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Catheter biofilms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457734/role-of-nutrient-limitation-in-the-competition-between-uropathogenic-strains-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-escherichia-coli-in-mixed-biofilms
#1
Guillermo E Juarez, Estela M Galván
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli form mixed species biofilms in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Recently, a detrimental effect of K. pneumoniae over E. coli was observed in mixed species biofilms grown in an artificial urine medium. The mechanism behind this competitive interaction was studied. K. pneumoniae partially outcompeted E. coli in early-stage batch-fed biofilms, whereas both microorganisms co-exist at longer times (K. pneumoniae:E. coli ratio, 55:1), as shown by cell counts and confocal microscopy...
February 19, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444477/the-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-and-peritoneal-dialysis
#2
REVIEW
Liliana Simões-Silva, Ricardo Araujo, Manuel Pestana, Isabel Soares-Silva, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an imbalanced human microbiome due not only to CKD-associated factors such as uremia, increased inflammation and immunosuppression, but also to pharmacological therapies and dietary restrictions. End-stage renal disease patients require renal replacement therapies commonly in the form of hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HD implies the existence of a vascular access, such as an arteriovenous fistula/graft or a venous catheter, whereas PD implies a long-term peritoneal catheter and the constant inflow of peritoneal dialysate...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443508/development-of-an-infection-responsive-fluorescent-sensor-for-the-early-detection-of-urinary-catheter-blockage
#3
Scarlet Milo, Florianne B Acosta, Hollie J Hathaway, Laura A Wallace, Naing T Thet, A Toby A Jenkins
Formation of crystalline biofilms following infection by Proteus mirabilis can lead to encrustation and blockage of long-term indwelling catheters, with serious clinical consequences. We describe a simple sensor, placed within the catheter drainage bag, to alert of impending blockage via a urinary color change. The pH-responsive sensor is a dual-layered polymeric "lozenge", able to release the self-quenching dye 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in response to the alkaline urine generated by the expression of bacterial urease...
February 14, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413618/electrostatic-immobilization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-on-polyethylenimine-and-their-antibacterial-effect-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#4
J Hernandez-Montelongo, Y R Corrales Ureña, D Machado, M Lancelloti, M P Pinheiro, K Rischka, P N Lisboa-Filho, M A Cotta
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram-positive bacterium, and one of the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections due to its strong ability to form biofilms on catheters and surgical implants. Here we explore the antimicrobial properties of Tet-124 peptides, which are part of the innate defense against different multicellular organisms in nature. Two different Tet-124 peptides were immobilized on a polyethylenimine (PEI) film to determine their impact on the antimicrobial properties: KLWWMIRRW (Tet-124), which contains only natural amino acids, and KLWWMIRRWG-(F-Br)-G (F-Br = 4-Bromophenylalanine), a modified Tet-124 sequence with the addition of an unnatural amino acid...
February 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399528/anti-fouling-strategies-for-central-venous-catheters
#5
REVIEW
Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Nikasha Patel, Ali Khademhosseini, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sailendra Naidu, Grace Knuttinen, Rahmi Oklu
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are ubiquitous in the healthcare industry and carry two common complications, catheter related infections and occlusion, particularly by thrombus. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are an important cause of nosocomial infections that increase patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Innovative design strategies for intravenous catheters can help reduce these preventable infections. Antimicrobial coatings can play a major role in preventing disease. These coatings can be divided into two major categories: drug eluting and non-drug eluting...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371526/comparative-efficacies-of-antimicrobial-catheter-lock-solutions-for-fungal-biofilm-eradication-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-catheter-related-fungemia
#6
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth A Reitzel, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam I Raad
Fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs)-primarily due to Candida species-account for over 12% of all CRBSIs, and have been progressively increasing in prevalence. They present significant health and economic burdens, and high mortality rates. Antimicrobial catheter lock solutions are an important prophylactic option for preventing fungal CRBSIs. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two FDA-approved catheter lock solutions (heparin and saline) and three experimental antimicrobial catheter lock solutions-30% citrate, taurolidine-citrate-heparin (TCH), and nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE)-in an in vitro model of catheters colonized by fungi...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356690/bacterial-biofilms-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-catheters
#7
Hye Ju Yeo, Seong Hoon Yoon, Seung Eun Lee, Woo Hyun Cho, Dohyung Kim, Doosoo Jeon, Kyung-Hwa Shin, Yun Seong Kim
Despite the advantages of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), secondary catheter infection remains a major concern during ECMO support. In this study, to clarify the mechanism of ECMO catheter-related infection, we evaluated the impact of infection on biofilm formation on the surfaces of ECMO catheters, and we investigated clinical factors associated with biofilm formation. Catheters used for ECMO were prospectively collected aseptically from the femoral vein, internal jugular vein, and femoral artery of 81 patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure between January 2015 and October 2016...
January 18, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316615/what-could-be-the-role-of-antifungal-lock-solutions-from-bench-to-bedside
#8
REVIEW
Christine Imbert, Blandine Rammaert
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to most antimicrobial agents and systemic treatments usually fail to eradicate previously formed fungal biofilms. In a curative strategy, antifungal lock therapy may help to sterilize catheters, with very high concentrations of antifungal agents, which are not compatible with systemic use...
January 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287632/association-between-candida-biofilm-forming-bloodstream-isolates-and-the-clinical-evolution-in-patients-with-candidemia-an-observational-nine-year-single-center-study-in-mexico
#9
Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Cynthia D Peña-López, Pedro A Hernández-Rodríguez, Dinael Beltrán-Santiago, Gloria M González
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is one of the most common nosocomial infections globally and it is associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Abreast, biofilm-forming strains are associated with even higher mortality rates and poor prognosis for the patient. AIMS: To evaluate a possible association between the biofilm-forming capability of Candida bloodstream isolates and the clinical evolution in patients with candidemia. METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital during 9 years (2006-2015)...
January 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287630/biofilm-formation-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-from-mexican-patients
#10
Alexandra M Montoya, Mariana Elizondo-Zertuche, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Gloria M González
BACKGROUND: Trichosporon asahii is a yeast-like fungus that has recently gained importance as a cause of opportunistic systemic infections. The pathogenicity and virulence factors of T. asahii remain largely unknown. Because of the association between invasive infections and the use of catheters and related devices, the ability of the microorganism to adhere and form biofilms may play an important role in the pathogenicity during a trichosporonosis. AIMS: The aim of this study is to identify an association between biofilm formation by T...
January 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286435/visualization-of-biofilm-formation-in-candida-albicans-using-an-automated-microfluidic-device
#11
Megha Gulati, Craig L Ennis, Diana L Rodriguez, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing about 15% of hospital-acquired sepsis cases. A major virulence attribute of C. albicans is its ability to form biofilms, structured communities of cells attached to biotic and abiotic surfaces. C. albicans biofilms can form on host tissues, such as mucosal layers, and on medical devices, such as catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and joint prostheses. Biofilms pose significant clinical challenges because they are highly resistant to physical and chemical perturbations, and can act as reservoirs to seed disseminated infections...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251486/branched-high-molecular-weight-glyco-polypeptide-with-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-activity-for-the-treatment-of-biofilm-related-infections
#12
Nicolò Mauro, Domenico Schillaci, Paola Varvarà, Maria Grazia Cusimano, Daniela Maria Geraci, Mario Giuffrè, Gennara Cavallaro, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Gaetano Giammona
There are few therapeutic options to simultaneously tackle Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two of the most relevant nosocomial and antibiotic-resistant pathogens responsible for implant, catheters and wound severe infections. The design and synthesis of polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity have gained increasing attention as a safe strategy to treat multidrug-resistant microbes. Here, we tested the activity of a new polymeric derivative with glyco-polypeptide architecture (PAA-VC) bearing L-arginine, vancomycin and colistin as side chains acting against multiple targets, which give rise to a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity favorably combining specific and nonspecific perturbation of the bacterial membrane...
December 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224997/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-anti-biofilm-activity-of-ethanol-alone-and-in-combination-with-enoxaparin-60iu
#13
María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Beatriz Alonso, Ana Rodríguez-Huerta, Carmen Rodríguez, María Guembe
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI) can sometimes be managed without catheter removal by combining systemic therapy with catheter lock therapy. Most antiseptic lock solutions are made up of ethanol combined with an anticoagulant. However, data regarding the anti-biofilm activity of ethanol combined with enoxaparin are scarce. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ethanol at different concentrations combined with enoxaparin 60IU as a lock solution for eradication of the biofilm of different microorganisms...
December 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215782/the-effect-of-urinary-foley-catheter-substrate-material-on-the-antimicrobial-potential-of-calixerene-based-molecules
#14
A Guildford, C Morris, O Kitt, I Cooper
AIMS: This study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a modified calixarene polymer bound to a silicone substrate in the presence of pathogens associated with catheter infections, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The molecule and its constituent parts, were studied bound and unbound to silicone substrates to ascertain growth effects. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were determined against E.coli and Pr.mirabilis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215338/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-durability-and-anti-biofilm-effects-in-urinary-catheters-against-enterococcus-faecalis-clinical-isolates-and-reference-strains
#15
Didem Kart, Ayşe Semra Kustimur, Meral Sağıroğlu, Ayşe Kalkancı
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans biofilms are major causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial-coated or impregnated urinary catheters are seen as a possible way to prevent these infections. AIMS: To determine the biofilm-forming ability of 89 E. faecalis isolates from urinary tract infections and to compare several urinary catheters for antimicrobial durability and the inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of different laboratory strains and clinical isolates of E...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214017/morphological-bactericidal-fast-acting-effects-of-peracetic-acid-a-high-level-disinfectant-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-in-tubing
#16
T Chino, Y Nukui, Y Morishita, K Moriya
Background: The bactericidal effect of disinfectants against biofilms is essential to reduce potential endoscopy-related infections caused by contamination. Here, we investigated the bactericidal effect of a high-level disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA), against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm models in vitro. Methods: S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms were cultured at 35 °C for 7 days with catheter tubes. The following high-level disinfectants (HLDs) were tested: 0...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209288/antimicrobial-effects-of-sulfonyl-derivative-of-2-5h-furanone-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-associated-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Irshad S Sharafutdinov, Elena Y Trizna, Diana R Baidamshina, Maria N Ryzhikova, Regina R Sibgatullina, Alsu M Khabibrakhmanova, Liliya Z Latypova, Almira R Kurbangalieva, Elvira V Rozhina, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Mathias W Pletz, Mikhail I Bogachev, Airat R Kayumov, Oliwia Makarewicz
The gram-positive opportunistic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causatives of a variety of diseases including skin and skin structure infection or nosocomial catheter-associated infections. The biofilm formation that is an important virulence factor of this microorganism renders the antibiotic therapy ineffective, because biofilm-embedded bacteria exhibit strongly increased tolerance to antimicrobials. Here, we describe a novel 3-chloro-5(S)-[(1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyloxy]-4-[4-methylphenylsulfonyl]-2(5H)-furanone (F105), possessing a sulfonyl group and l-menthol moiety...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204271/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-the-first-spontaneous-nanosilver-resistant-bacterium-proteus-mirabilis-strain-scdr1
#18
Amr T M Saeb, Khalid A Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa T Tayeb
Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. We isolated P. mirabilis SCDR1 from a Diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against Nanosilver colloids, the commercial Nanosilver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203484/novel-treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-device-related-infections-using-fibrinolytic-agents
#19
S Hogan, J P O'Gara, E O'Neill
Objective: Staphylococcal infections involving biofilms represent a significant challenge in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been shown to be SaeRS-regulated and dependent on coagulase-catalysed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin on surfaces coated with human plasma. Here we investigated the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm device-related infections by digesting the fibrin biofilm matrix with and without existing antimicrobials.Methods: The fibrinolytic agents plasmin, streptokinase, nattokinase and the recombinant trypsin-like protease TrypLE™ were used to digest and treat S...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194441/candida-albicans-fre8-encodes-a-member-of-the-nadph-oxidase-family-that-produces-a-burst-of-ros-during-fungal-morphogenesis
#20
Diego C P Rossi, Julie E Gleason, Hiram Sanchez, Sabrina S Schatzman, Edward M Culbertson, Chad J Johnson, Christopher A McNees, Carolina Coelho, Jeniel E Nett, David R Andes, Brendan P Cormack, Valeria C Culotta
Until recently, NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes were thought to be a property of multicellularity, where the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NOX acts in signaling processes or in attacking invading microbes through oxidative damage. We demonstrate here that the unicellular yeast and opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is capable of a ROS burst using a member of the NOX enzyme family, which we identify as Fre8. C. albicans can exist in either a unicellular yeast-like budding form or as filamentous multicellular hyphae or pseudohyphae, and the ROS burst of Fre8 begins as cells transition to the hyphal state...
December 1, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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