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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331905/macrophage-phenotype-switch-by-sequential-action-of-immunomodulatory-cytokines-from-hydrogel-layers-on-titania-nanotubes
#1
Junhong Chen, Mengting Li, Congling Yang, Xianzhen Yin, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng
Inflammatory response occurring between tissues and implants after implantation has attracted increasing attention because it can cause local tissue necrosis and even implant failure. Macrophages play a key role in all stages of inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages comprise two main phenotypes and the switch from M1 to M2 at specific time points is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that biomaterial systems capable of facilitating macrophage phenotype switching should attenuate inflammation and enhance healing...
January 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#2
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330926/detection-of-bovine-deltapapillomavirus-dna-in-peripheral-blood-of-healthy-sheep-ovis-aries
#3
S Roperto, V Russo, F Corrado, J S Munday, F De Falco, F Roperto
Blood samples from 65 sheep were tested for the presence of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (δPVs) DNA. The sheep were divided into three groups. Sheep in groups 1 and 2 were from Sardinia and Campania, respectively, and were in contact with cattle and grazed on lands contaminated with bracken fern. Sheep in Group 3 lived in closed pens and had no contact with cattle. These sheep were fed hay that did not contain bracken fern. Bovine δPV E5 DNA was detected in blood from 24 of 27 (89%) sheep in Group 1. A single bovine δPV type was detected in the blood from nine (33%) sheep, including the detection of bovine δPV-1 DNA in four sheep, bovine δPV-2 in four and δPV-13 in one sheep...
January 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#4
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330477/labile-organic-carbon-pools-and-enzyme-activities-of-pinus-massoniana-plantation-soil-as-affected-by-understory-vegetation-removal-and-thinning
#5
Yafei Shen, Ruimei Cheng, Wenfa Xiao, Shao Yang, Yan Guo, Na Wang, Lixiong Zeng, Lei Lei, Xiaorong Wang
The effects of forest management on carbon (C) sequestration are poorly understood, particularly in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. We aimed to identify the effects of forest management on C sequestration in Pinus massoniana plantations. An intact control forest (CK), a site undergoing regular shrub cutting with the simultaneous removal of residues (SC), a site under low-intensity thinning (LIT), and a site under high-intensity thinning (HIT) were compared for soil labile organic carbon (LOC), related enzyme activities, and soil characteristics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330276/cutaneous-mycobacterium-massiliense-infection-from-tattooing-a-common-yet-under-reported-and-persistent-epidemic-hazard-for-dermatologists
#6
Lymaries Velez, Jennifer Harb, Stephanie Anuszewski, Stanton Wesson
Tattoo popularity continues to rise, with 3 in 10 Americans bearing at least one. Among tattoo complications, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has emerged as a global public health concern. NTM infections associated with tattooing of immunocompetent individuals have occurred as sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Water sources are considered the major pathogenic reservoirs. Tattoo-related inoculation has been linked to contamination of ink, either during the manufacturing process or during dilution of black ink using non-sterile water...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#7
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329785/a-relapsing-fever-group-borrelia-sp-is-widely-distributed-among-wild-deer-in-japan
#8
Yumi Kumagai, Kozue Sato, Kyle R Taylor, Aya Zamoto-Niikura, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa, Makoto Ohnishi, Hiroki Kawabata
A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was detected from the blood of wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. The Borrelia sp. was distributed nationwide among deer with an overall prevalence of 26% in blood samples. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in fawns (48.4%) compared to adult deer (23.6%). Sequencing analysis reveals that this Borrelia sp. belongs to the hard tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, and that it forms a single lineage based on sequences of the flagellin and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase genes...
December 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329622/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-cattle-and-sheep-from-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-area-qtpa-northwestern-china
#9
Yingna Jian, Xueyong Zhang, Xiuping Li, Gabriele Karanis, Liqing Ma, Panagiotis Karanis
Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans, livestock and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections among cattle and sheep in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) and to assess the potential risk of the zoonotic transmission of this pathogen. A total of 454 stool specimens were collected and examined using the nested PCR method based on the G. duodenalis SSUrRNA gene fragment. Thirty-nine out of 389 cattle specimens examined were positive (10%) for the G...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329546/whole-genome-sequencing-of-genotype-vi-newcastle-disease-viruses-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-from-wild-pigeons-reveals-continuous-evolution-and-previously-unrecognized-genetic-diversity-in-the-u-s
#10
Ying He, Tonya L Taylor, Kiril M Dimitrov, Salman L Butt, James B Stanton, Iryna V Goraichuk, Heather Fenton, Rebecca Poulson, Jian Zhang, Corrie C Brown, Hon S Ip, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, often termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated from columbids in the United States and worldwide. Complete genomic characterization of these genotype VI viruses circulating in wild columbids in the United States is limited, and due to the genetic variability of the virus, failure of rapid diagnostic detection has been reported...
January 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#11
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328788/the-role-of-elastomeric-pumps-in-postoperative-analgesia-in-orthopaedics-and-factors-affecting-their-flow-rate
#12
Anthony Andreas Theodorides
Elastomeric pumps are mechanical devices composed of an elastomeric balloon reservoir into which the drug to be infused is stored, a protective casing (used by some manufacturers), a flow controller and a wound catheter. In orthopaedics they are used to provide continuous local infiltration analgesia. In this way patients rely less on other routes of analgesia and thus avoid their systemic side effects. Studies have shown good response to analgesia with these pumps for the first 24 hours but their benefit is not as clear at 48 and 72 hours...
December 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328658/modelling-net-land-occupation-of-hydropower-reservoirs-in-norway-for-use-in-life-cycle-assessment
#13
Martin Dorber, Roel May, Francesca Verones
Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327505/flexible-modulation-of-co-release-using-various-nuclearity-of-metal-carbonyl-clusters-on-graphene-oxide-for-stroke-remediation
#14
Mein Jin Tan, Han-Chi Pan, Hui Ru Tan, Jian Wei Chai, Qi Feng Lim, Ten It Wong, Xiaodong Zhou, Zi-Yao Hong, Lun-De Liao, Kien Voon Kong
Utilizing the size-dependent adsorption properties of ruthenium carbonyl clusters (Ru-carbon monoxide (CO)) onto graphene oxide (GO), a facile CO-release platform for in situ vasodilation as a treatment for stroke-related vascular diseases is developed. The rate and amount of formation of the CO-release-active RuII (CO)2 species can be modulated by a simple mixing procedure at room temperature. The subsequent thermally induced oxidation of RuII (CO)2 to RuO2 on the GO surface results in the release of CO. Further modulation of thermal and CO-release properties can be achieved via a hybridization of medium- and high-nuclearity of Ru-CO clusters that produces a RuO2 /RuII (CO)2 /6 Ru-CO-GO composite, where 6 Ru-CO-GO provides a photothermally activated reservoir of RuII (CO)2 species and the combined infrared absorption properties of GO and RuO2 provides photothermal response for in situ CO-release...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327304/the-irrigation-effect-how-river-regulation-can-promote-some-riparian-vegetation
#15
Karen M Gill, Lori A Goater, Jeffrey H Braatne, Stewart B Rood
River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this 'irrigation effect' we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), the predominant riparian plant along the Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, where dams produce hydropeaking, diurnal flow variation...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326977/monitoring-reservoir-response-to-earthquakes-and-fluid-extraction-salton-sea-geothermal-field-california
#16
Taka'aki Taira, Avinash Nayak, Florent Brenguier, Michael Manga
Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325619/clinical-approach-to-the-patient-with-neurogenetic-disease
#17
Thomas D Bird, Corrie O Smith
Neurogenetic diseases are surprisingly common. This chapter reviews a systematic approach to the evaluation of a patient thought to have such a disease. The emphasis is on first recognizing potential clues to the diagnosis contained in the family history and presentation of symptoms. Ataxia, neuropathy, muscle weakness, dementia, epilepsy, and cognitive delay are all "reservoirs" of neurogenetic disease. A high index of suspicion for genetic causes and a thoughtful evaluation of simplex (sporadic) cases is often necessary...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325545/phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-promote-access-to-the-cytosol-and-intracellular-burden-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#18
Thomas R Lerner, Christophe J Queval, Antony Fearns, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Maximiliano G Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), glycolipids found on the outer surface of virulent members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex, are a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Mtb. Myelocytic cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, are the primary hosts for Mtb after infection and previous studies have shown multiple roles for PDIM in supporting Mtb in these cells. However, Mtb can infect other cell types. We previously showed that Mtb efficiently replicates in human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs) and that the hLEC cytosol acts as a reservoir for Mtb in humans...
January 4, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324842/effect-of-analytical-treatment-interruption-and-reinitiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-hiv-reservoirs-and-immunologic-parameters-in-infected-individuals
#19
Katherine E Clarridge, Jana Blazkova, Kevin Einkauf, Mary Petrone, Eric W Refsland, J Shawn Justement, Victoria Shi, Erin D Huiting, Catherine A Seamon, Guinevere Q Lee, Xu G Yu, Susan Moir, Michael C Sneller, Mathias Lichterfeld, Tae-Wook Chun
Therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission in infected individuals are under active investigation. Considering the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals experience plasma viral rebound upon cessation of therapy, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of curative strategies would likely require inclusion of ART interruption. However, it is unclear what impact short-term analytical treatment interruption (ATI) and subsequent reinitiation of ART have on immunologic and virologic parameters of HIV-infected individuals...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324838/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-reservoir-living-among-us
#20
REVIEW
Bruno L Travi, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Guadalupe Miró
This article reviews essential topics of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) due to Leishmania infantum infection. It focuses on the current serological and molecular diagnostic methods used in epidemiological research and veterinary clinics to diagnose CVL and includes new point-of-care (POC) tests under development. The efficacy of different treatment regimens on the clinical improvement and infectiousness of dogs is also addressed. In the last section, the review provides a critical appraisal of the effectiveness of different control measures that have been implemented to curb disease transmission...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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