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of novel catheter coatings to prevent these infections needs to accurately quantify the bacterial load in the biofilm in vitro and ex vivo. There is currently no uniform gold standard for biofilm quantification for different surfaces and established biofilms. We have tried to establish a simple, accurate and reproducible method for extraction and measurement of biofilm bacteria on indwelling catheters, using a combination of vortexing and sonication...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788897/biofilm-destruction-on-endotracheal-tube-associated-pneumonia-by-photodynamic-inactivation
#7
Kate Cristina Blanco, Amanda C Zangirolami, Natalia M Inada, Vanderlei S Bagnato
Hospital infections is a public health problem that can occur with the use of catheters and endotracheal tubes (ETT). Pathogenic microorganisms may adhere to surfaces of these materials forming biofilm. Microbial biofilms presents an extracellular polymer matrix that promotes resistance of microorganisms to factors such as pH, temperature and drugs. The ETT is used to assist a patient with compromised breathing function. ETT biofilm may cause ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is associated with a 21-fold increase in risk for mechanical ventilation...
May 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784475/post-fabrication-qac-functionalized-thermoplastic-polyurethane-for-contact-killing-catheter-applications
#8
Zachary K Zander, Peiru Chen, Yen-Hao Hsu, Nathan Z Dreger, Laura Savariau, Willie C McRoy, Alec E Cerchiari, Sean D Chambers, Hazel A Barton, Matthew L Becker
The use of catheters is ubiquitous in medicine and the incidence of infection remains unacceptably high despite numerous advances in functional surfaces and drug elution. Herein we report the use of a thermoplastic polyurethane containing an allyl ether side-chain functionality (allyl-TPU) that allows for rapid and convenient surface modification with antimicrobial reagents, post-processing. This post-processing functionalization affords the ability to target appropriate TPU properties and maintain the functional groups on the surface of the device where they do not affect bulk properties...
May 11, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771236/can-dalbavancin-be-used-as-a-catheter-lock-solution
#9
Cristina Díaz-Ruíz, Beatriz Alonso, Emilia Cercenado, Raquel Cruces, Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, María Guembe
PURPOSE: The new lipoglycopeptide dalbavancin has only been approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. However, its alternative use as a catheter lock solution could facilitate the conservative management of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Our objective was to assess the stability and activity of dalbavancin alone and in combination with heparin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) biofilms...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752980/evaluation-of-a-ureteral-catheter-coating-by-means-of-a-bioencrustation-in-vitro-model
#11
M Frant, E Dayyoub, U Bakowsky, K Liefeith
Biomaterials for applications in the urinary tract are challenged with both biofilm formation and encrustation, two highly interconnected processes. While great effort has been achieved developing promising materials there is only a limited choice of sophisticated in vitro models that are available to analyse the performance of biomaterials prior to performing delicate and expensive in vivo studies. In this study we present a complex BioEncrustation model that imitates both the processes of multi-species biofilm formation and encrustation in vitro...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752963/ses-proteins-as-possible-targets-for-vaccine-development-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-infections
#12
Dorien Hofmans, Laleh Khodaparast, Ladan Khodaparast, Els Vanstreels, Mohammad Shahrooei, Johan Van Eldere, Lieve Van Mellaert
OBJECTIVES: The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is progressively involved in device-related infections. Since these infections involve biofilm formation, antibiotics are not effective. Conversely, a vaccine can be advantageous to prevent these infections. In view of vaccine development, predicted surface proteins were evaluated on their potential as a vaccine target. METHODS: Immunoglobulins directed against S. epidermidis surface proteins SesB, M, O, Q and R, were used to firstly affirm their surface location...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751343/clavanin-a-bioconjugated-fe-3-o-4-silane-core-shell-nanoparticles-for-thermal-ablation-of-bacterial-biofilms
#13
Kalline L Ribeiro, Isaac A M Frías, Octavio L Franco, Simoni C Dias, Ailton A Sousa-Junior, Osmar N Silva, Andris F Bakuzis, Maria D L Oliveira, Cesar A S Andrade
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is highly associated with nosocomial blood infections and its use largely requires a systematic assessment of benefits and risks. Bacterial contamination of these tubes is frequent and may result in development of microbial consortia also known as biofilm. The woven nature of biofilm provides a practical defense against antimicrobial agents, facilitating bacterial dissemination through the patient's body and development of antimicrobial resistance. In this work, the authors describe the modification of CVC tubing by immobilizing Fe3 O4 -aminosilane core-shell nanoparticles functionalized with antimicrobial peptide clavanin A (clavA) as an antimicrobial prophylactic towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae...
April 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735833/echinocandins-their-role-in-the-management-of-candida-biofilms
#14
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731649/comparative-evaluation-of-methods-for-the-detection-of-biofilm-formation-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-correlation-with-antibiogram
#15
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713206/antibacterial-and-antibiofouling-clay-nanotube-silicone-composite
#16
C J Boyer, J Ambrose, S Das, A Humayun, D Chappidi, R Giorno, D K Mills
Introduction: Invasive medical devices are used in treating millions of patients each day. Bacterial adherence to their surface is an early step in biofilm formation that may lead to infection, health complications, longer hospital stays, and death. Prevention of bacterial adherence and biofilm development continues to be a major healthcare challenge. Accordingly, there is a pressing need to improve the anti-microbial properties of medical devices. Materials and Methods: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was doped with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), and the PDMS-HNT composite surfaces were coated with PDMS-b-polyethylene oxide (PEO) and antibacterials...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661929/arginase-1-expression-in-myeloid-cells-regulates-s-aureus-planktonic-but-not-biofilm-infection
#17
Kelsey J Yamada, Cortney E Heim, Amy L Aldrich, Casey M Gries, Anna G Staudacher, Tammy Kielian
S. aureus is a leading cause of device-associated biofilm infections, which represent a serious health care concern based on their chronicity and antibiotic resistance. We previously reported that S. aureus biofilms preferentially recruit myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which promote monocyte and macrophage anti-inflammatory properties. This is associated with increased myeloid arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, which has been linked to anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic activity that are observed during S...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653134/the-optimal-ethanol-lock-therapy-regimen-for-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-catheter-infections-an-in-vitro-study
#18
B Alonso, M J Pérez-Granda, A Rodríguez-Huerta, C Rodríguez, E Bouza, M Guembe
BACKGROUND: Ethanol-based lock therapy (LT) solutions are used as an alternative to antibiotics for the conservative management of catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, no clear consensus on regimen or dose has been reached. AIM: To find the ethanol-based lock solution containing a sufficiently low concentration of ethanol for reduction of the metabolic activity of bacterial and fungal biofilms. METHODS: Using an in-vitro model, three concentrations of ethanol (25%, 40%, 70%) were tested, with and without 60 IU of heparin, at six different time-points and against 24 h preformed biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC33186, Candida albicans ATCC14058, and Escherichia coli ATCC25922...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572043/bioluminescence-imaging-increases-in-vivo-screening-efficiency-for-antifungal-activity-against-device-associated-candida-albicans-biofilms
#19
Greetje Vande Velde, Soňa Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Uwe Himmelreich
Fungal infections are a major problem for a growing number of mostly immune-compromised patients. Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and deep tissue infections of which the majority is associated with biofilm formation on medical implants. The animal models that are currently in use to test antifungal drugs are limited to ex vivo analyses, requiring host sacrifice that excludes longitudinal monitoring of dynamic processes during biofilm formation in the live host. As a solution, we introduce non-invasive, dynamic imaging and quantification of C...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563900/a-systematic-evaluation-of-the-two-component-systems-network-reveals-that-arlrs-is-a-key-regulator-of-catheter-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Saioa Burgui, Carmen Gil, Cristina Solano, Iñigo Lasa, Jaione Valle
Two-component systems (TCS) are modular signal transduction pathways that allow cells to adapt to prevailing environmental conditions by modifying cellular physiology. Staphylococcus aureus has 16 TCSs to adapt to the diverse microenvironments encountered during its life cycle, including host tissues and implanted medical devices. S. aureus is particularly prone to cause infections associated to medical devices, whose surfaces coated by serum proteins constitute a particular environment. Identification of the TCSs involved in the adaptation of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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