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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944994/influence-of-cyanobacteria-mixotrophic-flagellates-and-virioplankton-size-fraction-on-transcription-of-microcystin-synthesis-genes-in-the-toxic-cyanobacterium-microcystis-aeruginosa
#1
Pia I Scherer, Carolin Absmeier, Maria Urban, Uta Raeder, Juergen Geist, Katrin Zwirglmaier
Toxic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa are a worldwide concern in freshwater reservoirs. Problems associated with their mass occurrence are predicted to increase in the future due to global warming. The hepatotoxic secondary metabolite microcystin is of particular concern in this context. This study aimed to determine whether co-occurring microorganisms influence the expression of microcystin biosynthesis genes. To this end, we performed cocultivation experiments and measured mcyB and mcyD transcripts in M...
September 25, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944810/microfluidic-step-emulsification-in-axisymmetric-geometry
#2
I Chakraborty, J Ricouvier, P Yazhgur, P Tabeling, A M Leshansky
Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step...
September 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944610/last-century-forest-productivity-in-a-managed-dry-edge-scots-pine-population-the-two-sides-of-climate-warming
#3
Laura Marqués, Jaime Madrigal-González, Miguel A Zavala, J Julio Camarero, Florian Hartig
Climate change in the Mediterranean, associated with warmer temperatures and more frequent droughts, is expected to impact forest productivity and the functioning of forests ecosystems as carbon reservoirs in the region. Climate warming can positively affect forest growth by extending the growing season, whereas increasing summer drought generally reduces forest productivity and may cause growth decline, trigger dieback, hamper regeneration and increase mortality. Forest management could potentially counteract such negative effects by reducing stand density and thereby competition for water...
September 25, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944602/hepatitis-e-virus-and-related-viruses-in-wild-domestic-and-zoo-animals-a-review
#4
REVIEW
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, T Vahlenkamp, R G Ulrich, R Johne
Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944383/-open-top-microfluidic-device-for-in-vitro-three-dimensional-capillary-beds
#5
Soojung Oh, Hyunryul Ryu, Dongha Tahk, Jihoon Ko, Yoojin Chung, Hae Kwang Lee, Tae Ryong Lee, Noo Li Jeon
We introduce a novel microfluidic device to co-culture a blood vessel network and cell tissues in an in vivo-like niche. Our "open-top" microfluidic device is composed of microchannels with micropores in the ceiling, which provides direct fluid access from reservoir to microchannel. Fluid connections through micropores afford novel advantages, including: i) the long-term culture of large-scale microvessel network, ii) access of different fluids to inner and exterior sides of the microvessel, and iii) co-culturing of the microvessel network and small cell tissue...
September 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944129/endoscopic-assisted-ommaya-reservoir-placement-technical-note
#6
Jessica Lane, Brad E Zacharia
Ommaya reservoir placement has been an option for patients requiring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) access since the 1960s. It is preferred to repeat lumbar punctures, both in terms of patient comfort and the consistency of intrathecal drug concentration. Technological developments have advanced the placement technique, allowing for better accuracy and reduced complications. Freehand placement was first augmented with pneumoencephalograms and intraoperative computerized tomography (CT), then with optical-based navigation, and finally by utilizing electromagnetic neuronavigation...
July 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944012/assessing-the-effects-of-the-first-2%C3%A2-years-of-industry-led-badger-culling-in-england-on-the-incidence-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-cattle-in-2013-2015
#7
Lucy A Brunton, Christl A Donnelly, Heather O'Connor, Alison Prosser, Stuart Ashfield, Adam Ashton, Paul Upton, Andrew Mitchell, Anthony V Goodchild, Jessica E Parry, Sara H Downs
Culling badgers to control the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (TB) between this wildlife reservoir and cattle has been widely debated. Industry-led culling began in Somerset and Gloucestershire between August and November 2013 to reduce local badger populations. Industry-led culling is not designed to be a randomized and controlled trial of the impact of culling on cattle incidence. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor the effects of the culling and, taking the study limitations into account, perform a cautious evaluation of the impacts...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942737/adaptation-and-evaluation-of-an-elisa-for-trypanosoma-evansi-infection-surra-in-elephants-and-its-application-to-a-serological-survey-in-thailand
#8
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942530/propionate-metabolism-and-diversity-of-relevant-functional-genes-by-in-silico-analysis-and-detection-in-subsurface-petroleum-reservoirs
#9
Tao Yang, Serge Maurice Mbadinga, Lei Zhou, Shi-Zhong Yang, Jing-Feng Liu, Ji-Dong Gu, Bo-Zhong Mu
Propionate is a common metabolic intermediate occurring in environmental samples including petroleum reservoirs. Available microbial genomes were obtained from the NCBI database and analyzed in silico by hmmscan to check three metabolic pathways of propionate production in petroleum reservoir systems. The succinate pathway was the dominant one while the other two (lactate and 1,2-propanediol pathways) contributed less to the formation of propionate according to the Hidden Markov Model calculation. The mmdA gene encoding methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase was used as a biomarker gene to detect the diversity of microbes involved in the propionate formation in Jiangsu oil reservoirs...
September 23, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942299/pathological-findings-in-wild-rats-rattus-rattus-captured-at-guafo-island-northern-chilean-patagonia
#10
M Seguel, F Muñoz, E Paredes, M J Navarrete, N L Gottdenker
The black rat (Rattus rattus) is an invasive species and potential reservoir of significant pathogens of man, domestic animals and wildlife. During the 2012-2014 austral summers, 201 black rats were captured and examined on the uninhabited Guafo Island, in Northern Chilean Patagonia (43.593029°S, 74.713481°W). The mite Ornithonyssus bacoti caused lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic dermatitis in all infected rats (105/210, 52%), but no skin lesions were observed in rats infected with Nosopsyllus spp. and Plocopsylla spp...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940984/a-novel-guidewire-integrated-embolic-protection-filter-device-with-a-handy-folding-system-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-assessment
#11
Hiroki Watanabe, Naritatsu Saito, Yoshimasa Nagata, Erika Yamamoto, Kenji Nakatsuma, Bao Bingyuan, Shin Watanabe, Junichi Tazaki, Takeshi Kimura, Kanji Inoue
OBJECTIVES: We developed a novel guidewire-integrated filter device with a handy-folding system (IFD: Inoue filter device). In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibilityof the IFD. BACKGROUND: Although distal atheromatous and thrombotic embolizations remain unresolved critical issues during catheter interventions, distal protection devices are infrequently used partly because of reduced lower maneuverability. METHODS: In the in vitro experiment, we created an experimental circulation model composed of silicone latex tubes, a reservoir, and a roller pump...
September 20, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940910/the-outcomes-of-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-insertion-in-247-patients-completing-female-to-male-gender-reassignment-surgery
#12
M Falcone, G Garaffa, A Gillo, D Dente, A N Christopher, D J Ralph
OBJECTIVES: To assess the oucomes of penile prosthesis (PP) implantation after total phallic reconstruction secondary to gender dysphoria (GD). SUBJECT/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center analysis of 247 consecutive patients. The recruitment time was between January 2001 and October 2015. A total of 328 inflatable PP were implanted. A two-staged inflatable PP implantation was carried out. As a first step, an extraperitoneal reservoir placement was performed simultaneously with the glans sculpture and the insertion of a single large testicular prosthesis into the labia majora...
September 23, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940694/sterol-synthesis-and-cell-size-distribution-under-oscillatory-growth-conditions-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-scale-down-cultivations
#13
Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Anika Bockisch, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne
Physiologic responses of yeast to oscillatory environments as they appear in the liquid phase in large-scale bioreactors were studied in the past. So far, however, the impact on the sterol household and intracellular regulation remains to be investigated. Since oxygen is a co-factor in several reaction steps within the sterol metabolism, changes in oxygen availability, as it occurs in aerated bioreactors of production scales, might have an influence on the regulation and incorporation of free sterols into the cells' lipid layer...
September 21, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940532/contact-lenses-for-ophthalmic-drug-delivery
#14
REVIEW
Alex Hui
Contact lenses as a means to deliver pharmaceuticals to the eye have seen a significant increase in research interest in the past few years. This review will detail the in vitro experiments which have investigated use of these contact lenses in the context of the desired pharmacological treatment goals in the management of infectious, inflammatory, allergic and glaucomatous diseases of the eye. The techniques researchers have employed to modify and tailor drug release rates from these materials, including the use of vitamin E diffusion barriers, modified ionicity, molecular imprinting and incorporation of drug reservoirs, will be discussed, as well as their impact on drug release kinetics...
September 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940142/the-effects-of-aquaculture-on-mercury-distribution-changing-speciation-and-bioaccumulation-in-a-reservoir-ecosystem
#15
Peng Liang, Xinbin Feng, Qiongzhi You, Xuefei Gao, Jialin Xu, Minghung Wong, Peter Christie, Sheng-Chun Wu
A survey was conducted in a freshwater reservoir located in Guizhou province, south China, to investigate the influence of fish aquaculture activities on mercury (Hg) distribution, speciation change, and bioaccumulation. Water, sediment, and aquaculture fish samples were collected from aquaculture sites (AS) and the corresponding reference sites (RS). The results showed that total mercury (THg) concentration in overlying water in Wujiangdu reservoir reached 6.87 ± 14.9 ng L(-1). THg concentration in a different layer follows the sequence: surface layer > bottom layer > three intermediate layers with significant difference...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939607/multidrug-and-mupirocin-resistance-in-environmental-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-collected-from-the-homes-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-community-onset-co-mrsa-infection
#16
J H Shahbazian, P D Hahn, S Ludwig, J Ferguson, P Baron, A Christ, K Spicer, P Tolomeo, A M Torrie, W B Bilker, V C Cluzet, B Hu, K Julian, I Nachamkin, S C Rankin, D O Morris, E Lautenbach, M F Davis
Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939209/calcium-and-bone-metabolism-indices
#17
Lu Song
Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH)2D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938212/the-problem-of-identifying-arsenic-anomalies-in-the-basin-of-sahand-dam-through-risk-based-soft-modelling
#18
Ata Allah Nadiri, Fariba Sadeghi Aghdam, Rahman Khatibi, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam
An investigation is undertaken to identify arsenic anomalies at the complex of Sahand dam, East Azerbaijan, northwest Iran. The complex acts as a system, in which the impounding reservoir catalyses system components related to Origin-Source-Pathways-Receptor-Consequence (OSPRC) viewed as a risk system. This 'conceptual framework' overlays a 'perceptual model' of the physical system, in which arsenic with geogenic origins diffused into the formations through extensive fractures swept through the region during the Miocene era...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938024/perspectives-on-invasive-amphibians-in-brazil
#19
Lucas Rodriguez Forti, C Guilherme Becker, Leandro Tacioli, Vânia Rosa Pereira, André Cid F A Santos, Igor Oliveira, Célio F B Haddad, Luís Felipe Toledo
Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937839/tza-a-novel-assay-for-measuring-the-latent-hiv-1-reservoir
#20
Phalguni Gupta, Anwesha Sanyal, Robbie B Mailliard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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