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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635626/adiponectin-a-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-diabetes-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, whose reduction plays a central role in obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to adipocytes, other cell types, such as skeletal and cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, can also produce this adipocytokine. Adiponectin effects are mediated by adiponectin receptors, which occur as two isoforms (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Adiponectin has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle, and the vasculature...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635327/within-visit-blood-pressure-variability-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-hypertensive-patients-with-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Kengo Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kohji Ohki, Sho Kinguchi, Kotaro Haruhara, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Yoshiyuki Toya, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
As there may be an association between within-visit blood pressure (BP) variability and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we investigated the clinical significance of this BP variability in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to the median of coefficient of variation (CV) of three systolic BP (SBP) readings within a single visit, we divided hypertensive patients with stage G1-4 CKD already treated with antihypertensive therapy into the high SBP-CV group and the low SBP-CV group...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635324/gliptins-suppress-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-to-mitigate-inflammation-fibrosis-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-models-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#3
Xiaoyu Wang, Michael Hausding, Shih-Yen Weng, Yong Ook Kim, Sebastian Steven, Thomas Klein, Andreas Daiber, Detlef Schuppan
AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, panlobular inflammation, liver fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are indirect glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity, used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their potential and underlying mechanisms to treat metabolic liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the associated vascular dysfunction remain to be explored...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634642/determinants-of-change-in-polypharmacy-status-in-switzerland-the-population-based-colaus-study
#4
Nazanin Abolhassani, Julien Castioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, the change, and the determinants of change in polypharmacy in a population-based sample. METHODS: Baseline (2003-2006) and follow-up (2009-2012) data are from 4679 participants aged between 35 and 75 years (53.5% women, mean age 52.6 ± 10.6 years) from the population of Lausanne, Switzerland. Polypharmacy was defined by the regular use of ≥5 drugs. Four categories of change were defined: never (no polypharmacy at baseline and follow-up), initiating (no polypharmacy at baseline but at follow-up), maintaining, or quitting...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#5
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634421/the-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-vascular-inflammation-from-pathogenesis-to-targeted-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Felice Gragnano, Simona Sperlongano, Enrica Golia, Francesco Natale, Renatomaria Bianchi, Mario Crisci, Fabio Fimiani, Ivana Pariggiano, Vincenzo Diana, Andreina Carbone, Arturo Cesaro, Claudia Concilio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Mariagiovanna Russo, Paolo Calabrò
Beyond its role in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an emerging mediator of vascular inflammation. Recent studies highlight the involvement of VWF and its regulator, ADAMTS13, in mechanisms that underlie vascular inflammation and immunothrombosis, like leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and extravasation; vascular permeability; ischemia/reperfusion injury; complements activation; and NETosis. The VWF/ADAMTS13 axis is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, promoting plaque formation and inflammation through macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in inflamed lesions...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#7
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633867/review-of-a-causal-role-of-fructose-containing-sugars-in-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
REVIEW
Gerald J Maarman, Amy E Mendham, Kim Lamont, Cindy George
In 2012, the World Health Organization Global Status Report on noncommunicable diseases showed that 7.4 million deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. Consequently, cardiovascular disease is a significant health burden, especially when partnered with comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, these diseases can all be induced or exacerbated by diet. Carbohydrates, in particular, fructose and glucose, generally form the largest part of the human diet. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that if large amounts of fructose are consumed either in isolation or in combination with glucose (fructose-containing sugars), myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633346/tetramethylpyrazine-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-by-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE
#9
Fen Lu, Xu Li, Wei Li, Ke Wei, Yong Yao, Qianlin Zhang, Xinliang Liang, Jiewen Zhang
Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632874/screening-for-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#10
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance)...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632785/the-association-between-various-smoking-behaviors-cotinine-biomarkers-and-skin-autofluorescence-a-marker-for-advanced-glycation-end-product-accumulation
#11
Robert P van Waateringe, Marjonneke J Mook-Kanamori, Sandra N Slagter, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Reindert Graaff, Helen L Lutgers, Karsten Suhre, Mohammed M El-Din Selim, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel
BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence, a biomarker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation, has been shown to predict diabetes-related cardiovascular complications and is associated with several environmental and lifestyle factors. In the present study, we examined the association between various smoking behaviors and skin autofluorescence, as well as the association between several cotinine biomarkers and skin autofluorescence, using both epidemiological and metabolomics data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632755/potassium-is-a-key-signal-in-host-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-periodontitis
#12
Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo, Keerthana Krishnan, Jorge Frias-Lopez
Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that affects a large proportion of the world's population and has been associated with a wide variety of systemic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Dysbiosis has been identified as a key element in the development of the disease...
June 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631969/cognitive-functions-among-predominantly-minority-urban-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Alexander Mangone, Kathy F Yates, Victoria Sweat, Adriana Joseph, Antonio Convit
The rise in the rate of adolescent obesity has led to a concurrent rise in the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young people. In addition to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, MetS has also been linked to cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess whether cognitive differences exist between minority urban adolescents carrying excess weight who meet criteria for MetS as compared to their peers without MetS. Two hundred and ninety-six urban adolescents, predominantly Hispanic and carrying excess weight as defined by a BMI above 25 kg/m(2), were screened for MetS and divided into MetS and no MetS groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631762/-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-hypoglycemic-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#14
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631078/evaluation-of-the-association-between-sleep-apnea-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-profiles-in-patients-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#15
Keisuke Nakabayashi, Kentaro Jujo, Katsumi Saito, Toshiaki Oka, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
The long-term outcome is poor in patients with sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is also known as an independent predictor for adverse clinical events. However, the profile of PUFA in sleep apnea patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the association between sleep apnea and PUFA profiles in patients with CAD. Two hundred seventy-four consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were screened for sleep apnea using nocturnal oximetry...
June 19, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629621/differential-effect-of-obesity-on-prevalence-of-cardiac-and-carotid-target-organ-damage-in-hypertension-the-campania-salute-network
#16
Costantino Mancusi, Eva Gerdts, Maria Angela Losi, Andrea D'Amato, Maria Virginia Manzi, Grazia Canciello, Valentina Trimarco, Nicola De Luca, Giovanni de Simone, Raffaele Izzo
BACKGROUND: Whether increasing body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with parallel increased prevalence of hypertensive vascular and cardiac target organ damage (TOD) needs further clarification. METHODS: We analyzed 8815 hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, participating in the Campania Salute Network, grouped into BMI classes (normal 20-24.9kg/m(2), overweight 25-29.9kg/m(2) and obese ≥30kg/m(2)). Vascular and cardiac TOD was defined as ultrasound plaque (intima-media thickness>1...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629292/increased-blood-pressures-in-veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Alireza Khoshdel, Farhad Avakh, Arash Rahmani
Objective Veterans of war affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to compare brachial and central blood pressures between veterans with PTSD and controls. Method In this case-control study on veterans of Iran-Iraq war, 50 veterans with PTSD and 50 veterans as controls were selected from an outpatient clinic and matched for age ±3 years. Exclusion criteria were malignancies, severe anatomical defects such as amputated extremities, history of PTSD before serving in war, comorbid psychiatric disorders other than anxiety or depressive disorders...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629279/understanding-determinants-of-cardiovascular-health-in-a-mexican-american-community
#18
Karen A Larimer, Meg Gulanick, Sue Penckofer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed...
July 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#19
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628359/the-genetic-basis-for-sex-differences-in-obesity-and-lipid-metabolism
#20
Jenny C Link, Karen Reue
Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
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