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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550293/stochastic-sensing-of-angiotensin-ii-with-lysenin-channels
#1
Nisha Shrestha, Sheenah L Bryant, Christopher Thomas, Devon Richtsmeier, Xinzhu Pu, Juliette Tinker, Daniel Fologea
The ability of pore-forming proteins to interact with various analytes has found vast applicability in single molecule sensing and characterization. In spite of their abundance in organisms from all kingdoms of life, only a few pore-forming proteins have been successfully reconstituted in artificial membrane systems for sensing purposes. Lysenin, a pore-forming toxin extracted from the earthworm E. fetida, inserts large conductance nanopores in lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. Here we show that single lysenin channels may function as stochastic nanosensors by allowing the short cationic peptide angiotensin II to be electrophoretically driven through the conducting pathway...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550171/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-inhibits-proarrhythmic-alternans-in-post-infarction-border-zone-cardiomyocytes-a-computational-analysis
#2
Jakub Tomek, Blanca Rodriguez, Gil Bub, Jordi Heijman
The border zone (BZ) of viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodelling and is prone to repolarisation alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodelling processes may promote or inhibit calcium and/or repolarisation alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we employed a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549853/molecular-fingerprinting-of-principal-neurons-in-the-rodent-hippocampus-a-neuroinformatics-approach
#3
D J Hamilton, C M White, C L Rees, D W Wheeler, G A Ascoli
Neurons are often classified by their morphological and molecular properties. The online knowledge base Hippocampome.org primarily defines neuron types from the rodent hippocampal formation based on their main neurotransmitter (glutamate or GABA) and the spatial distributions of their axons and dendrites. For each neuron type, this open-access resource reports any and all published information regarding the presence or absence of known molecular markers, including calcium-binding proteins, neuropeptides, receptors, channels, transcription factors, and other molecules of biomedical relevance...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549411/fluorender-joint-freehand-segmentation-and-visualization-for-many-channel-fluorescence-data-analysis
#4
Yong Wan, Hideo Otsuna, Holly A Holman, Brig Bagley, Masayoshi Ito, A Kelsey Lewis, Mary Colasanto, Gabrielle Kardon, Kei Ito, Charles Hansen
BACKGROUND: Image segmentation and registration techniques have enabled biologists to place large amounts of volume data from fluorescence microscopy, morphed three-dimensionally, onto a common spatial frame. Existing tools built on volume visualization pipelines for single channel or red-green-blue (RGB) channels have become inadequate for the new challenges of fluorescence microscopy. For a three-dimensional atlas of the insect nervous system, hundreds of volume channels are rendered simultaneously, whereas fluorescence intensity values from each channel need to be preserved for versatile adjustment and analysis...
May 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548044/falcon-a-highly-flexible-open-source-software-for-closed-loop-neuroscience
#5
Davide Ciliberti, Fabian Kloosterman
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. Here, we demonstrate an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data, suitable for a wide range of closed-loop experiments. APPROACH: We wrote a C++ multi-threaded software (Falcon) in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node in the graph is internally mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547763/new-approaches-towards-the-understanding-of-integral-membrane-proteins-a-structural-perspective-on-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Reinhard Grisshammer
Three-dimensional structure determination of integral membrane proteins has advanced in unprecedented detail our understanding of mechanistic events of how ion channels, transporters, receptors and enzymes function. This exciting progress required a tremendous amount of methods development, as exemplified here with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): Optimizing the production of GPCRs in recombinant hosts; increasing the probability of crystal formation using high-affinity ligands, nanobodies, and minimal G proteins for co-crystallization, thus stabilizing receptors into one conformation; using the T4 lysozyme technology and other fusion partners to promote crystal contacts; advancing crystallization methods including the development of novel detergents, and miniaturization and automation of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization method; the concept of conformational thermostabilization of GPCRs; and developing microfocus X-ray synchrotron technologies to analyze small GPCR crystals...
May 25, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546889/tuning-the-spin-coherence-time-of-cu-ii-bis-oxamato-and-cu-ii-bis-oxamidato-complexes-by-advanced-esr-pulse-protocols
#7
Ruslan Zaripov, Evgeniya Vavilova, Iskander Khairuzhdinov, Kev Salikhov, Violeta Voronkova, Mohammad A Abdulmalic, Francois E Meva, Saddam Weheabby, Tobias Rüffer, Bernd Büchner, Vladislav Kataev
We have investigated with the pulsed ESR technique at X- and Q-band frequencies the coherence and relaxation of Cu spins S = 1/2 in single crystals of diamagnetically diluted mononuclear [n-Bu4N]2[Cu(opba)] (1%) in the host lattice of [n-Bu4N]2[Ni(opba)] (99%, opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato)) and of diamagnetically diluted mononuclear [n-Bu4N]2[Cu(opbon-Pr2)] (1%) in the host lattice of [n-Bu4N]2[Ni(opbon-Pr2)] (99%, opbon-Pr2 = o-phenylenebis(N(propyl)oxamidato)). For that we have measured the electron spin dephasing time Tm at different temperatures with the two-pulse primary echo and with the special Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) multiple microwave pulse sequence...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#8
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544754/heterogeneous-integration-of-carbon-nanotube-graphene-for-high-performance-flexible-and-transparent-photodetectors
#9
Soonjae Pyo, Wondo Kim, Han-Il Jung, Jungwook Choi, Jongbaeg Kim
Low-dimensional carbon materials, such as semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs), conducting graphene, and their hybrids, are of great interest as promising candidates for flexible, foldable, and transparent electronics. However, the development of highly photoresponsive, flexible, and transparent optoelectronics still remains limited due to their low absorbance and fast recombination rate of photoexcited charges, despite the considerable potential of photodetectors for future wearable and foldable devices...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544598/from-extended-nano-fluidics-to-an-autonomous-solar-light-driven-micro-fuel-cell-device
#10
Yuriy Pihosh, Jin Uemura, Ivan Turkevych, Kazuma Mawatari, Yutaka Kazoe, Adelina Smirnova, Takehiko Kitamori
Autonomous micro/nano mechanical, chemical and biomedical sensors require persistent power sources scaled to their size. Realization of autonomous micro-power sources is a challenging task, as it requires combination of wireless energy supply, conversion, storage and delivery to the sensor. In this work, we realized solar light driven power source that consists of a micro fuel cell (μFC) and a photocatalytic micro fuel generator (μFG) integrated on a single microfluidic chip. The μFG produces hydrogen by photocatalytic water splitting under solar light...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543615/improved-image-quality-and-reduced-power-deposition-in-the-spine-at-3-t-using-extremely-high-permittivity-materials
#11
Kirsten Koolstra, Peter Börnert, Wyger Brink, Andrew Webb
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of using extremely high permittivity (εr ∼1,000) materials on image quality and power requirements of spine imaging at 3 T. THEORY AND METHODS: A linear array of high permittivity dielectric blocks made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was designed and characterized by electromagnetic simulations and experiments. Their effect on the transmit efficiency, receive sensitivity, power deposition, and diagnostic image quality was analyzed in vivo in 10 healthy volunteers...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542423/plasmid-free-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-plasmodium-falciparum-confirms-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-the-dihydroisoquinolone-clinical-candidate-sj733
#12
Emily D Crawford, Jenai Quan, Jeremy A Horst, Daniel Ebert, Wesley Wu, Joseph L DeRisi
Genetic manipulation of the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remains challenging, but the rise of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing tools is increasing the feasibility of altering this parasite's genome in order to study its biology. Of particular interest is the investigation of drug targets and drug resistance mechanisms, which have major implications for fighting malaria. We present a new method for introducing drug resistance mutations in P. falciparum without the use of plasmids or the need for cloning homologous recombination templates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541365/responses-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-interstitial-level-of-extremely-low-shear-flows-regarding-differentiation-morphology-and-proliferation
#13
Sung-Hwan Kim, Kihoon Ahn, Joong Yull Park
Human cells encounter a range of shear stress levels in situ and this natural variability in shear stress implies that realistic investigations of cell type characteristics may depend on nontrivial shear stress models. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) differentiate near the blood capillary vessels where interstitial flows predominate. However, the effects of interstitial levels of shear on hASCs are not fully understood. In this study, we propose a microfluidic shear generation system, in which a gradient distribution of the interstitial level of shear flow is created to investigate the effects of interstitial-level shear flow on hASCs...
May 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538151/mapping-interpuff-interval-distribution-to-the-properties-of-inositol-trisphosphate-receptors
#14
Pengxing Cao, Martin Falcke, James Sneyd
Tightly clustered inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) control localized Ca(2+) liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum to generate repetitive Ca(2+) puffs. Distributions of the interpuff interval (IPI), i.e., the waiting time between successive puffs, are found to be well characterized by a probability density function involving only two parameters, λ and ξ, which represent the basal rate of puff generation and the recovery rate from refractoriness, respectively. However, how the two parameters depend on the kinetic parameters of single IP3Rs in a cluster is still unclear...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538150/lanthanides-report-calcium-sensor-in-the-vestibule-of-ryanodine-receptor
#15
Sándor Sárközi, István Komáromi, István Jóna, János Almássy
Ca(2+) regulates ryanodine receptor's (RyR) activity through an activating and an inhibiting Ca(2+)-binding site located on the cytoplasmic side of the RyR channel. Their altered sensitivity plays an important role in the pathology of malignant hyperthermia and heart failure. We used lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) as probes to investigate the Ca(2+) sensors of RyR, because they specifically bind to Ca(2+)-binding proteins and they are impermeable to the channel. Eu(3+)'s and Sm(3+)'s action was tested on single RyR1 channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538099/iodide-selective-synthetic-ion-channels-based-on-shape-persistent-organic-cages
#16
Bahiru Punja Benke, Pulakesh Aich, Younghoon Kim, Kyung Lock Kim, Md Rumum Rohman, Soonsang Hong, In-Chul Hwang, Eun Hui Lee, Joon Ho Roh, Kimoon Kim
We report here a synthetic ion channel developed from a shape-persistent porphyrin-based covalent organic cage. The cage was synthesized by employing a synthetically economical dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) approach. The organic cage selectively transports biologically relevant iodide ions over other inorganic anions by a dehydration-driven, channel mechanism as evidenced by vesicle-based fluorescence assays and planar lipid bilayer-based single channel recordings. Furthermore, the organic cage appears to facilitate iodide transport across the membrane of a living cell, suggesting that the cage could be useful as a biological tool that may replace defective iodide channels in living systems...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537405/in-situ-grown-fe2o3-single-crystallites-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-as-high-performance-conversion-anode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#17
Ting Li, Aiqiong Qin, Lanlan Yang, Jie Chen, Qiufan Wang, Daohong Zhang, Hanxi Yang
Electrochemical conversion reactions of metal oxides provide a new avenue to build high capacity anodes for sodium-ion batteries. However, the poor rate performance and cyclability of these conversion anodes remain a significant challenge for Na-ion battery applications because the most of conversion anodes suffer from sluggish kinetics and irreversible structural change during cycles. In this paper, we report a Fe2O3 single crystallites/reduced graphene oxide composite (Fe2O3/rGO), where the Fe2O3 single crystallites with a particle size of ~300 nm were uniformly anchored on the rGO nanosheets, which provide a highly conductive framework to facilitate electron transport and a flexible matrix to buffer the volume change of the material during cycling...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537394/3d-double-quantum-double-quantum-exchange-spectroscopy-of-protons-under-100-khz-magic-angle-spinning
#18
Rongchun Zhang, Nghia Tuan Duong, Yusuke Nishiyama, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Solid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy has attracted much attention in the recent years due to the remarkable spectral resolution improvement by ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) as well as due to the sensitivity enhancement rendered by proton detection. Although these developments have enabled the investigation of a variety of challenging chemical and biological solids, the proton spectral resolution is still poor for many rigid solid systems owing to the presence of conformational heterogeneity and the unsuppressed residual proton-proton dipolar couplings even with the use of the highest currently feasible sample spinning speed of ~130 kHz...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535040/cancer-cell-discrimination-using-host-guest-doubled-arrays
#19
Ngoc D B Le, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga, Rubul Mout, Sung Tae Kim, Marcos E Wille, Subinoy Rana, Karen A Dunphy, D Joseph Jerry, Mahdieh Yazdani, Rajesh Ramanathan, Caren M Rotello, Vincent M Rotello
We report a nanosensor that uses cell lysates to rapidly profile the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. This sensing platform uses host-guest interactions between cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and the cationic headgroup of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) to non-covalently modify the binding of three fluorescent proteins of a multichannel sensor in situ. This approach doubles the number of output channels to six, providing single-well identification of cell lysates with 100 % accuracy. Significantly, this classification could be extended beyond the training set, determining the invasiveness of novel cell lines...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534862/differences-in-gene-expression-profiles-between-early-and-late-isolates-in-monospecies-achromobacter-biofilm
#20
Signe M Nielsen, Rikke L Meyer, Niels Nørskov-Lauritsen
Bacteria of genus Achromobacter are emerging pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) capable of biofilm formation and development of antimicrobial resistance. Evolutionary adaptions in the transition from primary to chronic infection were assessed by transcriptomic analysis of successive isolates of Achromobacter xylosoxidans from a single CF patient. Several efflux pump systems targeting antimicrobial agents were upregulated during the course of the disease, whereas all genes related to motility were downregulated...
May 19, 2017: Pathogens
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