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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231505/assessing-remobilization-characteristics-of-arsenic-as-in-tributary-sediment-cores-in-the-largest-reservoir-china
#1
Li Gao, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Wenqi Peng, Jin Lu, Jijun Gao
The environmental impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has raised widespread concern especially in relation to metal pollution. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technology was applied to investigate arsenic (As) remobilization in sediment cores collected from the main stream and a tributary in the TGR during July 2015. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical distributions of CDGT-As varied among the four sampling sites. For the same DGT probe, the horizontal distributions of CDGT-As (0-6mm, 6-12mm, 12-18mm) exhibited similarity in the overlying water and different tendencies in the sediment profiles; the vertical variations of CDGT-As showed different mobilization tendencies...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#2
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230525/inference-and-forecast-of-h7n9-influenza-in-china-2013-to-2015
#3
Ruiyun Li, Yuqi Bai, Alex Heaney, Sasikiran Kandula, Jun Cai, Xuyi Zhao, Bing Xu, Jeffrey Shaman
The recent emergence of A(H7N9) avian influenza poses a significant challenge to public health in China and around the world; however, understanding of the transmission dynamics and progression of influenza A(H7N9) infection in domestic poultry, as well as spillover transmission to humans, remains limited. Here, we develop a mathematical model-Bayesian inference system which combines a simple epidemic model and data assimilation method, and use it in conjunction with data on observed human influenza A(H7N9) cases from 19 February 2013 to 19 September 2015 to estimate key epidemiological parameters and to forecast infection in both poultry and humans...
February 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230480/the-micro-bio-trojans-free-living-amoebae-as-reservoirs-for-human-pathogens-giant-viruses-and-other-surprises
#4
Bärbel Hauröder, Rolf Michel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229943/in-situ-hybrid-nano-drug-delivery-system-ihn-dds-of-antiretroviral-drug-for-simultaneous-targeting-to-multiple-viral-reservoirs-an-in-vivo-proof-of-concept
#5
Anil B Jindal, Sagar S Bachhav, Padma V Devarajan
We report In situ hybrid nano drug delivery system (IHN-DDS) of nevirapine (NVP) for simultaneous targeting to multiple viral reservoirs. The IHN-DDS system was comprised of a preconcentrate containing NVP, lipid, and a surfactant which when diluted with water resulted in the formation of nanoparticles of size range varied from 70 to 1100nm. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering studies of pellet and supernatant obtained after centrifugation of the IHN-DDS revealed spherical shaped nanoparticles and assembled structures, respectively...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229521/microbial-potential-for-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-in-a-geogenic-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-reservoir
#6
Adam J E Freedman, BoonFei Tan, Janelle R Thompson
Microorganisms catalyze carbon cycling and biogeochemical reactions in the deep subsurface and thus may be expected to influence the fate of injected supercritical (sc) CO2 following geological carbon sequestration (GCS). We hypothesized that natural subsurface scCO2 reservoirs, which serve as analogs for the long-term fate of sequestered scCO2 , harbor a "deep carbonated biosphere" with carbon cycling potential. We sampled subsurface fluids from scCO2 -water separators at a natural scCO2 reservoir at McElmo Dome, Colorado for analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity and metagenome content...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229088/glutathione-induces-gaba-release-through-p2x7r-activation-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#7
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
The retinal tissue of warm-blooded vertebrates performs surprisingly complex and accurate transduction of visual information. To achieve precision, a multilayered neuroglia structure is established throughout the embryonic development, and the presence of radial Müller (glial) cells ensure differentiation, growth and survival for the neuronal elements within retinal environment. It is assumed that Müller cells serve as a dynamic reservoir of progenitors, capable of expressing transcription factors, differentiating and proliferating as either neuronal or glial cells depending on extrinsic cues...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228923/rodent-species-distribution-and-hantavirus-seroprevalence-in-residential-and-forested-areas-of-sarawak-malaysia
#8
Nur Elfieyra Syazana Hamdan, Yee Ling Ng, Wei Bin Lee, Cheng Siang Tan, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Yee Ling Chong
Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking...
January 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228777/natural-mineral-waters-chemical-characteristics-and-health-effects
#9
REVIEW
Sara Quattrini, Barbara Pampaloni, Maria Luisa Brandi
Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are 'waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes' and natural mineral waters, that are 'originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties'...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#10
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228470/a-conditional-mutant-of-the-fatty-acid-synthase-unveils-unexpected-cross-talks-in-mycobacterial-lipid-metabolism
#11
Matías Cabruja, Sonia Mondino, Yi Ting Tsai, Julia Lara, Hugo Gramajo, Gabriela Gago
Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228179/serological-evidence-of-lyssavirus-infection-among-bats-in-nagaland-a-north-eastern-state-in-india
#12
R S Mani, D P Dovih, M A Ashwini, B Chattopadhyay, P K Harsha, K M Garg, S Sudarshan, R Puttaswamaiah, U Ramakrishnan, S N Madhusudana
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV...
February 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228004/self-rectifying-resistive-switching-memory-with-ultralow-switching-current-in-pt-ta2o5-hfo2-x-hf-stack
#13
Haili Ma, Jie Feng, Hangbing Lv, Tian Gao, Xiaoxin Xu, Qing Luo, Tiancheng Gong, Peng Yuan
In this study, we present a bilayer resistive switching memory device with Pt/Ta2O5/HfO2-x /Hf structure, which shows sub-1 μA ultralow operating current, median switching voltage, adequate ON/OFF ratio, and simultaneously containing excellent self-rectifying characteristics. The control sample with single HfO2-x structure shows bidirectional memory switching properties with symmetrical I-V curve in low resistance state. After introducing a 28-nm-thick Ta2O5 layer on HfO2-x layer, self-rectifying phenomena appeared, with a maximum self-rectifying ratio (RR) of ~4 × 10(3) observed at ±0...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227466/engineering-based-assessment-for-a-shape-design-of-a-pediatric-eptfe-pulmonary-conduit-valve
#14
Yusuke Tsuboko, Yasuyuki Shiraishi, Akihiro Yamada, Tomoyuki Yambe, Hidekazu Miura, Seitaro Mura, Masaaki Yamagishi, Yusuke Tsuboko, Yasuyuki Shiraishi, Akihiro Yamada, Tomoyuki Yambe, Hidekazu Miura, Seitaro Mura, Masaaki Yamagishi, Akihiro Yamada, Seitaro Mura, Yasuyuki Shiraishi, Tomoyuki Yambe, Yusuke Tsuboko, Hidekazu Miura, Masaaki Yamagishi
The authors examined the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valved conduits quantitatively by our originally developed pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system, in order to suggest the optimal shape design. The system consisted of pneumatically driven right atrium and ventricle model, a pulmonary valve chamber, and elastic pulmonary compliance model with peripheral vascular resistance units, a venous reservoir. We employed two different types of ePTFE valve and evaluated the relationship between the leaflets motion and hemodynamic characteristics by using a high-speed video camera...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226499/origami-microfluidic-paper-analytical-devices-ompad-for-sensing-and-diagnostics
#15
Meera Punjiya, Chung Hee Moon, Yu Chen, Sameer Sonkusale, Meera Punjiya, Chung Hee Moon, Yu Chen, Sameer Sonkusale, Yu Chen, Chung Hee Moon, Sameer Sonkusale, Meera Punjiya
Recent research activities in the area of low-cost sensing and diagnostics that are realized on cellulosic paper substrate are presented. First a three-dimensional origami paper-based analytical device (omPAD) with multiple electrochemical sensors, an integrated sample reservoir and tight integration with a custom CMOS potentiostat is presented. Second, an optical sensor array with built-in microfluidic channel for sample delivery is presented. The sensors are fabricated using a combination of wax printing and screen-printing using a solution based approach in ambient conditions without the need for expensive fabrication equipment or a cleanroom...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#16
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225791/characterization-of-long-noncoding-rna-and-messenger-rna-signatures-in-melanoma-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#17
Siqi Wang, Wenliang Fan, Bing Wan, Mengqi Tu, Feng Jin, Fang Liu, Haibo Xu, Ping Han
The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225719/brief-report-cd14-enriched-peripheral-cells-secrete-cytokines-unique-to-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
Melissa A Agsalda-Garcia, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, Victor G Valcour, Thep Chalermchai, Somporn Tipsuk, Jason Kuroda, Christie Nakamura, Jintanat Ananworanich, Guangxiang Zhang, Alexandra Schuetz, Bonnie M Slike, Bruce Shiramizu
Monocytes play a vital role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), postulated to transport HIV into the brain and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed cytokines released by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells enriched with the CD14 marker isolated from HIV-infected individuals with HAND and normal cognition (NC) in combination antiretroviral therapy naive and after 1 year on treatment. Interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels were higher in HAND compared with NC at baseline (P = 0...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224985/episodic-release-of-co2-from-the-high-latitude-north-atlantic-ocean-during-the-last-135%C3%A2-kyr
#19
Mohamed M Ezat, Tine L Rasmussen, Bärbel Hönisch, Jeroen Groeneveld, Peter deMenocal
Antarctic ice cores document glacial-interglacial and millennial-scale variability in atmospheric pCO2 over the past 800 kyr. The ocean, as the largest active carbon reservoir on this timescale, is thought to have played a dominant role in these pCO2 fluctuations, but it remains unclear how and where in the ocean CO2 was stored during glaciations and released during (de)glacial millennial-scale climate events. The evolution of surface ocean pCO2 in key locations can therefore provide important clues for understanding the ocean's role in Pleistocene carbon cycling...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224137/hmgb1-anti-hmgb1-antibodies-define-a-molecular-signature-of-early-stages-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-isorders-hand
#20
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the post-HAART era, characterized by asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorders (MND). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein widely expressed in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, which acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine when actively secreted from immune cells. Recent reports suggested that HMGB1 acts on microglial cells to promote neuroinflammation...
February 2017: Heliyon
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