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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437482/study-on-lockage-safety-of-lng-fueled-ships-based-on-fsa
#2
Pengfei Lv, Yuan Zhuang, Jian Deng, Wei Su
In the present study, formal safety assessment (FSA) is introduced to investigate lockage safety of LNG-fueled ships. Risk sources during lockage of LNG-fueled ships in four typical scenarios, namely, navigation between two dams, lockage, anchorage, and fueling, are identified, and studied in combination with fundamental leakage probabilities of various components of LNG storage tanks, and simulation results of accident consequences. Some suggestions for lockage safety management of LNG-fueled ships are then proposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437186/leptospira-species-in-feral-cats-and-black-rats-from-western-australia-and-christmas-island
#3
Narelle A Dybing, Caroline Jacobson, Peter Irwin, David Algar, Peter J Adams
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
March 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437051/the-reservoir-restorative-revolution
#4
John C Comisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Dentistry Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435692/a-cd3-cd28-microbead-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay
#5
EDITORIAL
Yury V Kuzmichev, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Caroline C Garliss, Victoria Ek Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
AIMS: Latently infected resting CD4 T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication efforts. The standard assays used for measuring this reservoir induce activation of resting CD4 T cells with either phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with irradiated feeder cells, or with anti-CD3 antibodies. We designed a study to compare the sensitivity of a new assay (based on the stimulation of CD4 T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated microbeads) with that of the traditional PHA- and feeder-based viral outgrowth assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435691/interrupting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-cure-research-scientific-and-ethical-considerations
#6
EDITORIAL
Samual A Garner, Stuart Rennie, Jintanat Ananworanich, Karine Dube, David M Margolis, Jeremy Sugarman, Randall Tressler, Adam Gilbertson, Liza Dawson
Over the past several years there has been intense activity directed at the possibility of achieving remission or eradication of HIV infection. Current assays for the measurement of latent HIV are insufficient to demonstrate complete clearance of replication-competent HIV. Therefore, the ultimate test for assessing whether investigational interventions have resulted in HIV remission or eradication is to interrupt standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a carefully controlled clinical trial setting. These procedures, known as analytic treatment interruptions (ATIs), raise important scientific and ethical questions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433841/a-simple-and-reliable-method-for-diagnosis-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-malfunction
#7
Hongri Zhang, Jinghua Peng, Xiaowei Hao, Xiaofan Guo, Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: To provide a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction. METHODS: A total of 14 participants were enrolled in this study, consisting of seven patients with suspected shunt malfunction and seven control cases with apparent normal drainage. In all cases, 0.1 mL of 5% glucose solution was injected into the reservoir and 0.1 mL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was withdrawn from the reservoir 20 min later for glucose concentration measurement...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433693/cyanotoxins-which-detection-technique-for-an-optimum-risk-assessment
#8
Virginie Gaget, Melody Lau, Barbara Sendall, Suzanne Froscio, Andrew R Humpage
The presence of toxigenic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in drinking water reservoirs poses a risk to human and animal health worldwide. Guidelines and health alert levels have been issued in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines for three major toxins, which are therefore the subject of routine monitoring: microcystin, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin. While it is agreed that these toxic compounds should be monitored closely, the routine surveillance of these bioactive chemicals can be done in various ways and deciding which technique to use can therefore be challenging...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433573/rodents-as-a-reservoir-of-infection-caused-by-multiple-zoonotic-species-genotypes-of-c-parvum-c-hominis-c-suis-c-scrofarum-and-the-first-evidence-of-c-muskrat-genotypes-i-and-ii-of-rodents-in-europe
#9
REVIEW
Oľga Danišová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Michal Stanko, Lenka Luptáková, Elena Hatalová, Alexander Čanády
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. Rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus Cryptosporidium. In this study, Cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. Altogether 262 faecal samples were collected from five areas in eastern Slovakia from four different rodent species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Rattus norvegicus), eight samples originated from two insectivore species (Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens) and two sample from a carnivore Mustela nivalis...
April 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433396/lambs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-challenge-with-spanish-goat-encephalitis-virus
#10
L M Salinas, R Casais, J F García Marín, K P Dalton, L J Royo, A Del Cerro, E Gayo, M P Dagleish, R A Juste, A Balseiro
Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and causes encephalomyelitis in goats. The aim of this study was to determine whether sheep are susceptible to experimental challenge with SGEV by two different routes. The results show that SGEV can infect sheep by both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes, resulting in neurological clinical disease with extensive and severe histological lesions in the central nervous system. Lambs challenged subcutaneously developed more severe lesions on the ipsilateral side of the brain, but the lesion morphology was similar irrespective of the route of challenge...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433050/zoonotic-potential-of-emerging-paramyxoviruses-knowns-and-unknowns
#11
Patricia A Thibault, Ruth E Watkinson, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan F Drexler, Benhur Lee
The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432950/effects-of-chlortetracycline-and-copper-on-tetracyclines-and-copper-resistance-genes-and-microbial-community-during-swine-manure-anaerobic-digestion
#12
Rui Wang, Meixue Chen, Feng Feng, Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Juan Tong, Yuansong Wei, Dongbin Wei
As antibiotic and heavy metals are over used in the livestock industry, animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Anaerobic digestion has been reported to have the potential to reduce ARGs. However, few studies investigated whether reduction of ARGs would be affected by different external pressures including antibiotics and heavy metals during anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of both chlortetracycline (CTC) and Cu on reduction of ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the swine manure anaerobic digestion...
March 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432300/entropic-uncertainty-relations-for-markovian-and-non-markovian-processes-under-a-structured-bosonic-reservoir
#13
Dong Wang, Ai-Jun Huang, Ross D Hoehn, Fei Ming, Wen-Yang Sun, Jia-Dong Shi, Liu Ye, Sabre Kais
The uncertainty relation is a fundamental limit in quantum mechanics and is of great importance to quantum information processing as it relates to quantum precision measurement. Due to interactions with the surrounding environment, a quantum system will unavoidably suffer from decoherence. Here, we investigate the dynamic behaviors of the entropic uncertainty relation of an atom-cavity interacting system under a bosonic reservoir during the crossover between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes. Specifically, we explore the dynamic behavior of the entropic uncertainty relation for a pair of incompatible observables under the reservoir-induced atomic decay effect both with and without quantum memory...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431965/origin-of-nanodroplet-formation-upon-dissolution-of-an-amorphous-solid-dispersion-a-mechanistic-isotope-scrambling-study
#14
Anura S Indulkar, Jan E Waters, Huaping Mo, Yi Gao, Shweta A Raina, Geoff G Z Zhang, Lynne S Taylor
It has been observed that certain amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), upon dissolution, generate drug-rich amorphous nanodroplets. These nanodroplets, present as a dispersed phase, can potentially enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by serving as a drug reservoir that efficiently feeds the continuous aqueous solution phase following absorption of drug. The purpose of this study was to probe the formation mechanism of the nanodroplets. The model system studied was nifedipine (NFD) formulated as an ASD with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 Premium LV (HPMC-E5) or polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVPVA)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431851/ultraviolet-c-light-as-a-means-of-disinfecting-anesthesia-workstations
#15
Matthew Nottingham, Gene Peterson, Christopher Doern, Michelle Doll, Nadia Masroor, Kakotan Sanogo, Michael Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia workstations (AWs) are a reservoir for pathogenic organisms potentially associated with surgical site infections. This study examined the effectiveness of the Tru-D SmartUVC device (Tru-D LLC, Nashville, TN) on bioburden reduction (BR) on AWs. METHODS: Strips of tissue inoculated with a known concentration of either Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, or Acinetobacter sp were placed on 22 high-touch surfaces of an AW. Half of the AW surfaces received direct ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and half received indirect exposure...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#16
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431490/new-challenges-in-therapeutic-vaccines-against-hiv-infection
#17
Lorna Leal, Constanza Lucero, Josep M Gatell, Teresa Gallart, Montserrat Plana, Felipe García
There is a growing interest in developing curative strategies for HIV infection. Therapeutic vaccines are one of the most promising approaches. We will review the current knowledge and the new challenges in this research field. Areas covered: PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched to review the progress and prospects for clinical development of immunotherapies aimed to cure HIV infection. Dendritic cells (DC)-based vaccines have yielded the best results in the field. However, major immune-virologic barriers may hamper current vaccine strategies...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#18
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#19
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431115/spatial-distribution-of-falciparum-malaria-infections-in-zanzibar-implications-for-focal-drug-administration-strategies-targeting-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers
#20
Anders Björkman, Jackie Cook, Hugh Sturrock, Mwinyi Msellem, Abdullah Ali, Weiping Xu, Fabrizio Molteni, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Andreas Mårtensson
Background.: Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting. Methods.: P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and serological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analyses were performed on finger-prick blood samples from a population-based survey in 3 adjacent communities...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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