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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777515/bottom-up-attention-capture-with-distractor-and-target-singletons-defined-in-the-same-color-dimension-is-not-a-matter-of-feature-uncertainty
#1
Hanna Weichselbaum, Ulrich Ansorge
In visual search, attention capture by an irrelevant color-singleton distractor in another feature dimension than the target is dependent on whether or not the distractor changes its feature: Capture is present if the irrelevant color distractor can take on different features across trials, but absent if the distractor takes on only one feature throughout all trials. This influence could be due to down-weighting of the entire color map. Here we tested whether a similar effect could also be brought about by down-weighting of specific color channels within the same maps...
May 18, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777196/single-measurement-detection-of-individual-cell-ionic-oscillations-using-an-n-type-semiconductor-electrolyte-interface
#2
Mariusz Pietruszka, Monika Olszewska, Lukasz Machura, Edward Rówiński
Pollen tubes are used as models in studies on the type of tip-growth in plants. They are an example of polarised and rapid growth because pollen tubes are able to quickly invade the flower pistil in order to accomplish fertilisation. How different ionic fluxes are perceived, processed or generated in the pollen tube is still not satisfactorily understood. In order to measure the H+ , K+ , Ca2+ and Cl- fluxes of a single pollen tube, we developed an Electrical Lab on a Photovoltaic-Chip (ELoPvC) on which the evolving cell was immersed in an electrolyte of a germination medium...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777129/passive-millimeter-wave-imaging-system-based-on-helical-scanning
#3
Yang Meng, Anyong Qing, Chuan Lin, Jiefeng Zang, Yizhe Zhao, Cheng Zhang
A simple and fast single channel passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging system for public security check is presented in this paper. It distinguishes itself with traditional ones by an innovative scanning mechanism. Indoor experiments against human body with or without concealed items in clothes show that imaging could be completed in 3 s with angular resolution of about 0.7°. In addition, its field of view (FOV) is adjustable according to the size of actual target.
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776541/dual-channel-coded-microbeads-for-multiplexed-detection-of-biomolecules-using-assembling-of-quantum-dots-and-element-coding-nanoparticles
#4
Bangrong Lu, Qinghua He, Yonghong He, Xuejing Chen, Guangxia Feng, Siyu Liu, Yanhong Ji
To achieve the dual-channel (analog and digital) encoding, microbeads assembled with quantum dots (QDs) and element coding nanoparticles (ECNPs) have been prepared. Dual-spectra, including fluorescence generated from quantum dots (QDs) and laser induced breakdown spectrum obtained from the plasma of ECNPs, including AgO, MgO and ZnO nanoparticles, has been adopted to provide more encoding amounts and more accurate dual recognition for encoded microbeads in multiplexed utilization. The experimental results demonstrate that the single microbead can be decoded in two optical channels...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776379/development-of-a-rapid-field-applicable-molecular-diagnostic-for-knockdown-resistance-kdr-markers-in-an-gambiae
#5
Vera T Unwin, Shaun Ainsworth, Emily J Rippon, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Mark J I Paine, David Weetman, Emily R Adams
BACKGROUND: The spread of insecticide resistance (IR) is a major threat to vector control programmes for mosquito-borne diseases. Early detection of IR using diagnostic markers could help inform these programmes, especially in remote locations where gathering reliable bioassay data is challenging. Most current molecular tests for genetic IR markers are only suitable for use in well-equipped laboratory settings. There is an unmet need for field-applicable diagnostics. METHODS: A single-cartridge test was designed to detect key IR mutations in the major African vector of malaria, Anopheles gambiae...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776093/impact-of-hydrodynamic-interactions-on-protein-folding-rates-depends-on-temperature
#6
Fabio C Zegarra, Dirar Homouz, Yossi Eliaz, Andrei G Gasic, Margaret S Cheung
We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α/β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β-barrel α-spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776032/polyelectrolyte-brush-bilayers-in-weak-interpenetration-regime-scaling-theory-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#7
Parth Rakesh Desai, Shayandev Sinha, Siddhartha Das
We employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and develop scaling theories to quantify the equilibrium behavior of polyelectrolyte (PE) brush bilayers (BBLs) in the weakly interpenetrated regime, which is characterized by d_{0}<d_{g}<2d_{0}, where d_{g} is the gap between the opposing plates where the PE brushes are grafted and d_{0} is the unperturbed height of a PE brush grafted at a single plate. Scaling predictions establish that, for the weakly interpenetrated osmotic PE BBLs δ∼N^{1/2}(2-d_{g}/d_{0})^{1/2} (where δ is the interpenetration length and N is the number of Kuhn segments in PE brush)...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775912/an-accurate-sleep-stages-classification-system-using-a-new-class-of-optimally-time-frequency-localized-three-band-wavelet-filter-bank
#8
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775559/mechanosensitivity-of-mitochondr-ial-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#9
Agnieszka Walewska, Bogusz Kulawiak, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Potassium channels have been discovered in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various cells. These channels can regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume, respiration and reactive species generation. Therefore, it is believed that their activation is cytoprotective in various tissues. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa ) was measured by the patch-clamp technique on mitoplasts derived from mitochondria isolated from human glioma U-87 MG cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775485/plasmodium-parasite-exploits-host-aquaporin-3-during-liver-stage-malaria-infection
#10
Dora Posfai, Kayla Sylvester, Anupama Reddy, Jack G Ganley, Johannes Wirth, Quinlan E Cullen, Tushar Dave, Nobutaka Kato, Sandeep S Dave, Emily R Derbyshire
Within the liver a single Plasmodium parasite transforms into thousands of blood-infective forms to cause malaria. Here, we use RNA-sequencing to identify host genes that are upregulated upon Plasmodium berghei infection of hepatocytes with the hypothesis that host pathways are hijacked to benefit parasite development. We found that expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water and glycerol channel, is significantly induced in Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes compared to uninfected cells. This aquaglyceroporin localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the compartmental interface between the host and pathogen, with a temporal pattern that correlates with the parasite's expansion in the liver...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775455/atomic-resolution-mechanism-of-ligand-binding-to-a-solvent-inaccessible-cavity-in-t4-lysozyme
#11
Jagannath Mondal, Navjeet Ahalawat, Subhendu Pandit, Lewis E Kay, Pramodh Vallurupalli
Ligand binding sites in proteins are often localized to deeply buried cavities, inaccessible to bulk solvent. Yet, in many cases binding of cognate ligands occurs rapidly. An intriguing system is presented by the L99A cavity mutant of T4 Lysozyme (T4L L99A) that rapidly binds benzene (~106 M-1s-1). Although the protein has long served as a model system for protein thermodynamics and crystal structures of both free and benzene-bound T4L L99A are available, the kinetic pathways by which benzene reaches its solvent-inaccessible binding cavity remain elusive...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775395/after-effect-induced-by-microwave-radiation-in-human-electroencephalographic-signal-a-feasibility-study
#12
Maie Bachmann, Laura Päeske, Andreas A Ioannides, Jaanus Lass, Hiie Hinrikus
PURPOSE: This feasibility study is aimed to clarify the possibility of detection of microwave radiation (MWR) induced event related potential (ERP) in electroencephalographic (EEG) signal. METHODS: To trigger onset and offset effects in EEG, repetitive MWR stimuli were used. Four EEG recordings on a single subject were performed, each about one month apart. The subject was exposed to 450 MHz MWR modulated at 40 Hz at the 1 g peak spatial average specific absorption rate of 0...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775059/intrinsic-antioxidant-potential-of-the-aminoindole-structure-a-computational-kinetics-study-of-tryptamine
#13
Erika N Bentz, Rosana Maria Lobayan, Henar Martinez, Pilar Redondo, Antonio Largo
A computational kinetics study of the antioxidant activity of tryptamine toward HO● and HOO● radicals in water at 298 K has been carried out. Density functional methods have been employed for the quantum chemical calculations and conventional transition state theory was used for rate constants evaluation. Different mechanisms have been considered: radical adduct formation (RAF), single electron transfer (SET), and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). For the reaction of tryptamine with the hydroxyl radical nearly all channels are diffusion controlled, and the overall rate constant is very high, 6...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774981/high-pressure-synthesis-of-a-nitrogen-rich-inclusion-compound-ren8%C3%A2-xn2-with-conjugated-polymeric-nitrogen-chains
#14
Maxim Bykov, Elena Bykova, Egor Koemets, Timofey Fedotenko, Georgios Aprilis, Konstantin Glazyrin, Hanns-Peter Liermann, Alena V Ponomareva, Johan Tidholm, Ferenc Tasnádi, Igor A Abrikosov, Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky
A novel nitrogen-rich compound, ReN8·xN2, was synthesized via a direct reaction between rhenium and nitrogen at high pressure and high temperature in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structure, which is based on the ReN8 framework, has rectangular-shaped channels that accommodate nitrogen molecules. Thus, despite a very high synthesis pressure, exceeding 100 GPa, ReN8·xN2 is an inclusion compound. The amount of trapped nitrogen (x) depends on the synthesis conditions...
May 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774013/dynamics-of-aspen-roots-colonization-by-pseudomonads-reveals-strain-specific-and-mycorrhizal-specific-patterns-of-biofilm-formation
#15
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772901/the-catch-22-of-predicting-herg-blockade-using-publicly-accessible-bioactivity-data
#16
Vishal Babu Siramshetty, Qiaofeng Chen, Prashanth Devarakonda, Robert Preissner
Drug-induced inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encoded potassium ion (K+) channels can lead to fatal cardiotoxicity. Several marketed drugs and promising drug candidates were recalled due to this concern. Diverse modeling methods ranging from molecular similarity assessment to quantitative structure activity relationship analysis employing machine learning techniques have been applied to datasets of varying size and composition (number of blockers and non-blockers). In this study, we highlight the challenges involved in development of a robust classifier for predicting the hERG endpoint using bioactivity data extracted from the public domain...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770402/ultrafast-dissociation-features-in-rixs-spectra-of-the-water-molecule
#17
Emelie Ertan, Viktoriia Savchenko, Nina Ignatova, Vinícius Vaz da Cruz, Rafael C Couto, Sebastian Eckert, Mattis Fondell, Marcus Dantz, Brian Kennedy, Thorsten Schmitt, Annette Pietzsch, Alexander Föhlisch, Faris Gel'mukhanov, Michael Odelius, Victor Kimberg
In this combined theoretical and experimental study we report on an analysis of the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of gas phase water via the lowest dissociative core-excited state |1s-1O4a11. We focus on the spectral feature near the dissociation limit of the electronic ground state. We show that the narrow atomic-like peak consists of the overlapping contribution from the RIXS channels back to the ground state and to the first valence excited state |1b-114a11 of the molecule. The spectral feature has signatures of ultrafast dissociation (UFD) in the core-excited state, as we show by means of ab initio calculations and time-dependent nuclear wave packet simulations...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770351/a-microfluidic-device-for-massively-parallel-whole-lifespan-imaging-of-single-fission-yeast-cells
#18
Stephen K Jones, Eric C Spivey, James R Rybarski, Ilya J Finkelstein
Whole-lifespan single-cell analysis has greatly increased our understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as cellular aging. To observe individual cells across their entire lifespan, all progeny must be removed from the growth medium, typically via manual microdissection. However, manual microdissection is laborious, low-throughput, and incompatible with fluorescence microscopy. Here, we describe assembly and operation of the multiplexed-Fission Yeast Lifespan Microdissector (multFYLM), a high-throughput microfluidic device for rapidly acquiring single-cell whole-lifespan imaging...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769724/structural-basis-for-gating-pore-current-in-periodic-paralysis
#19
Daohua Jiang, Tamer M Gamal El-Din, Christopher Ing, Peilong Lu, Régis Pomès, Ning Zheng, William A Catterall
Potassium-sensitive hypokalaemic and normokalaemic periodic paralysis are inherited skeletal muscle diseases characterized by episodes of flaccid muscle weakness1,2 . They are caused by single mutations in positively charged residues ('gating charges') in the S4 transmembrane segment of the voltage sensor of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.4 or the calcium channel Cav 1.11,2 . Mutations of the outermost gating charges (R1 and R2) cause hypokalaemic periodic paralysis1,2 by creating a pathogenic gating pore in the voltage sensor through which cations leak in the resting state3,4 ...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768258/multiple-actions-of-rotenone-an-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-on-ionic-currents-and-miniature-end-plate-potential-in-mouse-hippocampal-mhippoe-14-neurons
#20
Chin-Wei Huang, Kao-Min Lin, Te-Yu Hung, Yao-Chung Chuang, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rotenone (Rot) is known to suppress the activity of complex I in the mitochondrial chain reaction; however, whether this compound has effects on ion currents in neurons remains largely unexplored. METHODS: With the aid of patch-clamp technology and simulation modeling, the effects of Rot on membrane ion currents present in mHippoE-14 cells were investigated. RESULTS: Addition of Rot produced an inhibitory action on the peak amplitude of INa with an IC50 value of 39...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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