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Teddy Stephen Ehianeta, Stéphane Laval, Biao Yu
Mangiferin (2C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone C-glycoside occurring in many plant species. Composed of a glucose unit C1→2 linked to a 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone aglycone, mangiferin exhibits a wide range of biological activities, which recently renewed its interest as a potential pharmacophore. Mangiferin is mainly isolated after extraction procedures from natural sources alongside with its isoforms isomangiferin, homomangiferin, and neomangiferin. However, enzymatic and chemical approaches have been developed to access these phytochemicals, which address the challenging construction of the C-glycosidic linkage...
September 10, 2016: BioFactors
Julie Grandbois, Sandhya Khurana, Kelly Graff, Phong Nguyen, Leah Meltz, T C Tai
Epinephrine is synthesized by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla oblongata. Epinephrine is an important neurotransmitter/neurohormone involved in cardiovascular regulation; however, overproduction is detrimental with negative outcomes such as cellular damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and hypertension. Genetic mapping studies have linked elevated expression of PNMT to hypertension...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Gaetano Speciale, Marco Farren-Dai, Fahimeh S Shidmoossavee, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Bennet
The hydroxide-catalyzed hydrolysis of aryl 1,2-trans-glycosides proceeds through a mechanism involving neighboring group participation by a C2-oxyanion and rate-limiting formation of a 1,2-anhydro sugar (oxirane) intermediate. The transition state for the hydroxide catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl α-D-mannopyranoside in aqueous media has been studied by the use of multiple kinetic isotope effect (KIE) measurements in conjunction with ab initio theoretical methods. The experimental KIEs are: C1-(2)H (1...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Laura M Muncie, Nathaniel R Ellens, Emeline Tolod-Kemp, Claudio A Feler, John S Winestone
OBJECTIVE This study is a retrospective case series involving C1-2 spinal cord stimulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) under general endotracheal anesthesia. Currently, C1-2 paddle lead placement is an accepted practice, which provides effective cervical stimulation to ameliorate upper-extremity and sometimes lower-extremity symptoms experienced by patients with CRPS. However, this technique must be performed under general endotracheal anesthesia rather than in an awake or semiconscious state due to intraoperative safety concerns and patient comfort...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Eleftherios Archavlis, Lucas Serrano, Eike Schwandt, Amr Nimer, Moisés Felipe Molina-Fuentes, Tamim Rahim, Maximilian Ackermann, Angelika Gutenberg, Sven Rainer Kantelhardt, Alf Giese
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and technical nuances of a minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular approach for partial odontoidectomy, autologous bone augmentation, and temporary C1-2 fixation to treat dens pseudarthrosis. METHODS A cadaveric feasibility study, a 3D virtual reality reconstruction study, and the subsequent application of this approach in 2 clinical cases are reported. Eight procedures were completed in 4 human cadavers. A minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular approach for odontoidectomy was performed with the aid of a tubular retraction system, using a posterolateral incision and an oblique approach angle...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Deng-Wei He, Wen-Jun Huang, Xiao-Yong Sheng, Li-Jun Wu, Shun-Wu Fan
A rare case of atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking secondary to traumatic posterolateral C1,2 complete dislocation associated with type II odontoid fracture is herein reported and the impact of atlantoaxial joint interlocking on fracture reduction discussed. A 72-year-old man presented with traumatic atlantoaxial lateral mass joint interlocking without spinal cord signal change, the diagnosis being confirmed by radiography and 3-D reconstruction digital anatomy. Posterior internal fixation was performed after failure to achieve closed reduction by skull traction...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
P Vaněk, Ondřej Bradáč, P de Lacy, R Konopková, J Lacman, V Beneš
There are numerous indications for stabilization using instrumentation of the upper cervical spine. This area is comprised of sophisticated anatomy. There is no study describing bony and vascular anomalies of this area in the middle European population. The main aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of any vertebral artery (VA) variations and osseous anomalies in the region of the craniocervical junction in a large sample of Czech patients based on three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA)...
September 13, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Griffin R Baum, Brian M Howard, Gustavo Pradilla, Jonathan A Grossberg, Gerald E Rodts, Faiz U Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic vascular injury is a feared complication of posterior atlanto-axial instrumentation. A better understanding of clinical outcome and management options following this injury will allow surgeons to better care for these patients. The object of the study was to systematically review the neurologic outcomes after iatrogenic vascular injury during atlanto-axial posterior instrumentation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the Medline database following PRISMA guidelines...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
A Schäffler, B König, B Feinauer, T Freude, U Stöckle, F Stuby
Introduction: Pelvic ring injuries occur in 3-8 % of patients with fractures. They are rare, with an annual incidence of only 19-37 per 100,000 people annually. There have been publications on the generation of these injuries, as well as their diagnosis and treatment concepts, but there is little information on how these injuries impact the ability to work. Patients: The study covered all hospitalised patients between January 2003 and December 2011 with a pelvic ring injury, who had already been included in the data collection of the AG Becken III and who had had a work-related accident...
September 9, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Daniel R Felbaum, Joshua E Ryan, Andrew B Stemer, Amjad N Anaizi
Rotational vertebral artery occlusion (RVAO) or bow hunter's syndrome most commonly affects the C1-2 level due to its importance in regulating rotational movement. We present a 50-year old man who had undergone several prior sub-axial cervical spine operations with increasing neck pain and severe symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency with bi-directional head rotation. Dynamic cerebral angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of left vertebral artery during head rotation to the right, and complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery during head rotation to the left...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yasutaka Murahashi, Tsuneo Takebayashi, Yoshinori Terashima, Hajime Tsuda, Mitsunori Yoshimoto, Toshihiko Yamashita
STUDY DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. PURPOSE: To clarify the clinical features of cervical myelopathy at the C1-2 level. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Methods for distinguishing the affected level based on myelomere symptoms or dysfunction of the conducting pathway were established. However, no symptoms have been identified as being specific to the C1-2 level segment. METHODS: We evaluated 24 patients with cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at the C1-2 level...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Ryoji Tauchi, Sang-Hun Lee, Jin-Young Kim, Yong-Chan Kim, Colleen Peters, Shiro Imagama, Naoki Ishiguro, Jacob Buchowski, K Daniel Riew
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of severe headache occurring after cervical posterior surgical fixation (PSF) and to evaluate the clinical and radiological findings associated with severe headache after surgery. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Several studies have reported on the axial pain after cervical surgery. However, to our knowledge, the incidence of severe headache after cervical PSF has not been elucidated...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Jayesh Sardhara, Sindgikar Pavaman, Kuntal Das, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Sanjay Behari
BACKGROUND: Congenital spondylolytic spondylolisthesis of C2 vertebra resulting from deficient posterior element of the axis is very rarely described in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a unique case of agenesis of posterior elements of C2 with cranio-vertebral junction anomalies consist of osseous, vascular and soft tissue anomalies. A young 26 year old young man presented with symptoms of upper cervical myelopathy of 12 months duration. CT scan of the cervical spine including the craniovertebral junction revealed spondylolisthesis of C2 over C3, atlanto axial dislocation, occipitalisation of atlas, hypoplasia of the odontoid and cleft posterior C1 arch...
August 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lang Li, Feng Gao, Qi Huang, Qiang Li, Lin Xie, Bin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate midterm follow-up results on Asian femoral intramedullary nail in treating segmental and comminuted femoral fractures. METHODS: Between June 2011 and October 2012,16 patients with segmental and comminuted femoral fractures were treated with minimally invasive reset and Asian femoral intramedullary nail under extension table. Among them, there were 10 males and 6 females aged from 21 to 49 years old with an average of 34.5 years old; the time from injury to operation ranged from 3 to 24 d with an average of 9...
June 2016: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Pravin Salunke, Sushanta K Sahoo, Arsikere N Deepak, N K Khandelwal
BACKGROUND: The C1-2 joint has multiple degrees of freedom of movement and C1-2 dislocation (AAD) is often multiplanar. The existing methodology to assess the dislocation is limited to few planes. The object of this manuscript is to redefine and objectively assess congenital AAD in each possible plane, pre and postoperatively. METHODS: Study consisted of 95 patients of irreducible CongenitalAAD operated by posterior approach alone. Preoperative and postoperative CT imaging was studied in axial, coronal and sagittal planes...
August 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Tatsuya Maegawa, Motohiro Hirasawa, Atsushi Sasahara, Shigeru Tani, Shinji Hagiwara, Hirokazu Koseki, Chika Yoshimura, Yuichi Takahashi, Asami Kikuchi, Hidetoshi Kasuya
UNLABELLED: <i> CASE: A</i> 30-year-old woman presented with posterior cervical pain and left-sided omalgia. The patient had a history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for which she had received prophylactic whole-brain irradiation(including at the upper cervical level)17 years previously. A magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)scan obtained 1 month previously showed an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the left C1/2 level. We initially considered the tumor to be a benign schwannoma, but the patient subsequently developed left hemiparesis and was consequently admitted 2 days after her first visit...
August 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
J Bredow, F Beyer, J Oppermann, B Kraus, C Meyer, G Stein, P Eysel, T Koy
BACKGROUND: Goal of this study is to present an easily reproducible and reliable measurement to evaluate accuracy of screw placement in cervical spine. METHODS: Accuracy of cervical screw position was assessed in 52 patients treated with 163 screws. Each patient receiving pedicle, transarticular C1/2, lateral mass, or laminar screws and postoperative CT scan was included. Placement position was categorized in 5 grades: Grade 1 is ideal with pedicle wall perforation < 1 mm, grade 2 < 2 mm, grade 3 < 3 mm, and grade 4 < 4 mm...
July 29, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Sameah Haider, Stephane Owusu-Sarpong, Maria Peris Celda, Meghan Wilock, Julia Prusik, Youngwon Youn, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been a valuable resource for the treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain that persists in the face of maximal medical management. A recent study demonstrated efficacy of cervical SCS in a multicenter registry. Here, in our single center study, we are able to delve into patient specifics, explore outcomes with percutaneous vs. paddle implants, and examine impact of patient symptomatology. METHODS: We prospectively collected data on subjects who underwent cervical SCS via numeric rating scale (NRS), McGill Pain Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Beck Depression Inventory...
August 5, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Jee Hyun Rim, Semin Chong, Han Suk Ryu, Bo Mi Chung, Hye Shin Ahn
Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonographic criteria of thyroid capsular continuity and tumor contour to differentiate macroscopic extra-thyroidal extension (ETE) from microscopic ETE, as well as non-ETE from ETE. On ultrasonography, we evaluated thyroid capsular continuity (C0 = continuous, C1 = discontinuous, C2 = invisible), and thyroid tumor contour (P0 = in normal parenchyma, P1 = abutting, P2 = bulging), which were grouped into type 1-9 classifications. Either C1-2 or P1-2 was more prevalent in ETE than non-ETE...
October 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Yi-Heng Yin, Guang-Yu Qiao, Xin-Guang Yu
OBJECTIVE: To introduce and assess a surgical treatment of occipitocervical (OC) dislocation with atlas assimilation and Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) using occipitalized C1 lateral mass and C2 fixation and reduction technique METHODS: From January 2007 to August 2013, 58 symptomatic patients with OC dislocation and KFS of C2-3 congenital fusion and atlas assimilation were surgically treated in our institution via this technique. After opening the C1-2 facet joints via posterior approach, OC reduction was conducted by intraoperative manipulation and C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw and rod fixation...
July 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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