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Biofilm microrganisms

Mara Di Giulio, Romina Zappacosta, Silvia Di Lodovico, Emanuela Di Campli, Gabriella Siani, Antonella Fontana, Luigina Cellini
Chronic wounds represent an increasing problem worldwide. Graphene oxide (GO) has been reported to exhibit strong antibacterial activity towards both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy of GO against wound pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus PECHA 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PECHA 4 and Candida albicans X3 clinical isolates were incubated with 50 mg/L of GO for 2 and 24 h to evaluate the antimicrobial effect. Optical and Atomic force microscopy images were performed to visualize the GO effect on microbial cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Addolorata Marasco, Simona Nocerino, Gabriele Pinto, Antonino Pollio, Giorgio Trojsi, Antonino De Natale
The potential impact of cyanobacteria and microalgae on the weathering of calcareous tesserae from a Roman mosaic of the II Century CE has been followed through in vitro experiments. Laboratory tests were carried out by inoculating mosaic tiles with single strains of Cyanobacteria or Chlorophyta to evaluate the roles of pioneer phototrophic microrganism on the resulting architecture of biofilms. The interaction between tesserae and strains was assessed at the whole substratum and micrometer scales, by image analysis and Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) microscopy, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Eduardo Balsanelli, Válter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Rose Adele Monteiro
H. seropedicae associates endophytically and epiphytically with important poaceous crops and is capable of promoting their growth. The molecular mechanisms involved in plant colonization by this microrganism are not fully understood. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are usually necessary for bacterial attachment to solid surfaces, to other bacteria, and to form biofilms. The role of H. seropedicae SmR1 exopolysaccharide in biofilm formation on both inert and plant substrates was assessed by characterization of a mutant in the espB gene which codes for a glucosyltransferase...
2014: PloS One
Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Francesca Iosi, Barbara De Berardis, Giuliana Guccione, Fabiana Superti, Maria Pia Conte, Catia Longhi
Listeria monocytogenes is the agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease. It represents a serious problem for the food industry because of its environmental persistence mainly due to its ability to form biofilm on a variety of surfaces. Microrganisms attached on the surfaces are a potential source of contamination for environment and animals and humans. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in food industry in a variety of products and it was reported that daily exposure to these nanomaterials is very high...
2014: PloS One
Iram Liaqat, Robert Thomas Bachmann, Robert G J Edyvean
The quorum sensing (QS) dependent behaviour of micro-organisms, in particular expression of virulence genes, biofilm formation and dispersal, have provided impetus for investigating practical approaches to interfere with microbial QS. This study tests Halomonas pacifica and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, two halophilic marine micro-organism, for their AI-2 dependent QS signalling and the effect of two well-known quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs), patulin and penicillic acid, on biofilm formation. We report, for the first time, the successful amplification of a putative luxS gene in H...
March 2014: Current Microbiology
Aleksandra Taraszkiewicz, Grzegorz Fila, Mariusz Grinholc, Joanna Nakonieczna
We review the recent literature concerning the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation toward various microbial species in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microrganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. We discuss the biofilm formation process and mechanisms of its increased resistance to various antimicrobials. We present, based on data in the literature, strategies for overcoming the problem of biofilm resistance...
2013: BioMed Research International
R Bartoletti, T Cai
Nowadays, inflammatory prostatic diseases represent one of the main social and economic problems that affect male gender in our country. The disease's prevalence is estimated at 11-14% in European countries, and males aged between 20 and 50 years are the most affected subjects. Bacterial prostatitis is documented at a very low prevalence (7-13% of prostatitis overall considered) due to either reduced utilization of viral and bacteriological tests (Meares test, urethral swab, bacterial and viral PCR) or to the possibility that individual patients show a scarce expression of bacterial disease in biological fluids, because of intraglandular biofilm presence, with subsequent spreading of the sole plankton microrganisms...
June 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Sandra Mazzoli
Biofilms represent a cohesive matrix of microrganisms and other cellular constituents that might be present in any natural environment. Microrganisms able to produce biofilms undergo a number of distinctive and typical phenomenon, such as adhesiveness on infected cellular surfaces that consequently becomes irreversible, so deeply changing the microrganisms physiological status. In addition, biofilms play a central role in consenting microrganisms to survive and subsequently to spread in the host, since exocellular matrix protects pathogen bacteria from antibodies and immunocompetent cells devoted to their destruction, and from antimicrobial agents...
June 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Delfino Legnani
The lower respiratory tract of patients affected by COPD is constantly colonized by pathogenic microrganisms such as H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae. Role of bacterial colonization of big and small airways in patients affected by COPD is still unclear but it is likely to play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the vicious circle of infection/inflammation. Colonizer pathogens are capable to stimulate mucus production, to alter the ciliary function by inducing dyskinesia and stasis; in addition, they represent a strong stimulus for neutrophils to come in the airways, which release elastase that, in turn, inhibit the mucus-ciliary function...
July 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Lorenzo Drago
Biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells included in a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface. The main property of biofilm consists of making microrganisms more resistant to exogenous insults. Antibiotic therapy typically resolves symptoms determined by planktonic cells released by biofilms but is not able to eradicate and completely clear biofilm. This is why infections sustained by biofilm-producer bacteria are often recurrent, making mandatory repeated antibiotic treatments...
July 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ana B Gonçalves, Isabel M Santos, R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima
Filamentous fungi are a ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms and may contribute, along with bacteria, yeasts, protozoa and viruses, to the formation of biofilms in water distribution systems. However, fungal involvement in biofilms has not been demonstrated unambiguously. Furthermore, these fungi may be responsible for the production of tastes, odours and mycotoxins in drinking water making their early detection important. The detection of fme these problems a combination of two fluorescent techniques for direct detection was tested: (a) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) employing the universal rRNA probe EUK516, labelled with the red Cy3, followed by (b) staining with Calcofluor White MR2 fluorescent dye which stains fungal cell walls blue...
September 2006: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
L Bonadonna, I Lacchetti, R Paradiso
Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous. Some species can cause infections in humans and it is known that they can ingest and protect many microrganisms, such as species belonging to Legionella genus. Till now in Italy the environmental surveillance is still scarce because of both the lack of appropriate and promptly practical methods and drawbacks due to matrices characteristics. In the present study simple techniques were investigated and evaluated to detect and observe free-living amoebae in good water quality and biofilm samples...
May 2006: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
C Bortolaia, L Sbordone
Biofilm is defined as a community of bacteria intimately associated with each other and included within an exopolymer matrix: this biological unit exhibits its own properties, quite different in comparison with those showed by the single species in planktonic form. The oral cavity appears as an open ecosystem, with a dynamic balance between the entrance of microrganisms, colonisation modalities and host defences aimed to their removal: to avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces...
May 2002: Minerva Stomatologica
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