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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158770/does-the-enterolactone-enl-affect-fatty-acid-transporters-and-lipid-metabolism-in-liver
#1
Krzysztof Drygalski, Klaudia Berk, Tomasz Charytoniuk, Nicoletta Iłowska, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Adrian Chabowski, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka
Background: NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into NAFLD treatment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect(s) of enterolactone (ENL), a metabolite of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), on lipid metabolism together with changes in the expression of fatty acid transporters in fatty liver...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154799/integrative-omics-data-analyses-of-repeated-dose-toxicity-of-valproic-acid-in-vitro-reveal-new-mechanisms-of-steatosis-induction
#2
Simone G J van Breda, Sandra M H Claessen, Marcel van Herwijnen, Daniël H J Theunissen, Danyel G J Jennen, Theo M C M de Kok, Jos C S Kleinjans
Valproic acid (VPA) is a very potent anti-cancer and neuro-protective drug probably by its HDAC inhibiting properties, which may cause steatosis in the liver. The present study investigates the effect of repetitive VPA treatment of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) on whole genome gene expression-, DNA methylation-, and miRNA changes, using microarrays and integrated data analyses. PHH were exposed to a non-cytotoxic dose of VPA for 5days daily which induced lipid accumulation. Part of the PHH was left untreated for 3days for studying the persistence of 'omics' changes...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154680/cardiovascular-disease-predictors-and-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarization-is-there-a-link
#3
Ivana Kralova Lesna, Marek Petras, Sona Cejkova, Anna Kralova, Jiri Fronek, Libor Janousek, Filip Thieme, Tomas Tyll, Rudolf Poledne
Background The risk of cardiovascular disease is closely connected to adipose tissue inflammation. The links between cardiovascular risk predictors and pro and anti-inflammatory macrophages in human adipose tissue were analysed to gain an insight into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Design Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were obtained from 79 subjects, 52 living kidney donors (during nephrectomy) and 27 patients with peripheral artery disease (during arterial tree reconstruction). Methods Macrophage subsets were isolated from adipose tissues and analysed by flow cytometry using CD14, CD16, CD36 and CD163 monoclonal antibodies...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149604/nrf1-is-an-er-membrane-sensor-that-is-central-to-cholesterol-homeostasis
#4
Scott B Widenmaier, Nicole A Snyder, Truc B Nguyen, Alessandro Arduini, Grace Y Lee, Ana Paula Arruda, Jani Saksi, Alexander Bartelt, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Cholesterol is a critical nutrient requiring tight constraint in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to its uniquely challenging biophysical properties. While the mechanisms by which the ER defends against cholesterol insufficiency are well described, it remains unclear how the ER senses and effectively defends against cholesterol excess. Here, we identify the ER-bound transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-1, Nrf1/Nfe2L1, as a critical mediator of this process. We show that Nrf1 directly binds to and specifically senses cholesterol in the ER through a defined domain and that cholesterol regulates Nrf1 turnover, processing, localization, and activity...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137982/adipose-tissue-complement-factor-b-promotes-adipocyte-maturation
#5
Hiroaki Matsunaga, Misaki Iwashita, Takanori Shinjo, Akiko Yamashita, Mitsudai Tsuruta, Shoichiro Nagasaka, Ataru Taniguchi, Mitsuo Fukushima, Naoya Watanabe, Fusanori Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: It is well-known that the complement system plays an essential role in host immunity. Observational studies have indicated that complement system-related molecules such as complement factor B (CfB) and other components are correlated with obesity and/or insulin resistance parameters. In this study, we investigated the role of adipocyte-derived CfB in adipose tissue metabolism. METHODS: We investigated the expression level of complement system-related genes in adipocytes...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136780/cml-cd36-accelerates-atherosclerotic-progression-via-inhibiting-foam-cell-migration
#6
Suining Xu, Lihua Li, Jinchuan Yan, Fei Ye, Chen Shao, Zhen Sun, Zhengyang Bao, Zhiyin Dai, Jie Zhu, Lele Jing, Zhongqun Wang
Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136772/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-atherosclerosis-via-cd36-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#7
Jin Geng, Chenchen Yang, Bingjian Wang, Xiwen Zhang, Tingting Hu, Yang Gu, Ju Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a new risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that TMAO promotes atherosclerosis development. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Apoe-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet and given water with or without TMAO for 8-week. Histological and immunohistological analyses were used to evaluate the atherogenic effect of TMAO in vivo. We also employed peritoneal elicited macrophages and RAW264...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#8
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133362/three-month-endothelial-human-endothelin-1-overexpression-causes-blood-pressure-elevation-and-vascular-and-kidney-injury
#9
Suellen C Coelho, Olga Berillo, Antoine Caillon, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Tlili Barhoumi, Stefan Offermanns, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Endothelium-derived endothelin (ET)-1 has been implicated in the development of hypertension and end-organ damage, but its exact role remains unclear. We have shown that tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpressing (ieET-1) mice exhibited blood pressure rise after a 3-week induction in an ET type A (ETA) receptor-dependent manner, in absence of vascular and renal injury. It is unknown whether long-term ET-1 overexpression results in sustained blood pressure elevation and vascular and renal injury...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130531/acute-hypoxic-preconditioning-prevents-palmitic-acid-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-switching-metabolic-glut4-glucose-pathway-back-to-cd36-fatty-acid-dependent
#10
Yeh-Peng Chen, Wei-Wen Kuo, Rathinasamy Baskaran, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, Ray-Jade Chen, Su-Ying Wen, Tsung-Jung Ho, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Myocardial cell damage leads to an imbalance of energy metabolism, and many studies have indicated that short-term hypoxia during myocardial cell injury has a protective effect. In our previous animal studies, we found that short-term hypoxia in the heart has a protective effect, but long-term hypoxia increases myocardial cell injury. Palmitic acid (PA)-treated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were used to simulate hyperlipidemia model, which suppress cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and activate glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127223/systems-genetic-analysis-of-brown-adipose-tissue-function
#11
Michal Pravenec, Laura Saba, Vaclav Zidek, Vladimir Landa, Petr Mlejnek, Jan Silhavy, Miroslava Simakova, Hynak Strnad, Jaroslava Trnovska, Vojtech Skop, Martina Huttl, Irena Markova, Olena Oliyarnyk, Hana Malinska, Ludmila Kazdova, Harry Smith, Boris Tabakoff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism in rodents and possibly also in humans. In the current study, we used genetic and correlation analyses in the BXH/HXB recombinant inbred (RI) strains, derived from Brown Norway (BN) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), to identify genetic determinants of BAT function. Linkage analyses revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with interscapular BAT mass on chromosome 4 and two closely linked QTLs associated with glucose oxidation and glucose incorporation into BAT lipids on chromosome 2...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#12
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124325/changes-in-fat-oxidation-in-response-to-various-regimes-of-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit
#13
REVIEW
Todd Anthony Astorino, Matthew M Schubert
Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123954/exogenous-lipid-uptake-induces-metabolic-and-functional-reprogramming-of-tumor-associated-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#14
Amir A Al-Khami, Liqin Zheng, Luis Del Valle, Fokhrul Hossain, Dorota Wyczechowska, Jovanny Zabaleta, Maria D Sanchez, Matthew J Dean, Paulo C Rodriguez, Augusto C Ochoa
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote tumor growth by blocking anti-tumor T cell responses. Recent reports show that MDSC increase fatty acid uptake and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to support their immunosuppressive functions. Inhibition of FAO promoted a therapeutic T cell-mediated anti-tumor effect. Here, we sought to determine the mechanisms by which tumor-infiltrating MDSC increase the uptake of exogenous lipids and undergo metabolic and functional reprogramming to become highly immunosuppressive cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123527/erythropoietin-increases-myelination-in-oligodendrocytes-gene-expression-profiling-reveals-early-induction-of-genes-involved-in-lipid-transport-and-metabolism
#15
Georgina Gyetvai, Trisha Hughes, Florence Wedmore, Cieron Roe, Lamia Heikal, Pietro Ghezzi, Manuela Mengozzi
Several studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective or neuroreparative actions on diseases of the nervous system and that improves oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination in vivo and in vitro. This study aims at investigating the early molecular mechanisms for the pro-myelinating action of EPO at the gene expression level. For this purpose, we used a differentiating OL precursor cell line, rat central glia-4 cells. Cells were differentiated or not, and then treated with EPO for 1 or 20 h...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122594/inhibition-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-attenuates-foam-cell-formation-of-thp-1-macrophages-by-suppressing-ox-ldl-uptake-and-promoting-cholesterol-efflux
#16
Liang Chen, Qiying Yao, Siwei Xu, Hongyan Wang, Peng Qu
The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The activated NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to promote macrophage foam cell formation, but not all studies have obtained the same result, and how NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the formation of foam cells remains elusive. We used selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells to assess the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition on macrophage foam cell formation, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake, esterification, and cholesterol efflux, as well as the expression of associated proteins...
November 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121917/a-single-rapamycin-dose-protects-against-late-stage-experimental-cerebral-malaria-via-modulation-of-host-immunity-endothelial-activation-and-parasite-sequestration
#17
Pedro Mejia, J Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S Reynolds, Mariana De Niz, Andrew Thompson, Matthias Marti, James R Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive immune responses during cerebral malaria (CM) result in high mortality despite opportune anti-malarial chemotherapy. Rapamycin, an FDA-approved immunomodulator, protects against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice through effects on the host. However, the potential for reduced adaptive immunity with chronic use, combined with an incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying protection, limit translational potential as an adjunctive therapy in CM. RESULTS: The results presented herein demonstrate that a single dose of rapamycin, provided as late as day 4 or 5 post-infection, protected mice from ECM neuropathology and death through modulation of distinct host responses to infection...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118755/apoptotic-cells-induced-signaling-for-immune-homeostasis-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#18
REVIEW
Uriel Trahtemberg, Dror Mevorach
Inefficient and abnormal clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) contributes to systemic autoimmune disease in humans and mice, and inefficient chromosomal DNA degradation by DNAse II leads to systemic polyarthritis and a cytokine storm. By contrast, efficient clearance allows immune homeostasis, generally leads to a non-inflammatory state for both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and contributes to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As many as 3 × 10(8) cells undergo apoptosis every hour in our bodies, and one of the primary "eat me" signals expressed by apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114968/trans10-cis12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-increases-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Tianying Zhang, Yue Ma, Hui Wang, Juan J Loor, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is well-established in decreasing milk fat content and causing milk fat depression (MFD) in dairy cattle and goats. However, the detailed mechanisms of its effect are not completely understood. Therefore, we used goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) to further study the molecular mechanisms whereby t10c12-CLA regulates milk fat synthesis. The optimal concentration of t10c12-CLA (100 μmol/L) for cell culture was determined through a cell vitality and morphology assay, and evaluation of abundance of apoptosis-related proteins...
November 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113088/oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-diseases-involvement-of-nrf2-antioxidant-redox-signaling-in-macrophage-foam-cells-formation
#20
REVIEW
Bee Kee Ooi, Bey Hing Goh, Wei Hsum Yap
Oxidative stress is an important risk factor contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress that results from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accounts for impaired endothelial function, a process which promotes atherosclerotic lesion or fatty streaks formation (foam cells). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Nrf2 is dissociated from its inhibitor Keap-1 and translocated into the nucleus, where it results in the transcriptional activation of cell defense genes...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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