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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913648/cd36-mediated-uptake-of-surfactant-lipids-by-human-macrophages-promotes-intracellular-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Claire E Dodd, Charlie J Pyle, Rebecca Glowinski, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger
Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes a large global health burden as the airborne agent of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been flourishing in human populations for millennia and is therefore highly adapted to the lung environment. Alveolar macrophages, a major host cell niche for M. tuberculosis, are not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in catabolizing lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that lines the alveolar spaces. Because macrophage host defense properties can be regulated by surfactant and M...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913425/cd36-mediates-h2o2-induced-calcium-influx-in-lung-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Jose Reyes, Clark Undem, Joel Zaldumbide, Otgonchimeg Rentsendorj, Sruti Modekurty, Jeffrey M Dodd-O, Alan L Scott, David B Pearse, Larissa A Shimoda
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular Ca2+ play a key role in endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury (ALI). We previously showed that H2O2-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in LMVECs involve the membrane Ca2+ channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and that inhibiting this channel attenuated H2O2-induced barrier disruption in vitro. We also showed that phosphorylation of TRPV4 by the Src family kinase, Fyn, contributes to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx in LMVEC...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913297/phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-suppresses-foreign-body-giant-cell-formation-by-maintaining-runx1-expression-in-macrophages
#3
Ye Seon Kim, Chang Youp Ok, Joon Seong Park, Ha Young Lee, Yoe-Sik Bae
Foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation is associated with the inflammatory response following material implantation. However, the intracellular signaling events that regulate the process remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential role of phospholipase C (PLC)γ1, a crucial enzyme required for growth factor-induced signaling, on FBGC formation. Knock-down of PLCγ1 using shRNA induced FBGC formation accompanied by increased expression of cathepsin K, DC-STAMP and CD36. Re-addition of PLCγ1 decreased FBGC formation...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912197/rac1-nadph-oxidase-signaling-promotes-cd36-activation-under-glucotoxic-conditions-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#4
Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, In Kyu Lee, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
We recently reported that cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, plays a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression. Emerging evidence suggests that the small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the pathogenesis of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the role of Rac1 in CD36 activation and its impact on β-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus...
November 23, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907004/in-vitro-variant-surface-antigen-expression-in-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-from-a-semi-immune-individual-is-not-correlated-with-var-gene-transcription
#5
Ellen Inga Bruske, Sandra Dimonte, Corinna Enderes, Serena Tschan, Matthias Flötenmeyer, Iris Koch, Jürgen Berger, Peter Kremsner, Matthias Frank
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is considered to be the main variant surface antigen (VSA) of Plasmodium falciparum and is mainly localized on electron-dense knobs in the membrane of the infected erythrocyte. Switches in PfEMP1 expression provide the basis for antigenic variation and are thought to be critical for parasite persistence during chronic infections. Recently, strain transcending anti-PfEMP1 immunity has been shown to develop early in life, challenging the role of PfEMP1 in antigenic variation during chronic infections...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903512/thyroid-hormone-stimulated-increases-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-ucp2-promote-life-history-specific-endocrine-changes-and-maintain-a-lipid-based-metabolism
#6
Bridget Martinez, José G Soñanez-Organis, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Lillian Horin, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, but are typically suppressed during times of stressful physiological conditions, including fasting. Interestingly, prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups is associated with reliance on a lipid-based metabolism and increased levels of circulating thyroid hormones that are partially attributed to active secretion as opposed to reduced clearance. This apparent paradox is coupled with complementary increases in cellular TH-mediated activity suggesting that in mammals naturally adapted to prolonged fasting TH are necessary to support metabolism...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903090/pediococcus-acidilactici-lab4-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lab12-assimilate-cholesterol-and-modulate-abca1-cd36-npc1l1-and-scarb1-in-vitro
#7
F T Lim, S M Lim, K Ramasamy
There is growing interest in the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for prevention of hypercholesterolaemia. This study assessed the cholesterol lowering ability of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 in growth media. Both LAB yielded >98% (39.2 μg/ml) cholesterol lowering in growth media. Nile Red staining indicated direct assimilation of cholesterol by the LAB. The LAB were then explored for their prophylactic (pre-treatment of HT29 cells with LAB prior to cholesterol exposure) and biotherapeutic (treatment of HT29 cells with LAB after exposure to cholesterol) use against short and prolonged exposure of HT29 cells to cholesterol, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#8
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893688/identification-of-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-diabetic-neuropathy-using-a-weighted-correlation-network-analysis-a-consort-study
#9
Ya Li, Weiguo Ma, Chuanqing Xie, Min Zhang, Xiaohong Yin, Fenfen Wang, Jie Xu, Bingyin Shi
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. METHODS: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890613/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-does-not-contribute-to-macrophage-abca1-expression-and-abca1-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-to-apoai
#10
Meixiu Jiang, Xiaoju Li
Activation of macrophage ABCA1/G1 expression and cholesterol efflux is believed one of the mechanisms by which PPARγ inhibits atherosclerosis. PPARγ can also activate CD36 expression, a receptor for oxLDL, which may supply LXR ligands to activate LXR-ABCA1/G1 pathways. However, the controversial effects of PPARγ on ABCA1 expression have been reported. In this study, we used peritoneal macrophages isolated from wild type and CD36 deficient (CD36(-/-)) mice to clarify if PPARγ ligands can influence ABCA1 expression by CD36 function...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883935/liquid-fructose-in-western-diet-fed-mice-impairs-liver-insulin-signaling-and-causes-cholesterol-and-triglyceride-loading-without-changing-calorie-intake-and-body-weight
#11
Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Natalia Hutter, José María Beltrán, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liquid fructose associates with prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Intervention studies suggest that metabolically unfit individuals are more responsive than healthy individuals to liquid fructose. We determined whether mice consuming an obesogenic Western diet were more responsive than chow-fed mice to the alterations induced by liquid fructose supplementation (LFS). METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed chow or Western diet±ad libitum 15% fructose solution for 12 weeks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874077/lymphocytic-microparticles-modulate-angiogenic-properties-of-macrophages-in-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization
#12
Houda Tahiri, Samy Omri, Chun Yang, François Duhamel, Suzanne Samarani, Ali Ahmad, Mark Vezina, Martin Bussières, Elvire Vaucher, Przemyslaw Sapieha, Gilles Hickson, Karim Hammamji, Réjean Lapointe, Francis Rodier, Sophie Tremblay, Isabelle Royal, Jean-François Cailhier, Sylvain Chemtob, Pierre Hardy
Pathological choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the common cause of vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macrophages possess potential angiogenic function in CNV. We have demonstrated that human T lymphocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) exert a potent antiangiogenic effect in several pathological neovascularization models. In this study, we investigated the alteration of proangiogenic properties of macrophages by LMPs treatment in vitro and in vivo models. LMPs regulated the expression of several angiogenesis-related factors in macrophages and consequently stimulated their antiangiogenic effects evidenced by the suppression of the proliferation of human retinal endothelial cells in co-culture experiments...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873387/physical-exercise-remodels-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, I O Gonçalves, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
We aimed to investigate the effects of two physical exercise models, voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) as preventive and therapeutic strategies, respectively, on lipid accumulation regulators and mitochondrial content in VAT of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague Dawley rats (6 wks old, n=60) were assigned into sedentary and VPA groups fed isoenergetic diets: standard (S, 35 kcal% fat) or HFD (71 kcal% fat). The VPA groups had free access to wheel running during the entire protocol...
November 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871059/selective-p38%C3%AE-map-kinase-mapk14-inhibition-in-enzymatically-modified-ldl-stimulated-human-monocytes-implications-for-atherosclerosis
#14
Fei Cheng, Laura Twardowski, Sarah Fehr, Christoph Aner, Elke Schaeffeler, Thomas Joos, Thomas Knorpp, Bernhard Dorweiler, Stefan Laufer, Matthias Schwab, Michael Torzewski
The first ATP-competitive p38α MAPK/MAPK14 inhibitor with excellent in vivo efficacy and selectivity, skepinone-L, is now available. We investigated the impact of selective p38α MAPK/MAPK14 inhibition on enzymatically modified LDL (eLDL) stimulated human monocytes with its implications for atherosclerosis. Among the different p38 MAPK isoforms, p38α/MAPK14 was the predominantly expressed and activated isoform in isolated human peripheral blood monocytes. Moreover, eLDL colocalized with macrophages positive for p38α MAPK/MAPK14 in human carotid endarterectomy specimens...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869741/isoliquiritigenin-attenuates-atherogenesis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#15
Fen Du, Quzhen Gesang, Jia Cao, Mei Qian, Li Ma, Dongfang Wu, Hong Yu
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) exhibits antioxidation and anti-inflammation activity. We sought to investigate the effects and mechanism of ISL on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Firstly, we determined that ISL reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), while it increased the expression of several lipoprotein-related genes in peritoneal macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869039/the-role-of-rs1984112_g-at-cd36-gene-in-increasing-reticulocyte-level-among-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#16
Miniar Kalai, Marwa Dridi, Leila Chaouch, Imen Moumni, Houyem Ouragini, Imen Darragi, Imen Boudrigua, Dorra Chaouachi, Fethi Mellouli, Mohamed Bejaoui, Salem Abbes
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Mediators of adhesion become a potential new target for pharmacological therapy to struggle the complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). Several mechanisms for increased adherence have been postulated and the well-studied are CD36 and VLA4 which encoded by ITGA4. Herein, we sought to determine whether one polymorphism of CD36 namely: rs1984112 and three exons of ITGA4 (4, 5, and 6) are implicated in hemolytic status and clinical events among SCD Tunisian patients...
November 20, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865496/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-facilitates-lipid-secretion-and-catabolism-of-fatty-acids-in-dairy-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
H B Shi, C H Zhang, W Zhao, J Luo, J J Loor
In rodents, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is associated primarily with catabolism of fatty acids. However, the role of PPARD in regulating lipid metabolism in ruminant mammary gland remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA abundance of PPARD at 3 stages of lactation in goat mammary tissue. Results revealed that PPARD had lower expression at peak lactation than in the nonlactating period. Luciferase assays revealed that GW0742 (GW), a specific PPARD ligand, enhanced the activity of the PPARD response element in goat mammary epithelial cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859593/placental-specific-overexpression-of-sflt-1-alters-trophoblast-differentiation-and-nutrient-transporter-expression-in-an-iugr-mouse-model
#18
E Kühnel, V Kleff, V Stojanovska, S Kaiser, R Waldschütz, F Herse, T Plösch, E Winterhager, A Gellhaus
Since it is known that placental overexpression of the human anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1, the main candidate in the progression of preeclampsia, lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice by lentiviral transduction of mouse blastocysts, we hypothesize that sFlt-1 influence placental morphology and physiology resulting in fetal IUGR. We therefore examined the effect of sFlt-1 on placental morphology and physiology at embryonic day 18.5 with histologic and morphometric analyses, transcript analyses, immunoblotting, and methylation studies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855315/dietary-sphingomyelin-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Gregory H Norris, Caitlin M Porter, Christina Jiang, Courtney L Millar, Christopher N Blesso
Western-type diets can induce obesity and related conditions such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. We evaluated the effects of milk sphingomyelin (SM) and egg SM on diet-induced obesity, the development of hepatic steatosis and adipose inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat, cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 weeks. Mice were fed a low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat) (n=10), a high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) (HFD, n=14) or a high-fat diet modified to contain either 0.1% (w/w) milk SM (n=14) or 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847178/fatty-acid-translocase-gene-cd36-rs1527483-variant-influences-oral-fat-perception-in-malaysian-subjects
#20
Hing-Huat Ong, Yen-Nee Tan, Yee-How Say
We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the fatty acid translocase CD36 gene - a receptor for fatty acids - is associated with oral fat perception (OFP) of different fat contents in custards and commercially-available foods, and obesity measures in Malaysian subjects (n=313; 118 males, 293 ethnic Chinese; 20 ethnic Indians). A 170-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess the ratings of perceived fat content, oiliness and creaminess of 0%, 2%, 6% and 10% fat content-by-weight custards and low-fat/regular versions of commercially-available milk, mayonnaise and cream crackers...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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