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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331469/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-transport-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
H B Shi, C H Zhang, Z A Xu, G G Lou, J X Liu, J Luo, J J Loor
Even though recent evidence in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) suggest a role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in regulating lipid homeostasis, its role is not fully understood. Our hypothesis was that PPARD regulates lipid transport processes in GMEC and, thus, plays a crucial role in regulating fat formation. The PPARD was overexpressed using an adenovirus system (Ad-PPARD) with recombinant green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) as the control. Results revealed that overexpression of PPARD markedly upregulated the mRNA abundance of PPARD...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330446/effect-of-puerarin-in-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-by-increasing-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-diabetic-rats
#2
Xiu-Fang Chen, Lei Wang, Yong-Zheng Wu, Shi-Yu Song, Hai-Yan Min, Yan Yang, Xuan He, Qiao Liang, Long Yi, Yong Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia and the accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue, including skeletal muscle. Puerarin, which is a natural isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata, has been shown to have antidiabetic activity. However, the lipid-reducing effect of puerarin, in particular in skeletal muscle, has not yet been addressed. METHODS: We examined the effect of puerarin on mitochondrial function and the oxidation of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325553/sitagliptin-improved-glucose-assimilation-in-detriment-of-fatty-acid-utilization-in-experimental-type-ii-diabetes-role-of-glp-1-isoforms-in-glut4-receptor-trafficking
#3
E Ramírez, B Picatoste, A González-Bris, M Oteo, F Cruz, A Caro-Vadillo, J Egido, J Tuñón, M A Morcillo, Ó Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: The distribution of glucose and fatty-acid transporters in the heart is crucial for energy consecution and myocardial function. In this sense, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhancer, sitagliptin, improves glucose homeostasis but it could also trigger direct cardioprotective actions, including regulation of energy substrate utilization. METHODS: Type-II diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki), sitagliptin-treated GK (10 mg/kg/day) and wistar rats (n = 10, each) underwent echocardiographic evaluation, and positron emission tomography scanning for [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG)...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325301/-role-of-cd36-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Z Zhan, H Ren, M L Peng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes nonalcoholic simple fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer and is the most common liver disease in the world. The complex pathogenesis of NAFLD is a major concern among researchers. CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that takes up fatty acid and binds to oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the liver, and therefore, it is involved in the development and progression of NAFLD. With reference to the latest research findings, this article reviews the association between CD36 and NAFLD and the role of CD36...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321244/silencing-carboxylesterase-1-in-human-thp-1-macrophages-perturbs-genes-regulated-by-pparg-rxr-and-rar-rxr-downregulation-of-cyp27a1-lxr%C3%AE-signaling
#5
Lee C Mangum, Xiang Hou, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Jung Hwa Lee, Matthew K Ross, J Allen Crow
Macrophage foam cells store excess cholesterol as cholesteryl esters, which need to be hydrolyzed for cholesterol efflux. We recently reported that silencing expression of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in human THP-1 macrophages (CES1KD macrophages) reduced cholesterol uptake and decreased expression of CD36 and scavenger receptor-A in cells loaded with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL). Here, we report that CES1KD macrophages exhibit reduced transcription of cytochrome P450 27A1 ( CYP27A1 ) in non-loaded and acLDL-loaded cells...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316690/vsp-17-a-new-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-suppresses-the-metastasis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-via-upregulating-the-expression-of-e-cadherin
#6
Yuhui Wang, Menglin Zhu, Bo Yuan, Kefeng Zhang, Mingli Zhong, Wei Yi, Xiaotian Xu, Xiaoqun Duan
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer, shows higher metastases and relapse rates than other subtypes. The metastasis of TNBC is the main reason for the death of TNBC patients. Increasing evidence has shown that inhibiting the metastasis of TNBC is a good method for TNBC treatment. Here, VSP-17 was designed and synthesized as an agonist of PPARγ, evidenced by upregulating the expression of CD36 and increasing the activity of PPARγ reporter gene. VSP-17 obviously inhibited the migration and invasion process of MDA-MB-231 cells but showed little effect on the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells...
January 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309075/niga-ichigoside-f1-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-male-mice-by-nrf2-activation
#7
Shu-Fang Xia, Jing Shao, Shu-Ying Zhao, Yu-Yu Qiu, Li-Ping Teng, Wei Huang, Shan-Shan Wang, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Yu-Yu Jiang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress (OS) lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we hypothesized that antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of niga-ichigoside F1 (NI) would ameliorate events leading to NAFLD. Lanbuzheng (Geum japonicum Thunb. var. chinense), a type of wild vegetable found in Southwest China, was used to extract NI. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet (Con) or a high-fat diet (HFD) (denoted as diet) with or without 40 mg kg-1 NI (defined as treatment) for 12 weeks...
January 8, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301788/cardiac-endothelial-cell-transcriptome
#8
Achim Lother, Stella Bergemann, Lisa Deng, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, Lutz Hein
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells (ECs) are a highly specialized cell type with marked diversity between different organs or vascular beds. Cardiac ECs are an important player in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology but are not sufficiently characterized yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the cardiac EC transcriptome. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We applied fluorescence-assisted cell sorting to isolate pure ECs from adult mouse hearts. RNAseq revealed 1288 genes predominantly expressed in cardiac ECs versus heart tissue including several transcription factors...
January 4, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298513/andrographolide-inhibits-oxidized-ldl-induced-cholesterol-accumulation-and-foam-cell-formation-in-macrophages
#9
Hung-Chih Lin, Chong-Kuei Lii, Hui-Chun Chen, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Haw-Wen Chen
oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284680/cd36-defines-primitive-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells-less-responsive-to-imatinib-but-vulnerable-to-antibody-based-therapeutic-targeting
#10
Niklas Landberg, Sofia von Palffy, Maria Askmyr, Henrik Lilljebjörn, Carl Sandén, Marianne Rissler, Satu Mustjoki, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Johan Richter, Helena Ågerstam, Marcus Järås, Thoas Fioretos
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are highly effective for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, but very few patients are cured. Major drawbacks with tyrosine kinase inhibitors are their low efficacy in eradicating the leukemic stem cells responsible for disease maintenance and relapse upon drug cessation. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing of flow-sorted primitive (CD34+CD38low) and progenitor (CD34+CD38+) chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia cells and identified transcriptional upregulation of 32 cell surface molecules relative to corresponding normal bone marrow cells...
December 28, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282244/oxidized-lipid-uptake-by-scavenger-receptor-cd36-cluster-of-differentiation-36-modulates-endothelial-surface-properties-and-may-contribute-to-atherogenesis
#11
EDITORIAL
Roy L Silverstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274335/cd36-mediates-lipid-accumulation-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-under-the-duress-of-glucolipotoxic-conditions-novel-roles-of-lysine-deacetylases
#12
Sabbir Khan, Anjaneyulu Kowluru
The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is implicated in the intake of long-chain fatty acids and fat storage in various cell types including the pancreatic beta cell, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress and diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that CD36 undergoes post-translational modifications such as acetylation-deacetylation. However, putative roles of such modifications in its functional activation and onset of beta cell dysregulation under the duress of glucolipotoxicity (GLT) remain largely unknown...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274292/butyrate-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-interact-in-alterations-of-specific-lipid-classes-in-differentiating-colon-cancer-cells
#13
Zuzana Tylichová, Josef Slavík, Miroslav Ciganek, Petra Ovesná, Pavel Krčmář, Nicol Straková, Miroslav Machala, Alois Kozubík, Jiřina Hofmanová, Jan Vondráček
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) exhibit a number of interactive effects on colon cancer cell growth, differentiation or apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these interactions and their impact on cellular lipidome are still not fully clear. Here, we show that both dietary agents together induce dynamic alterations of lipid metabolism, specific cellular lipid classes and fatty acid composition. In HT-29 cell line, a model of differentiating colon carcinoma cells, NaBt supported incorporation of free DHA into non-polar lipids and their accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid droplets...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274096/developmental-differences-between-neonatal-and-adult-human-erythropoiesis
#14
Hongxia Yan, John Hale, Julie Jaffray, Jie Li, Yaomei Wang, Yumin Huang, Xiuli An, Christopher Hillyer, Nan Wang, Sandrina Kinet, Naomi Taylor, Narla Mohandas, Anupama Narla, Lionel Blanc
Studies of human erythropoiesis have relied, for the most part, on the in vitro differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) from different sources. Here, we report that despite the common core erythroid program that exists between cord blood (CB)- and peripheral blood (PB)-HSPC induced towards erythroid differentiation in vitro, significant functional differences exist. We undertook a comparative analysis of human erythropoiesis using these two different sources of HSPC. Upon in vitro erythroid differentiation, CB-derived cells proliferated 4-fold more than PB-derived cells...
December 23, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259130/cathepsin-b-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-cleaving-liver-fatty-acid-binding-protein
#15
Simeon Thibeaux, Shaila Siddiqi, Olga Zhelyabovska, Faisal Moinuddin, Michal M Masternak, Shadab A Siddiqi
Synthesis and secretion of hepatic triglycerides (TAG) associated with very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) play a major role in maintaining overall lipid homeostasis. This study aims to identify factors affecting synthesis and secretion of VLDL-TAG using the growth hormone-deficient Ames dwarf mouse model, which has reduced serum TAG. Proteomic analysis coupled with a bioinformatics driven approach revealed that these mice express greater amounts of hepatic cathepsin B and lower amounts of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), than their wild type littermates...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258822/lncrna-malat1-regulates-oxldl-induced-cd36-expression-via-activating-%C3%AE-catenin
#16
Ning Huangfu, Zhenyu Xu, Wenyuan Zheng, Yong Wang, Jingsong Cheng, Xiaomin Chen
The expression of scavenger receptors in macrophages regulating lipid uptake plays an important role in foam cell formation and the subsequent atherosclerotic plaque formation. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 is abundantly expressed in THP-1-derived macrophages, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes its transcription by qRT-PCR and RNA FISH detection. Through chemical inhibitor treatments and by performing a dual luciferase reporter analysis, we found that oxLDL induces MALAT1 transcription through the NF-κB pathway...
December 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258506/predictive-model-identifies-strategies-to-enhance-tsp1-mediated-apoptosis-signaling
#17
Qianhui Wu, Stacey D Finley
BACKGROUND: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a matricellular protein that functions to inhibit angiogenesis. An important pathway that contributes to this inhibitory effect is triggered by TSP1 binding to the CD36 receptor, inducing endothelial cell apoptosis. However, therapies that mimic this function have not demonstrated clear clinical efficacy. This study explores strategies to enhance TSP1-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. In particular, we focus on establishing a computational model to describe the signaling pathway, and using this model to investigate the effects of several approaches to perturb the TSP1-CD36 signaling network...
December 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250447/electronic-northern-analysis-of-genes-and-modeling-of-gene-networks-underlying-bovine-milk-fat-production
#18
Bhaskar Ganguly, Tanuj Kumar Ambwani, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue...
2017: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236702/oral-nicotine-aggravates-endothelial-dysfunction-and-vascular-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obese-rats-role-of-macrophage-tnf%C3%AE
#19
Chang Liu, Ming-Sheng Zhou, Yao Li, Aimei Wang, Kiranmai Chadipiralla, Runxia Tian, Leopoldo Raij
Obesity and cigarette smoke are major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and, when coexisting in the same individuals, have additive/synergistic effects upon CVD. We studied the mechanisms involved in nicotine enhancement of CVD in Sprague Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity. The rats were fed either a high fat (HFD) or normal rat chow diet with or without nicotine (100 mg/L in drinking water) for 20 weeks. HFD rats developed central obesity, increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic superoxide (O2-) production, and impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (EDR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234397/artemisia-iwayomogi-plus-curcuma-longa-synergistically-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-hepg2-cells
#20
Hyeong-Geug Kim, Sung-Bae Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Won-Young Kim, Seung-Hoon Choi, Chang-Gue Son
The combination of Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix is frequently prescribed for liver diseases in TKM. However, the synergic effects of the two herbs on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have not yet been studied. Therefore, we investigated the anti-NASH effects of the water extract of A. iwayomogi (AI), C. longa radix (CL), and combination of the two herbs (ACE). Hepatic steatosis and NASH were induced in HepG2 cells by treatment with palmitic acid (PA, for 6 h) with/without pretreatment of ACE (25 or 50 μg/mL), AI (50 or 100 μg/mL), CL (50 or 100 μg/mL), curcumin (5 μg/mL), or scopoletin (5 μg/mL)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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