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Acute transverse myelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#1
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302609/enhancing-brain-lesions-during-acute-optic-neuritis-and-or-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-may-portend-a-higher-relapse-rate-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#2
G Orman, K Y Wang, Y Pekcevik, C B Thompson, M Mealy, M Levy, I Izbudak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298841/etiological-profile-of-noncompressive-myelopathies-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northeast-india
#3
Ashok Kumar Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Marami Das, Lakhshya Jyoti Basumatary, Suvorit Subhas Bhowmick, Baiakmenlang Synmon
BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21(st) century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. OBJECTIVE: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240719/thyroid-hormone-level-is-associated-with-the-frequency-and-severity-of-acute-transverse-myelitis
#4
Yiyun Weng, Huiyue Lin, Xiaoxian Ye, Dewei Xie, Zhibo Chen, Juzeng Zheng, Zhongqian Su, Hongli Xie, Xu Zhang, Xiang Li
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a progressive and autoimmune disease with inflammatory cell infiltrates into the spinal cord, and thyroid hormone (TH) level is associated with the oxidative and antioxidant status. Variations in oxidative stress and antioxidant levels are related to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Our study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between ATM and TH levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and FT4/FT3...
March 22, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215959/acute-transverse-myelitis-a-pediatric-case-report
#5
Megan Donovan, Andrew DePiero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#6
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174188/cervical-spine-arteriovenous-fistula-associated-with-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#7
Iain John McGurgan, Roisin Lonergan, Ronan Killeen, Christopher McGuigan
Reported is a case of a man aged 55 years who presented with progressive spastic paraparesis. Examination demonstrated multiple cutaneous telangiectases. Subsequent development of upper limb weakness, acute urinary retention and eventual respiratory compromise resulted in the requirement for intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. MRI spine revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cervical cord with enhancement and cord expansion. Immunomodulatory therapy for a presumed diagnosis of transverse myelitis yielded no response, so a vascular aetiology was suspected...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149080/urodynamic-profile-in-acute-transverse-myelitis-patients-its-correlation-with-neurological-outcome
#8
Anupam Gupta, Sushruth Nagesh Kumar, Arun B Taly
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to observe urodynamic profile of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) patients and its correlation with neurological outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the neurorehabilitation unit of a tertiary university research hospital from July 2012 to June 2014. Forty-three patients (19 men) with ATM with bladder dysfunction, admitted in the rehabilitation unit, were included in this study. Urodynamic study (UDS) was performed in all the patients...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115665/successfully-managed-acute-transverse-myelitis-related-to-scrub-typhus-and-serial-image-findings
#9
Jae Sung Yun, Ji Soo Song, Eun Jung Choi, Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Chang-Seop Lee, Eun Hae Park
Central nervous system involvement manifesting as meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a known complication of scrub typhus, but very few spinal cord lesions such as acute transverse myelitis (ATM) have been reported in association with this disease. Scrub typhus patients with a spinal lesion present with neurologic symptoms including dysuria, motor, and sensory weakness. Herein, we describe a rare case of ATM associated with scrub typhus. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, Orientia tsutsugamushi serum antibody titer, and serial magnetic resonance imaging scans resulted in a diagnosis of ATM associated with scrub typhus...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074391/etiologic-spectrum-and-functional-outcome-of-the-acute-inflammatory-myelitis
#10
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Javier Pablo Hryb, Ana Diego, José Luis Di Pace, Mónica Perassolo
Clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory features are not specific enough to establish the etiological diagnosis of the acute inflammatory myelitis (AIM). Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been associated with a poor functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the functional outcomes of a first AIM event comparing patients with LETM vs. no LETM on MRI and to report the differential diagnosis. Clinical, radiological, biochemical aspects were collected, and Winner-Hughes Functional Disability Scale (WHFDS) was performed after 3 and 6 months...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018472/concurrency-of-guillain-barre-syndrome-and-acute-transverse-myelitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Çelik, Ümit Çelik, Mustafa Kömür, Zeynep Tanyeli, Abdurrahman Sönmezler
Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis manifest as demyelinating diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system. Concurrency of these two disorders is rarely documented in literature. A 4-year-old girl presenting with cough, fever, and an impaired walking ability was admitted to hospital. She had no previous complaints in her medical history. A physical examination revealed lack of muscle strength of the lower extremities and deep tendon reflexes. MRI could not be carried out due to technical problems; therefore, both Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis were considered for the diagnosis...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000111/uncommon-disorders-masquerading-as-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-children
#12
Meenal Garg, Shilpa D Kulkarni, Varsha Patil, Rafat Sayed, Anaita Udwadia Hegde
The syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a common medical emergency in children. In the era of poliomyelitis eradication, the common causes of AFP include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis and traumatic neuritis. However, many common diseases can uncommonly present as AFP and some uncommon diseases may also masquerade like it. Uncommon causes of AFP seen at a tertiary care pediatric hospital are discussed along with relevant points in diagnosis and management. Also, common pitfalls in diagnosis of pediatric AFP and an approach to investigations are discussed...
December 21, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956656/transverse-myelitis-as-an-unusual-complication-of-dengue-fever
#13
Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira Mota, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Nathalia Zini, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Delzi Vinha Nunes Gongora, Irineu Luiz Maia, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
Dengue fever is the most common arbovirus disease, and presents with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic disease through to the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. These extreme cases can lead to dengue shock syndrome, and sometimes death. Spinal cord involvement in dengue virus (DENV) infections is rare. Here, we report a case in which the patient developed acute transverse myelitis (TM) without paraparesis following a DENV infection. This case highlights the importance of physicians' awareness of the possible link between DENV and TM in endemic areas...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928148/acute-transverse-myelitis-associated-with-salmonella-bacteremia-a-case-report
#14
Mary E Richert, Hillary Hosier, Adam S Weltz, Eric S Wise, Manjari Joshi, Jose J Diaz
BACKGROUND Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an uncommon and often overlooked complication of certain bacterial and viral infections that can have a rapid onset and result in severe neurological deficits.  CASE REPORT This case report describes a previously healthy 28-year-old woman who presented to the trauma center after developing acute paralysis and paresthesias of all four extremities within the span of hours. The initial presumptive diagnosis was spinal cord contusion due to a fall versus an unknown mechanism of trauma, but eventual laboratory studies revealed Salmonella bacteremia, indicating a probable diagnosis of parainfectious ATM...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913754/neurological-manifestations-in-children-with-dengue-fever-an-indian-perspective
#15
Archan Sil, Tamoghna Biswas, Moumita Samanta, Mithun Chandra Konar, Arun Kumar De, Jasodhara Chaudhuri
Ours was a descriptive observational cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India over a period of one year to study the profile of neurological involvement in paediatric dengue patients. Of 71 laboratory-confirmed cases, 20 (28.17%) had neurological involvement. Common forms observed were acute encephalopathy (40%), encephalitis (30%), pure motor weakness (15%), transverse myelitis (5%), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (5%). The dengue IgM antibody could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of only two patients with encephalitis...
December 2, 2016: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857814/a-rare-case-of-an-8-month-old-child-with-dengue-fever-complicated-by-acute-diffuse-transverse-myelitis
#17
Elisheba Patras, Pavan Kumar Polagani, Anuradha Sural, Nittin R Parkhe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855658/cytomegalovirus-associated-encephalomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-a-two-stage-attack-of-direct-viral-and-delayed-immune-mediated-invasions-case-report
#18
Kensuke Daida, Yuta Ishiguro, Hiroto Eguchi, Yutaka Machida, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideto Miwa
BACKGROUND: It is clinically rare to find cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent adults. Here, we present the case of an adult patient who developed acute transverse myelitis that was followed by immune-mediated disseminated encephalomyelitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old man developed acute paraplegia with paresthesia below the level of the T7-8 dermatome. Both brain and spinal cord MRIs performed at admission appeared normal...
November 17, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847660/hemorrhagic-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#19
Chris Y Wu, Tanawan Riangwiwat, Beau K Nakamoto
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805350/combined-central-and-peripheral-demyelination
#20
Pranav B Joshi, Sudhir V Shah, Mayank A Patel, Shailesh Shailesh
Demyelinating disorders are very common, but remains isolated to the part of nervous system they involve. However, infrequently, combined involvement of central and peripheral nervous system with demyelinating process have been described. We report one such rare case, with possible theories of common etiological basis. We present a middle aged male patient with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy(CIDP), who responded to immuno-modulation. Subsequently, he developed Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM)...
November 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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