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Catheter biofilms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026191/mechanisms-involved-in-the-triggering-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-by-candida-glabrata-during-planktonic-and-biofilm-growth
#1
Chad J Johnson, John F Kernien, Amanda R Hoyer, Jeniel E Nett
Candida spp. adhere to medical devices, such as catheters, forming drug-tolerant biofilms that resist killing by the immune system. Little is known about how C. glabrata, an emerging pathogen, resists attack by phagocytes. Here we show that upon encounter with planktonic (non-biofilm) C. glabrata, human neutrophils initially phagocytose the yeast and subsequently release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), complexes of DNA, histones, and proteins capable of inhibiting fungal growth and dissemination. When exposed to C...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024820/coating-of-silicone-with-mannoside-pamam-dendrimers-to-enhance-formation-of-non-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-biofilms-against-colonization-of-uropathogens
#2
Zhiling Zhu, Fei Yu, Haoqing Chen, Jun Wang, Analette I Lopez, Quan Chen, Siheng Li, Yuyu Long, Rabih O Darouiche, Richard A Hull, Lijuan Zhang, Chengzhi Cai
Bacterial interference using non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 83972 is a novel strategy for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Crucial to the success of this strategy is to establish a high coverage and stable biofilm of the non-pathogenic bacteria on the catheter surface. However, this non-pathogenic strain is sluggish to form biofilms on silicone as the most widely used material for urinary catheters. We have addressed this issue by modifying the silicone catheter surfaces with mannosides that promote the biofilm formation, but the stability of the non-pathogenic biofilms challenged by uropathogens over long-term remains a concern...
October 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989300/study-of-crystal-formation-and-nitric-oxide-no-release-mechanism-from-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-snap-doped-carbosil-polymer-composites-for-potential-antimicrobial-applications
#3
Yaqi Wo, Zi Li, Alessandro Colletta, Jianfeng Wu, Chuanwu Xi, Adam J Matzger, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Stable and long-term nitric oxide (NO) releasing polymeric materials have many potential biomedical applications. Herein, we report the real-time observation of the crystallization process of the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), within a thermoplastic silicone-polycarbonate-urethane biomedical polymer, CarboSil 20 80A. It is demonstrated that the NO release rate from this composite material is directly correlated with the surface area that the CarboSil polymer film is exposed to when in contact with aqueous solution...
July 15, 2017: Compos B Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983822/in-vitro-activity-of-micafungin-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-candida-glabrata-and-candida-parapsilosis-at-different-stages-of-maturation
#4
Małgorzata Prażyńska, Tomasz Bogiel, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Candida spp. is able to form a biofilm, which is considered resistant to the majority of antifungals used in medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of micafungin against Candida spp. biofilms at different stages of their maturation (2, 6, and 24 h). We assessed the inhibitory effect of micafungin against 78 clinical isolates of Candida spp., growing as planktonic or sessile cells, by widely recommended broth microdilution method. The in vitro effect on sessile cells viability was evaluated by colorimetric reduction assay...
October 5, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983655/mechanistic-understanding-of-phenyllactic-acid-mediated-inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-development-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Maitrayee Chatterjee, Sharon D'Morris, Vinod Paul, Sruthi Warrier, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Sudarslal Sadasivan Nair, Bindhu Paul-Prasanth, C Gopi Mohan, Raja Biswas
Pseudomonas aeruginosa depends on its quorum sensing (QS) system for its virulence factors' production and biofilm formation. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa on the surface of indwelling catheters are often resistant to antibiotic therapy. Alternative approaches that employ QS inhibitors alone or in combination with antibiotics are being developed to tackle P. aeruginosa infections. Here, we have studied the mechanism of action of 3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA), a QS inhibitory compound produced by Lactobacillus species, against P...
October 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980415/carvacrol-rich-oregano-oil-and-thymol-rich-thyme-red-oil-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-the-virulence-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Jintae Lee
AIMS: Urinary tract infections are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), and indwelling catheters are usually colonized by UPEC biofilms tolerant to common antibiotics. Hence, UPEC biofilms pose a substantial challenge, and there is an urgent need for effective control strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 79 essential oils were screened for antibiofilm ability against UPEC. Components of active oils were identified, and their antibiofilm activities were also investigated using 96-well plates with crystal violet assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973965/biofilm-formation-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-is-favored-under-oxygen-conditions-that-mimic-the-bladder-environment
#7
Allison R Eberly, Kyle A Floyd, Connor J Beebout, Spencer J Colling, Madison J Fitzgerald, Charles W Stratton, Jonathan E Schmitz, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
One of the most common urologic problems afflicting millions of people worldwide is urinary tract infection (UTI). The severity of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute cystitis, and in severe cases, pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The primary cause of UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), for which current antibiotic therapies often fail. UPEC forms multicellular communities known as biofilms on urinary catheters, as well as on and within bladder epithelial cells. Biofilm formation protects UPEC from environmental conditions, antimicrobial therapy, and the host immune system...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971093/antimicrobial-peptides-in-biomedical-device-manufacturing
#8
REVIEW
Martijn Riool, Anna de Breij, Jan W Drijfhout, Peter H Nibbering, Sebastian A J Zaat
Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints, and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures, and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966610/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-potential-of-acyclic-amines-and-diamines-against-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Gurmeet Kaur, P Balamurugan, Sahana Vasudevan, Saikiran Jadav, S A Princy
Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) remains a great challenge despite a decade of research on antimicrobial compounds against their infections. In the present study, various acyclic amines and diamines were chemically synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial as well as antibiofilm activity against MDRSA. Among all the synthesized compounds, an acyclic diamine, (2,2'-((butane-1,4-diylbis(azanediyl)bis(methylene))diphenol) designated as ADM 3, showed better antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration at 50 μg/mL) and antibiofilm activity (MBIC50 at 5 μg/mL)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966069/biotimer-assay-a-reliable-and-rapid-method-for-the-evaluation-of-central-venous-catheter-microbial-colonization
#10
Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Monica Coletti, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Mellani Scotti, Piera Valenti, Giammarco Raponi, Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Francesca Berlutti
Adherent bacteria and biofilm frequently colonize central venous catheters (CVCs). CVC colonization is correlated to infections and particularly to bloodstream ones. The classical microbiological methods to determine of CVC colonization are not fully reliable and are time-consuming. BioTimer Assay (BTA) is a biological method already used to count bacteria adherent to abiotic surfaces and biofilm without sample manipulation. BTA employs specific reagents whose color changed according to bacterial metabolism...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945343/in-vivo-anti-biofilm-and-anti-bacterial-non-leachable-coating-thermally-polymerized-on-cylindrical-catheter
#11
Chao Zhou, Yang Wu, Kishore Reddy Venkata Thappeta, Jo Thy Lachumy Subramanian, Dicky Pranantyo, En-Tang Kang, Hongwei Duan, Kimberly Kline, Mary B Chan-Park
Catheters are indispensable tools of modern medicine, but catheter-associated infection is a significant clinical problem, even when stringent sterile protocols are observed. When the bacteria colonize catheter surfaces, they tend to form biofilms making them hard to treat with conventional antibiotics. Hence, there is a great need for inherently antifouling and antibacterial catheters that prevent bacterial colonization. This paper reports the preparation of nonleachable antibiofilm and antibacterial cationic film coatings directly polymerized from actual tubular silicone catheter surfaces via the technique of supplemental activator and reducing agent surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SARA SI-ATRP)...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939900/fluoxetine-and-thioridazine-inhibit-efflux-and-attenuate-crystalline-biofilm-formation-by-proteus-mirabilis
#12
Jonathan Nzakizwanayo, Paola Scavone, Shirin Jamshidi, Joseph A Hawthorne, Harriet Pelling, Cinzia Dedi, Jonathan P Salvage, Charlotte K Hind, Fergus M Guppy, Lara M Barnes, Bhavik A Patel, Khondaker M Rahman, Mark J Sutton, Brian V Jones
Proteus mirabilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on indwelling urethral catheters that block urine flow and lead to serious clinical complications. The Bcr/CflA efflux system has previously been identified as important for development of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms, highlighting the potential for efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) to control catheter blockage. Here we evaluate the potential for drugs already used in human medicine (fluoxetine and thioridazine) to act as EPIs in P. mirabilis, and control crystalline biofilm formation...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929959/-in-vitro-effect-of-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-on-biofilm-formation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#13
Duygu Nilüfer Öcal, İştar Dolapçı, Zeynep Gençtürk, Alper Tekeli
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are one of the primer agents of blood stream infections (BSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) which are associated mostly with the usage of central venous catheters and, important causes of morbidity and mortality despite the usage of antibacterial and supportive treatment. It is important to determine the properties of these causative microorganisms in order to make appropriate treatment of such infections. The aims of our study were to evaluate the biofilm formation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) which were causative agents of bloodstream (BSI) and catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic forms and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of sessile forms for vancomycin and daptomycin and to evaluate the efficacy of these antibiotics in infections with biofilm-forming isolates in vitro...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905757/re-development-and-characterization-of-a-stable-adhesive-bond-between-a-poly-dimethylsiloxane-catheter-material-and-a-bacterial-biofilm-resistant-acrylate-polymer-coating
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904973/effects-of-bacillus-serine-proteases-on-the-bacterial-biofilms
#15
Olga Mitrofanova, Ayslu Mardanova, Vladimir Evtugyn, Lydia Bogomolnaya, Margarita Sharipova
Serratia marcescens is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for many hospital-acquired infections including catheter-associated bacteremia and urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. Biofilm formation is one of the mechanisms employed by S. marcescens to increase its virulence and pathogenicity. Here, we have investigated the main steps of the biofilm formation by S. marcescens SR 41-8000. It was found that the biofilm growth is stimulated by the nutrient-rich environment. The time-course experiments showed that S...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878860/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-opportunistic-pathogenic-strains-of-staphylococcus-cohnii-isolated-from-human-patients
#16
Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, José F Garcia-Mazcorro, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza, Scot E Dowd, Elvira Garza-González
Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved in virulence, disease, and defense and both species show phenotypic low biofilm production and evidence of increased antibiotic resistance associated to biofilm production...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873268/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-hematogenous-spreading-of-s-aureus-device-biofilms-demonstrating-clumping-dispersal-as-an-advantageous-dissemination-mechanism
#17
R B Grønnemose, K L Saederup, H J Kolmos, S W K Hansen, C A Asferg, K J Rasmussen, Y Palarasah, T E Andersen
Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. aureus biofilm growth, late-stage dispersal, and reattachment to downstream endothelial cell layers. The ability of the released biofilm material to resist host response and disseminate in vivo was furthermore studied in whole blood- and phagocyte survival assays, and in a short-term murine infection model...
September 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868050/biofilm-formation-by-pseudallescheria-scedosporium-species-a-comparative-study
#18
Rodrigo Rollin-Pinheiro, Jardel V de Meirelles, Taissa V M Vila, Beatriz B Fonseca, Vinicius Alves, Susana Frases, Sonia Rozental, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species are medically important fungi that are present in soil and human impacted areas and capable of causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Although little is known about their pathogenesis, their growth process and infection routes are very similar to those of Aspergillus species, which grow as biofilms in invasive infections. All nine strains tested here displayed the ability to grow as biofilms in vitro and to produce a dense network of interconnected hyphae on both polystyrene and the surfaces of central venous catheters, but with different characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839494/sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rifampicin-strongly-stimulated-biofilm-production-in-s-aureus
#19
Agostinho Alves Lima-E-Silva, Renato Geraldo Silva-Filho, Henry Marcel Zalona Fernandes, Carmen Soares Meirelles Saramago, Alice Slotfeldt Viana, Maria José Souza, Eduardo Matos Nogueira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen and a frequent cause of infections associated with biofilm production in implantable medical devices. Biofilm production can be induced by sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain antibiotics, but few studies have researched this occurrence in S. aureus. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-MICs of rifampicin and minocycline on biofilm production by five clinical and five non-clinical S. aureus isolates...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836084/effect-of-ultrasonic-irradiation-on-bacterial-biofilms
#20
Harumi Koibuchi, Yasutomo Fujii, Yoshikazu Hirai, Takashi Mochizuki, Kohji Masuda, Kazuhiko Kotani, Toshiyuki Yamada, Nobuyuki Taniguchi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on biofilm produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which causes central venous catheter-related infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, ATCC 35984 RP 62A) was used in this study. First, biofilm was prepared from S. epidermidis on the bottom of the upper left well of a 6-well plate. Next, the biofilm was irradiated for 24 h with 1-MHz ultrasound (US) in the continuous wave mode to serve as the US irradiation group...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
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