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Catheter biofilms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870871/functional-genomic-analysis-of-candida-albicans-adherence-reveals-a-key-role-for-the-arp2-3-complex-in-cell-wall-remodelling-and-biofilm-formation
#1
Jason A Lee, Nicole Robbins, Jinglin L Xie, Troy Ketela, Leah E Cowen
Fungal biofilms are complex, structured communities that can form on surfaces such as catheters and other indwelling medical devices. Biofilms are of particular concern with Candida albicans, one of the leading opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans. C. albicans biofilms include yeast and filamentous cells that are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, and they are intrinsically resistant to antifungal drugs such that resolving biofilm infections often requires surgery to remove the contaminated device. C...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863264/synergistic-effect-of-polyaniline-coverage-and-surface-microstructure-on-the-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-formation
#2
L A Gallarato, L E Mulko, M S Dardanelli, C A Barbero, D F Acevedo, E I Yslas
Biofilm Formation is a survival strategy for microorganisms to adapt to their environment. Microbial cells in biofilm become tolerant and resistant to antibiotics and immune responses, increasing the difficulties for the clinical treatment of microbial infections. The surface chemistry and the micro/nano-topography of solid interfaces play a major role in mediating microorganism activity and adhesion. The effect of the surface chemical composition and topography on the adhesion and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied...
November 9, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836632/increased-biofilm-formation-ability-and-accelerated-transport-of-staphylococcus-aureus-along-a-catheter-during-reciprocal-movements
#3
Isao Haraga, Shintaro Abe, Shiro Jimi, Fumiaki Kiyomi, Ken Yamaura
Staphylococcus spp. is a major cause of device-related infections. However, the mechanisms of deep-tissue infection by staphylococci from the skin surface remain unclear. We performed in vitro experiments to determine how staphylococci are transferred from the surface to the deeper layers of agar along the catheter for different strains of Staphylococcus aureus with respect to bacterial concentrations, catheter movements, and biofilm formation. We found that when 5-mm reciprocal movements of the catheter were repeated every 8h, all catheter samples of S...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821454/sustained-nitric-oxide-releasing-nanoparticles-interfere-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-in-a-rat-central-venous-catheter-model
#4
Mircea Radu Mihu, Vitor Cabral, Rodney Pattabhi, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Adam J Friedman, Luis R Martinez, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheters (CVCs) model of infection...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808087/the-antifungal-caspofungin-increases-fluoroquinolone-activity-against-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-by-inhibiting-n-acetylglucosamine-transferase
#5
Wafi Siala, Soňa Kucharíková, Annabel Braem, Jef Vleugels, Paul M Tulkens, Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq, Patrick Van Dijck, Françoise Van Bambeke
Biofilms play a major role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity but respond poorly to antibiotics. Here, we show that the antifungal caspofungin improves the activity of fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, delafloxacin) against S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro (96-well plates or catheters) and in vivo (murine model of implanted catheters). The degree of synergy among different clinical isolates is inversely proportional to the expression level of ica operon, the products of which synthesize poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine polymers, a major constituent of biofilm matrix...
November 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752973/tio2-containing-and-zno-containing-borosilicate-glass-a-novel-thin-glass-with-exceptional-antibiofilm-performances-to-prevent-microfouling
#6
Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz, Andreas Stallmach, Christian Lautenschläger
Biofilm formation, also known as microfouling, on indwelling medical devices such as catheters or prosthetic joints causes difficult to treat and recurrent infections. It is also the initial step for biocorrosion of surfaces in aquatic environment. An efficient prevention of microfouling is preferable but the development of antibiofilm surfaces is enormously challenging. Therefore, soda-lime, aluminosilicate, and three borosilicate glasses with different TiO2 and ZnO compositions were investigated on their feasibility to prevent biofilm formation by standardized in vitro biofilm assays using different pathogenic bacteria...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747298/versatility-of-biofilm-matrix-molecules-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-isolates-and-importance-of-polysaccharide-intercellular-adhesin-expression-during-high-shear-stress
#7
Carolyn R Schaeffer, Tra-My N Hoang, Craig M Sudbeck, Malik Alawi, Isaiah E Tolo, D Ashley Robinson, Alexander R Horswill, Holger Rohde, Paul D Fey
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections, including those of intravascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and orthopedic implants. Multiple biofilm matrix molecules with heterogeneous characteristics have been identified, including proteinaceous, polysaccharide, and nucleic acid factors. Two of the best-studied components in S. epidermidis include accumulation-associated protein (Aap) and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), produced by the enzymatic products of the icaADBC operon...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746915/fortified-interpenetrating-polymers-bacteria-resistant-coatings-for-medical-devices
#8
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Orlando David Henrique Dos Santos, Emma Scholefield, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Peter J Gwynne, David G Swann, Kevin Dhaliwal, Maurice P Gallagher, Mark Bradley
Infections arising from contaminated medical devices are a serious global issue, contributing to antibiotic resistance and imposing significant strain on healthcare systems. Since the majority of medical device-associated infections are biofilm related, efforts are being made to generate either bacteria-repellent or antibacterial coatings aimed at preventing bacterial colonisation. Here, we utilise a nanocapsule mediated slow release of a natural antimicrobial to improve the performance of a bacteria repellent polymer coating...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738086/peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-due-to-melioidosis-a-potentially-devastating-condition
#9
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737696/il-10-plays-an-important-role-in-the-control-of-inflammation-but-not-in-the-bacterial-burden-in-s-epidermidis-cns-catheter-infection
#10
Yenis M Gutierrez-Murgas, Gwenn Skar, Danielle Ramirez, Matthew Beaver, Jessica N Snowden
BACKGROUND: Shunt infection is a frequent and serious complication in the surgical treatment in hydrocephalus. Previous studies have shown an attenuated immune response to these biofilm-mediated infections. We proposed that IL-10 reduces the inflammatory response to Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) CNS catheter infection. METHODS: In this study, a murine model of catheter-associated S. epidermidis biofilm infection in the CNS was generated based on a well-established similar model for S...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736645/enterococcal-metabolite-cues-facilitate-interspecies-niche-modulation-and-polymicrobial-infection
#11
Damien Keogh, Wei Hong Tay, Yao Yong Ho, Jennifer L Dale, Siyi Chen, Shivshankar Umashankar, Rohan B H Williams, Swaine L Chen, Gary M Dunny, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with polymicrobial infections of the urinary tract, indwelling catheters, and surgical wound sites. E. faecalis co-exists with Escherichia coli and other pathogens in wound infections, but mechanisms that govern polymicrobial colonization and pathogenesis are poorly defined. During infection, bacteria must overcome multiple host defenses, including nutrient iron limitation, to persist and cause disease. In this study, we investigated the contribution of E. faecalis to mixed-species infection when iron availability is restricted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734679/improved-hemocompatibility-of-multi-lumen-catheters-via-nitric-oxide-no-release-from-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-snap-composite-filled-lumen
#12
Elizabeth J Brisbois, Maria Kim, Xuewei Wang, Azmath Mohammed, Terry C Major, Jianfeng Wu, Jessica Brownstein, Chuanwu Xi, Hitesh Handa, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Blood-contacting devices, such as intravascular catheters, suffer from challenges related to thrombus formation and infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous antiplatelet and antimicrobial agent. Exogenous release of NO from various polymer matrices has been shown to reduce thrombosis and infection of/on implantable medical devices. However, the clinical applications of such materials have been hindered due to factors such as NO donor leaching and thermal instability. In this study, a novel approach is demonstrated in which one lumen of commercial dual lumen catheters is dedicated to the NO release chemistry, allowing the other lumen to be available for clinical vascular access...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729510/commensal-protection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-against-antimicrobials-by-candida-albicans-biofilm-matrix
#13
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, David Andes, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
: Biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving fungi and bacteria, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and tend to be challenging to treat. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus specifically are considered leading opportunistic fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on catheters and indwelling medical devices. However, the impact of mixed-species biofilm growth on therapy remains largely understudied...
October 11, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709890/a-biodegradable-polycationic-paint-that-kills-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandradhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or nondegradable-polymer-based and hence limited by their nondegradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized noncovalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697892/biomineralization-strongly-modulates-the-formation-of-proteus-mirabilis-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dual-species-biofilms
#15
Xiaobao Li, Nanxi Lu, Hannah R Brady, Aaron I Packman
Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common pathogens that often form biofilms together in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). However, the interactions between these two species in biofilms are largely unknown. P. mirabilis induces ureolytic biomineralization that substantially modifies key biofilm properties including morphology, persistence, and recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy. These processes are well known to complicate CAUTI, but the consequences for colonization and persistence of P...
October 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693709/can-sophorolipids-prevent-biofilm-formation-on-silicone-catheter-tubes
#16
Cristiana Pontes, Marta Alves, Catarina Santos, Maria H Ribeiro, Lídia Gonçalves, Ana F Bettencourt, Isabel A C Ribeiro
Given the impact of biofilms in health care environment and the increasing antibiotic resistance and/or tolerance, new strategies for preventing that occurrence in medical devices are obligatory. Thus, biomaterials surface functionalization with active compounds can be a valuable approach. In the present study the ability of the biosurfactants sophorolipids to prevent biofilms formation on silicone rubber aimed for medical catheters was investigated. Sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola, identified by HPLC-MS/MS were used to cover silicone and surface characterization was evaluated through contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672214/diluted-honey-inhibits-biofilm-formation-potential-application-in-urinary-catheter-management
#17
Somadina Emineke, Alan J Cooper, Sarah Fouch, Brian R Birch, Bashir A Lwaleed
AIMS: Biofilms are ubiquitous and when mature have a complex structure of microcolonies in an extracellular polysaccharide and extracellular DNA matrix. Indwelling medical devices harbour biofilms which have been shown to cause infections and act as reservoirs for pathogens. Urinary catheters are often in place for considerable periods of time and are susceptible to both encrustation and biofilm formation. Strategies for minimising biofilm occurrence underpin an active research area in biomedicine...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671070/antibiofilm-activity-and-synergistic-inhibition-of-s-aureus-biofilms-by-bactericidal-protein-p128-in-combination-with-antibiotics
#18
Sandhya Nair, Srividya Desai, Nethravathi Poonacha, Aradhana Vipra, Umender Sharma
P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein comprising a cell wall-degrading enzymatic region and a Staphylococcus-specific binding region, which possesses specific and potent bactericidal activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of S. aureus To explore P128's ability to kill S. aureus in a range of environments relevant to clinical infection, we investigated the anti-S. aureus activity of P128 alone and in combination with the standard of care antibiotics on planktonic and biofilm-embedded cells. P128 was found to have potent anti-biofilm activity on pre-formed S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664057/the-emerging-problems-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infections-carbapenem-resistance-and-biofilm-formation
#19
Pooi Yin Chung
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections in the urinary tract, respiratory tract, lung, wound sites and blood in individuals with debilitating diseases. Klebsiella pneumoniae is still a cause of severe pneumonia in alcoholics in Africa and Asia, and the predominant primary pathogen of primary liver abscess in Taiwan and Southeast Asia, particularly in Asian and Hispanic patients, and individuals with diabetes mellitus. In the United States and Europe, K. pneumoniae infections are most frequently associated with nosocomial infections...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663229/co-release-of-dicloxacillin-and-thioridazine-from-catheter-material-containing-an-interpenetrating-polymer-network-for-inhibiting-device-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#20
Michael Stenger, Kasper Klein, Rasmus B Grønnemose, Janne K Klitgaard, Hans J Kolmos, Jes S Lindholt, Martin Alm, Peter Thomsen, Thomas E Andersen
Approximately half of all nosocomial bloodstream infections are caused by bacterial colonization of vascular catheters. Attempts have been made to improve devices using anti-adhesive or antimicrobial coatings; however, it is often difficult to bind coatings stably to catheter materials, and the low amounts of drug in thin-film coatings limit effective long-term release. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) are polymer hybrid materials with unique drug release properties. While IPNs have been extensively investigated for use in tablet- or capsule-based drug delivery systems, the potential for use of IPNs in drug release medical devices remains largely unexplored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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