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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150838/gi-530159-a-novel-selective-mechano-sensitive-k2p-channel-opener-reduces-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion-drg-neuron-excitability
#1
Alexandre J C Loucif, Pierre-Philippe Saintot, Jia Liu, Brett M Antonio, Shannon G Zellmer, Katrina Yoger, Emma L Veale, Anna Wilbrey, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Lishuang Cao, Alex Gutteridge, Neil A Castle, Edward B Stevens, Alistair Mathie
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: TREK two pore domain potassium channels play a critical role in regulating the excitability of somatosensory nociceptive neurons and are important mediators of pain perception. An understanding of the roles of TREK channels in pain perception and, indeed, in other pathophysiological conditions, has been severely hampered by the lack of potent and/or selective activators and inhibitors. In this study we describe a new, selective opener of TREK channels, GI-530159 (4,4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline)...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148722/acoustic-wave-driven-functionalized-particles-for-aptamer-based-target-biomolecule-separation
#2
Raheel Ahmad, Ghulam Destgeer, Muhammad Afzal, Jinsoo Park, Husnain Ahmed, Jin Ho Jung, Kwangseok Park, Tae-Sung Yoon, Hyung Jin Sung
We developed a hybrid microfluidic device that utilized acoustic waves to drive functionalized microparticles inside a continuous flow microchannel and to separate particle-conjugated target proteins from a complex fluid. The acoustofluidic device comprised of an interdigitated transducer (IDT) that produced high-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel. The SAW interacted with the sample fluid flow inside the microchannel and deflected particles from their original streamlines to achieve separation...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#3
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145442/downregulation-of-kcnmb4-expression-and-changes-in-bk-channel-subtype-in-hippocampal-granule-neurons-following-seizure-activity
#4
Luke E Whitmire, Ling Ling, Vladslav Bugay, Chase M Carver, Santosh Timilsina, Hui-Hsiu Chuang, David B Jaffe, Mark S Shapiro, Jose E Cavazos, Robert Brenner
A major challenge is to understand maladaptive changes in ion channels that sets neurons on a course towards epilepsy development. Voltage- and calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels contribute to early spike timing in neurons, and studies indicate that the BK channel plays a pathological role in increasing excitability early after a seizure. Here, we have investigated changes in BK channels and their accessory β4 subunit (KCNMB4) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons of the hippocampus, key neurons that regulate excitability of the hippocampus circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143966/drug-interaction-at-herg-channel-in-vitro-assessment-of-the-electrophysiological-consequences-of-drug-combinations-and-comparison-against-theoretical-models
#5
Barbara Wiśniowska, Bartosz Lisowski, Magdalena Kulig, Sebastian Polak
Drugs carry a proarrhythmic risk, which gets even greater when they are used in combination. In vitro assessment of the proarrhythmic potential of drugs is limited to one compound and thus neglects the potential of drug-drug interactions, including those involving active metabolites. Here we present the results of an in vitro study of potential drug-drug interactions at the level of the hERG channel for the combination of up to three compounds: loratadine, desloratadine and ketoconazole. Experiments were performed at room temperature on an automated patch-clamp device CytoPatch 2, with the use of heterogeneously, stably transfected HEK cells...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143340/k2p-task-2-and-kcnq1-kcne3-k-channels-are-major-players-contributing-to-intestinal-anion-and-fluid-secretion
#6
Francisca Julio-Kalajzić, Sandra Villanueva, Johanna Burgos, Margarita Ojeda, L Pablo Cid, Thomas J Jentsch, Francisco V Sepúlveda
Anion and fluid secretion across the intestinal epithelium, a process altered in cystic fibrosis and secretory diarrhoea, is mediated by cAMP-activated CFTR Cl(-) channels and requires the simultaneous activity of basolateral K(+) channels to maintain cellular ionic homeostasis and membrane potential. This function is fulfilled by the cAMP-activated K(+) channel formed by the association of pore-forming KCNQ1 with its obligatory KCNE3 β-subunit. Studies using mice show sizable cAMP-activated intestinal anion secretion in the absence of either KCNQ1 or KCNE3 suggesting that an alternative K(+) conductance must compensate for the loss of KCNQ1/KCNE3 activity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142238/mapping-qtls-conferring-salt-tolerance-and-micronutrient-concentrations-at-seedling-stagein-wheat
#7
Babar Hussain, Stuart James Lucas, Levent Ozturk, Hikmet Budak
Soil salinization and degradation is one of the consequences of climate change. Identification of major salt tolerance genes and marker assisted selection (MAS) can accelerate wheat breeding for this trait. We genotyped 154 wheat F2 lines derived from a cross between salt tolerant and susceptible cultivars using the Axiom Wheat Breeder's Genotyping Array. A high-density linkage map of 988 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was constructed and utilized for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for salt tolerance traits and mineral concentrations under salinity...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142156/outcomes-of-rate-control-treatment-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure%C3%A3-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#8
Hee Tae Yu, Pil-Sung Yang, Hancheol Lee, Seng Chan You, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jae-Sun Uhm, Jong-Youn Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung
BACKGROUND: Rate control is now a front-line therapy in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the survival benefits of different rate-control medications remain controversial, so we assessed the efficacy of rate-control medications in AF patients with concomitant heart failure (HF).Methods and Results:From January 2002 to December 2008, a total of 7,034 AF patients with a single type of rate-control drug or without rate-control treatment were enrolled from the Korea National Health Insurance Service database...
November 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140977/low-cost-and-open-source-multi-fluorescence-imaging-system-for-teaching-and-research-in-biology-and-bioengineering
#9
Isaac Nuñez, Tamara Matute, Roberto Herrera, Juan Keymer, Timothy Marzullo, Timothy Rudge, Fernán Federici
The advent of easy-to-use open source microcontrollers, off-the-shelf electronics and customizable manufacturing technologies has facilitated the development of inexpensive scientific devices and laboratory equipment. In this study, we describe an imaging system that integrates low-cost and open-source hardware, software and genetic resources. The multi-fluorescence imaging system consists of readily available 470 nm LEDs, a Raspberry Pi camera and a set of filters made with low cost acrylics. This device allows imaging in scales ranging from single colonies to entire plates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140704/direct-observation-of-splitting-in-oil-in-water-in-oil-emulsion-droplets-via-a-microchannel-mimicking-membrane-pores
#10
Kazuki Akamatsu, Koki Minezaki, Masumi Yamada, Minoru Seki, Shin-Ichi Nakao
Direct observation of double emulsion droplet permeation through a microchannel that mimicked 100-μm membrane pores with a porosity of 66.7% provided insights regarding splitting mechanisms in porous membranes. The microchannel was fabricated by standard soft lithography, and the oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsion droplets were prepared with a glass capillary device. By changing the flow rate from 0.5 to 5.0×10(-2) m s(-1), three characteristic behaviors were observed: (a) passage into one channel without splitting; (b) division into two smaller components; and (c) stripping of the middle water phase of the double emulsion droplets into a smaller double emulsion droplet and a smaller water-in-oil single emulsion droplet...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138759/identification-of-persistent-and-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-from-the-mouse-cochlea
#11
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138268/n-acyl-amino-acids-elmiric-acids-endogenous-signaling-molecules-with-therapeutic-potential
#12
Sumner Burstein
The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The field is comprised of a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom and the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this mini review are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for N-acyl amino acids, physiological actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological effects of N-acyl amino acids and molecular mechanisms believed to be responsible for their effects...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136528/role-of-protein-dynamics-in-transmembrane-receptor-signalling
#13
REVIEW
Yong Wang, Katrine Bugge, Birthe B Kragelund, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen
Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment and computation have been used to study receptor dynamics. Recent studies on three distinct classes of receptors (G-protein coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion-channels and single-pass receptors) are highlighted to show that conformational changes across a range of time-scales and length-scales are central to function...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#14
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131826/an-interactive-sports-video-game-as-an-intervention-for-rehabilitation-of-community-living-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-controlled-single-blind-crossover-study
#15
Nobuko Shimizu, Tomohiro Umemura, Masahiro Matsunaga, Takayoshi Hirai
Hypofrontality is a state of decreased cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex during executive function performance; it is commonly observed in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction, as well as the psychological symptoms of schizophrenia, influences the ability of patients to reintegrate into society. The current study investigated the effects of an interactive sports video game (IVG; Nintendo Wii™ Sports Resort) on frontal lobe function of patients with schizophrenia. A sample of eight patients (6 male and 2 female; mean age = 46...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131643/electrophysiology-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-embedded-in-supported-lipid-bilayer-using-a-single-nanopore-chip
#16
Muhammad Shuja Khan, Noura Sayed Dosoky, Ghulam Mustafa, Darayas Patel, Bakhrom K Berdiev, John Dalton Williams
Nanopore-based technologies are highly adaptable supports for developing label-free sensor chips to characterize lipid bilayers, membrane proteins and nucleotides. We utilized a single nanopore chip to study electrophysiology of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) incorporated in supported lipid membrane (SLM). An isolated nanopore was developed inside the silicon cavity followed by fusing large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of DPPS (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine) and DPPE (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) to produce a solvent-free SLM with giga-ohm (GΩ) sealed impedance...
November 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131359/conductance-based-profiling-of-nanopores-accommodating-fabrication-irregularities
#17
Y M Nuwan D Y Bandara, Jonathan W Nichols, Buddini Iroshika Karawdeniya, Jason R Dwyer
Solid-state nanopores are nanoscale channels through otherwise impermeable membranes. Single molecules or particles can be passed through electrolyte-filled nanopores by, e.g. electrophoresis, and then detected through the resulting physical displacement of ions within the nanopore. Nanopore size, shape, and surface chemistry must be carefully controlled, and on extremely challenging <10 nm-length scales. We previously developed a framework to characterize nanopores from the time-dependent changes in their conductance as they are being formed through solution-phase nanofabrication processes with the appeal of ease and accessibility...
November 13, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131229/phonon-coupling-and-transport-in-individual-polyethylene-chains-a-comparison-study-with-the-bulk-crystal
#18
Xinjiang Wang, Massoud Kaviany, Baoling Huang
Using the first-principles-based anharmonic lattice dynamics, we calculate the thermal conductivities (κ) of both bulk and single-chain polyethylene (PE) and characterize the mode-wise phonon transport and scattering channels. A significantly higher room-temperature axial thermal conductivity in single-chain PE (1400 W m(-1) K(-1)) is observed compared to bulk PE crystals (237 W m(-1) K(-1)). The reduction of scattering phase space caused by the diminished inter-chain van der Waals interactions explains the much larger κ in single-chain PE...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130739/trans-umbilical-laparoscopic-assisted-appendectomy-in-the-pediatric-population-comparing-single-incision-and-2-trocar-techniques
#19
Mariana Borges-Dias, Leonor Carmo, Ruben Lamas-Pinheiro, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Estevão-Costa
INTRODUCTION: Trans-umbilical laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy (TULAA) combines advantages of open surgery with benefits of laparoscopy and can be performed either by single-incision or with two trocars; the present study aims to compare outcomes and cost of these techniques in a pediatric serie. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients undergoing TULAA between July 2013 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. There were two groups: A (single-incision) - one umbilical trocar for a telescope with inbuilt working channel; and B (2-trocar) - one umbilical trocar for a 'standard' telescope plus a supra-pubic trocar for instruments...
November 13, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128973/relevant-features-selection-for-automatic-prediction-of-preterm-deliveries-from-pregnancy-electrohysterograhic-ehg-records
#20
Nafissa Sadi-Ahmed, Baya Kacha, Hamza Taleb, Malika Kedir-Talha
In this study, we proposed an approach able to predict whether a pregnant woman with contractions would give birth earlier than expected (i.e., before the 37 (t h) week of gestation (WG)). It only processes non-invasive electrohysterographic (EHG) signals fully automatically without assistance of an expert or an additional medical system. We used term and preterm EHG signals of 30-minutes duration collected between the 27 (t h) and the 32 (n d) WG. Preterm deliveries (< 37W G) had occurred in average 4...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
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