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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#1
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432377/emerging-roles-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-in-macrophage-cholesterol-handling
#2
REVIEW
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases that play central roles in the post-translational processing of functional proteins. In mammals, calpain proteolytic systems comprise the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin as well as 15 homologues of the catalytic subunits and two homologues of the regulatory subunits. Recent pharmacological and gene targeting studies in experimental animal models have revealed the contribution of conventional calpains, which consist of the calpain-1 and -2 isozymes, to atherosclerotic diseases...
April 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431976/the-impact-of-exposure-to-environmental-contaminant-on-hepatocellular-lipid-metabolism
#3
Zongguang Hui, Rujiang Li, Li Chen
Increasing evidences show that ubiquitous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a representative environmental pollutant, is found to be linked to lipid dysmetabolism. However, the biological mechanism behind this outcome remains uninvestigated. In the present study, we established the PFOA-injured liver in mice to explore the underlying mechanism associated with PFOA-induced lipid disturbance in the liver via a group of biochemical and molecular assays. As results, PFOA-exposed mice showed increased transaminase (ALT), reduced triglyceride and free fatty acid contents in serum, as well as elevated level of hepatic triglyceride...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428072/membrane-lipid-alterations-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-the-role-of-dietary-oils
#4
REVIEW
Javier S Perona
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathological conditions, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and low HDL levels that is of great concern worldwide, as individuals with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance, the key feature of the metabolic syndrome, might be at the same time cause and consequence of impaired lipid composition in plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423002/human-sr-bii-mediates-saa-uptake-and-contributes-to-saa-pro-inflammatory-signaling-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Irina N Baranova, Ana C P Souza, Alexander V Bocharov, Tatyana G Vishnyakova, Xuzhen Hu, Boris L Vaisman, Marcelo J Amar, Zhigang Chen, Alan T Remaley, Amy P Patterson, Peter S T Yuen, Robert A Star, Thomas L Eggerman
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein with cytokine-like and chemotactic properties, that is markedly up-regulated during various inflammatory conditions. Several receptors, including FPRL-1, TLR2, TLR4, RAGE, class B scavenger receptors, SR-BI and CD36, have been identified as SAA receptors. This study provides new evidence that SR-BII, splice variant of SR-BI, could function as an SAA receptor mediating its uptake and pro-inflammatory signaling. The uptake of Alexa Fluor488 SAA was markedly (~3 fold) increased in hSR-BII-expressing HeLa cells when compared with mock-transfected cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420398/mechanisms-of-corticosteroid-insensitivity-in-copd-alveolar-macrophages-exposed-to-nthi
#6
Rana M Khalaf, Simon R Lea, Hannah J Metcalfe, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection is common in COPD. Corticosteroids can have limited therapeutic effects in COPD patients. NTHi causes corticosteroid insensitive cytokine production from COPD alveolar macrophages. We investigated the mechanisms by which NTHi causes corticosteroid insensitive inflammatory responses, and the effects of NTHi exposure on COPD macrophage polarisation. METHOD: Alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls were exposed to NTHi in conjunction with the corticosteroid dexamethasone and/or the p38 MAPK inhibitor BIRB-796...
April 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#7
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416609/cd36-regulates-malaria-induced-immune-responses-primarily-at-early-blood-stage-infection-contributing-to-parasitemia-control-and-resistance-to-mortality
#8
Ramesh P Thylur, Xianzhu Wu, Nagaraj M Gowda, Kishore Punnath, Shivayogeeshwara E Neelgund, Maria Febbraio, D Channe Gowda
In malaria, CD36 plays several roles including mediating parasite sequestration to host organs, phagocytic clearance of parasites and regulation of immunity. While the functions of CD36 in parasite sequestration and phagocytosis have been clearly defined, less is known about its role in malaria immunity. Here, to understand the function of CD36 in malaria immunity, we studied parasite growth, innate and adaptive immune responses, and host survival in WT and Cd36-/- mice infected with a nonlethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416471/chemotherapy-resistant-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-are-not-enriched-for-leukemic-stem-cells-but-require-oxidative-metabolism
#9
Thomas Farge, Estelle Saland, Fabienne de Toni, Nesrine Aroua, Moshen Hosseini, Robin Perry, Claudie Bosc, Mayumi Sugita, Lucille Stuani, Marine Fraisse, Sarah Scotland, Clément Larrue, Héléna Boutzen, Virginie Féliu, Marie-Laure Nicolau-Travers, Stephanie Cassant-Sourdy, Nicolas Broin, Marion David, Nizar Serhan, Audrey Sarry, Suzanne Tavitian, Tony Kaoma, Laurent Vallar, Jason Iacovoni, Laetitia K Linares, Camille Montersino, Remy Castellano, Emmanuel Griessinger, Yves Collette, Olivier Duchamp, Yara Barreira, Pierre Hirsch, Tony Palama, Lara Gales, Francois Delhommeau, Barbara H Garmy-Susini, Jean-Charles Portais, Francois Vergez, Mary Selak, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Martin Carroll, Christian Récher, Jean Emmanuel Sarry
Chemotherapy-resistant human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are thought to be enriched in quiescent immature leukemic stem cells (LSCs). To validate this hypothesis in vivo, we developed a clinically relevant chemotherapeutic approach treating patient-derived xenograft (PDX) with cytarabine. Cytarabine residual AML cells are enriched neither in immature, quiescent cells nor LSCs. Strikingly, cytarabine-resistant pre-existing and persisting cells displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species, showed increased mitochondrial mass, and retained active polarized mitochondria, consistent with a high oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) status...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411243/potent-vasoconstrictor-kisspeptin-10-induces-atherosclerotic-plaque-progression-and-instability-reversal-by-its-receptor-gpr54-antagonist
#10
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Mina Hontani, Rina Shinooka, Akinori Hasegawa, Tomoki Kichise, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Hayami Yoshizawa, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), a potent vasoconstrictor and inhibitor of angiogenesis, and its receptor, GPR54, have currently received much attention in relation to pre-eclampsia. However, it still remains unknown whether KP-10 could affect atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the effects of KP-10 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404638/kidney-triglyceride-accumulation-in-the-fasted-mouse-is-dependent-upon-serum-free-fatty-acids
#11
Diego Scerbo, Ni-Huiping Son, Alaa Sirwi, Lixia Zeng, Kelli M Sas, Vincenza Cifarelli, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Lesley-Ann Huggins, Namrata Gumaste, Yunying Hu, Subramaniam Pennathur, Nada A Abumrad, Erin E Kershaw, M Mahmood Hussain, Katalin Susztak, Ira J Goldberg
Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [14C]oleic acid...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400539/mass-cytometry-deep-phenotyping-of-human-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-human-blood-and-bone-marrow
#12
Mikael Roussel, P Brent Ferrell, Allison R Greenplate, Faustine Lhomme, Simon Le Gallou, Kirsten E Diggins, Douglas B Johnson, Jonathan M Irish
The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399420/dietary-rose-hip-exerts-antiatherosclerotic-effects-and-increases-nitric-oxide-mediated-dilation-in-apoe-null-mice
#13
Michele Cavalera, Ulrika Axling, Catarina Rippe, Karl Swärd, Cecilia Holm
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398824/15-deoxy-%C3%A2-sup-12-14-sup-prostaglandin-j-sub-2-sub-exerts-pro-resolving-effects-through-nrf2-induced-expression-of-cd36-and-heme-oxygenase-1
#14
Wonki Kim, Ha-Na Lee, Jeong-Hoon Jang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Yeon-Hwa Lee, Young-Il Han, Hoang-Kieu-Chi Ngo, Yeonseo Choi, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Yingqing Chen, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
. AIMS: 15-Deoxy-△<sup>12,14</sup>-prostaglandin J<sub>2</sub> (15d-PGJ2) has been shown to rescue cells from inflammatory insults and participate in the resolution of acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying pro-resolving effects of 15d-PGJ2. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ2 injected into the peritoneum of mice facilitated the resolution of zymosan A-induced peritonitis. 15d-PGJ2 administration reduced the number of total leukocytes, and attenuated polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394364/human-adipose-tissue-accumulation-is-associated-with-pro-inflammatory-changes-in-subcutaneous-rather-than-visceral-adipose-tissue
#15
I Kralova Lesna, S Cejkova, A Kralova, J Fronek, M Petras, A Sekerkova, F Thieme, L Janousek, R Poledne
The importance of the involvement of adipose tissue macrophage subpopulations in obesity-related disorders is well known from different animal models, but human data are scarcer. Subcutaneous (n=44) and visceral (n=52) adipose tissues of healthy living kidney donors were obtained during living donor nephrectomy. Stromal vascular fractions were isolated and analysed by flow cytometry using CD14, CD16, CD36 and CD163 antibodies. Total macrophage numbers in subcutaneous adipose tissue increased (P=0.02) with body mass index (BMI), with a similar increase seen in the proportion of phagocytic CD14+CD16+CD36(high) macrophages (P<0...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376311/contribution-of-ppar-gamma-in-modulation-of-acrolein-induced-inflammatory-signaling-in-gp91phox-knock-out-mice
#16
Zivar Yousefipour, Kasturi Ranganna, Mathew Joseph, Katarzyna Marek, Neha Chung, Alicia Nesbary, Mohammad A Newaz
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors in acrolein toxicity. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) has antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated contribution of PPARγ ligand, GW1929, in attenuation of oxidative stress in acrolein-induced insult. Male gp91phox knockout (KO) mice were treated with acrolein (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.7 days) with/without GW1929 (GW, 0.5 mg/kg/day; orally-10 days). Liver was processed for further analysis. Acrolein significantly increased 8-Isoprostane and reduced PPARγ activity (P<0...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374891/short-term-hypoxia-reverses-ox-ldl-induced-cd36-and-glut4-switching-metabolic-pathways-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblast-cells
#17
Yeh-Peng Chen, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Rathinasamy Baskaran, Su-Ying Wen, Chia-Yao Shen, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, Tsung-Jung Ho, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
High levels of circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL, plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) are associated with type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, obesity and hyperlipidemia. In the heart, the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been proposed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. We obtain cholesterol from animals and animal-derived foods such as milk, eggs and cheese. In previous studies, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was shown to be important for our health...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373527/linking-metabolic-dysfunction-to-atherosclerosis-via-activation-of-macrophage-cd36-gene-transcription-by-retinol-binding-protein-4
#18
EDITORIAL
Roy L Silverstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369636/maternal-fenvalerate-exposure-induces-fetal-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-disrupting-placental-thyroid-hormone-receptor-signaling
#19
Bo Wang, Ji-Jie Liu, Yan Wang, Lin Fu, Ru Shen, Zhen Yu, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Hong Meng, De-Xiang Xu
Fenvalerate is an environmental endocrine disruptor that disrupts testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Nevertheless, whether fenvalerate disturbs placental TR signaling remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal fenvalerate exposure causes fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to explore the role of placental thyroid hormone receptor (TR) signaling. Pregnant mice except controls were orally administered to fenvalerate (0.2, 2.0 or 20 mg/kg) daily throughout pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367625/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-scavenger-receptor-a-expression-and-foam-cell-formation-in-human-macrophages
#20
Sy-Jou Chen, Yung-Hsi Kao, Li Jing, Yi-Ping Chuang, Wan-Lin Wu, Shu-Ting Liu, Shih-Ming Huang, Jenn-Haung Lai, Ling-Jun Ho, Min-Chien Tsai, Chin-Sheng Lin
Foam cells are formed when macrophages imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors. Here we examined how epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) influences foam cell formation. We found that EGCG dose-dependently reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) uptake in THP-1 (10 μM, 20.0 ± 0.50, p < 0.05) and primary macrophages (134.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.05) and reduced intracellular cholesterol content in these cells, respectively (10 μM, 32.6 ± 0.14, p < 0.05; 31.7 ± 1.26, p < 0.05). EGCG treatment decreased scavenger receptor A expression, but not the expression of CD36 or of reverse cholesterol transporters...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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