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Juan Frau, Daniel Glossman-Mitnik
This computational study assessed eight fixed RSH (range-separated hybrid) density functionals that include CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, M11, MN12SX, N12SX, ωB97, ωB97X, and ωB97XD related to the Def2TZVP basis sets together with the SMD solvation model in the calculation the molecular structure and reactivity properties of the BISARG intermediate melanoidin pigment (5-(2-(E)-(Z)-5-[(2-furyl)methylidene]-3-(4-acetylamino-4-carboxybutyl)-2-imino-1,3-dihydroimidazol-4-ylideneamino(E)-4-[(2-furyl)methylidene]-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-acetylaminovaleric acid) and its protonated derivative, BISARG(p)...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jon M Fukuto, Louis J Ignarro, Peter Nagy, David A Wink, Christopher G Kevil, Martin Feelisch, Miriam M Cortese-Krott, Christopher L Bianco, Yoshito Kumagai, Adrian J Hobbs, Joseph Lin, Tomoaki Ida, Takaaki Akaike
The chemical biology of thiols (RSH, e.g., cysteine and cysteine containing proteins/peptides) has been a topic of extreme interest for many decades due to their reported roles in protein structure/folding, redox signaling, metal ligation, cellular protection and enzymology. While many of the studies on thiol/sulfur biochemistry have focused on thiols, relatively ignored have been hydropersulfides (RSSH) and higher order polysulfur species (RSSn H, RSSn R, n > 1). Recent and provocative work has alluded to the prevalence and likely physiological importance of RSSH and related RSSn H...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
Zhi Jiang, Kenjiro Fukuda, Xiaomin Xu, Sungjun Park, Daishi Inoue, Hanbit Jin, Masahiko Saito, Itaru Osaka, Kazuo Takimiya, Takao Someya
Mechanically durable transparent electrodes are needed in flexible optoelectronic devices to realize their long-term stable functioning, for applications in various fields such as energy, healthcare, and soft robotics. Several promising transparent electrodes based on nanomaterials have been previously reported to replace the conventional and fragile indium-tin oxide (ITO); however, obtaining feasible printed transparent electrodes for ultraflexible devices with a multistack structure is still a great challenge...
May 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Alexander Bollenbach, Ruan Kruger, Vu Vi Pham, Kristine Chobanyan-Jürgens, Dirk Wedekind, Tanja Arndt, Anne Jörns, Jimmy F P Berbée, Hans M G Princen, Thomas Lücke, François Mariotti, Jean-François Huneau, Stefan Ückert, Jürgen C Frölich, Sigurd Lenzen
We recently found that renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in the reabsorption of inorganic nitrite (NO2 - ), an abundant reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) in tissues and cells. Impaired NO synthesis in the endothelium and decreased NO bioavailability in the circulation are considered major contributors to the development and progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases in different conditions including diabetes. Isolated human and bovine erythrocytic CAII and CAIV can convert nitrite to nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride N2 O3 which, in the presence of thiols (RSH), are further converted to S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and NO...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
Leila Shamakhi, Arash Zibaee, Azadeh Karimi-Malati, Hassan Hoda
The developmental rates of Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were investigated at different constant temperatures of 11, 18, 22, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C to find out temperature thresholds, thermal requirements and larval antioxidant responses. The time to complete immature stages separately reduced by raising the rearing temperature except for eggs which showed no significant differences at 30-34°C. Data analysis by traditional and Ikemoto-Takai linear models determined Tmin of 10.0 and 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Andrew D Berti, Neehal Shukla, Aaron D Rottier, J Sue McCrone, Hannah M Turner, Ian R Monk, Sarah L Baines, Benjamin P Howden, Richard A Proctor, Warren E Rose
Objectives: Daptomycin non-susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus can emerge via the accumulation of single or multiple mutations, each resulting in a slight increase in the daptomycin MIC. The daptomycin-non-susceptible phenotype may include other features such as daptomycin tolerance. This study identifies S. aureus genomic regions that frequently develop mutations following prolonged daptomycin exposure but have not been previously associated with daptomycin non-susceptibility. Methods: Sequence variations in the same eight loci independently observed following 28 day parallel serial passages of S...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Leeor Kronik, Stephan Kümmel
A short overview of recent attempts at merging two independently developed methods is presented. These are the optimal tuning of a range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional, developed to provide an accurate first-principles description of the electronic structure and optical properties of gas-phase molecules, and the polarizable continuum model (PCM), developed to provide an approximate but computationally tractable description of a solvent in terms of an effective dielectric medium. After a brief overview of the OT-RSH approach, its combination with the PCM as a potentially accurate yet low-cost approach to the study of molecular assemblies and solids, particularly in the context of photocatalysis and photovoltaics, is discussed...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Dimitrios Tsikas, Kathrin S Schwedhelm, Andrzej Surdacki, Daniela Giustarini, Ranieri Rossi, Lea Kukoc-Modun, George Kedia, Stefan Ückert
S -Nitrosothiols or thionitrites with the general formula RSNO are formally composed of the nitrosyl cation (NO+ ) and a thiolate (RS- ), the base of the corresponding acids RSH. The smallest S -nitrosothiol is HSNO and derives from hydrogen sulfide (HSH, H2 S). The most common physiological S -nitrosothiols are derived from the amino acid L-cysteine (CysSH). Thus, the simplest S -nitrosothiol is S -nitroso-L-cysteine (CysSNO). CysSNO is a spontaneous potent donor of nitric oxide (NO) which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
S A Korolyov, A N Reznik
In this work, our earlier method for measuring resistance Rsh of semiconductor films with a near-field scanning microwave microscope [A. N. Reznik and S. A. Korolyov, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094504 (2016)] is studied in a 0.1 kΩ/sq < Rsh < 15 kΩ/sq range. The method is based on a microscope model in the form of a monopole or dipole antenna interacting with an arbitrary layered structure. The model fitting parameters are determined from the data yielded by calibration measurements on a system of etalon samples...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sophie E Irving, Rebecca M Corrigan
The stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response mechanism that allows bacteria to respond to nutritional challenges. It is mediated by the alarmones pppGpp and ppGpp, nucleotides that are synthesized and hydrolyzed by members of the RSH superfamily. Whilst there are key differences in the binding targets for (p)ppGpp between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species, the transient accumulation of (p)ppGpp caused by nutritional stresses results in a global change in gene expression in all species...
March 2018: Microbiology
Yixiong Ji, Jun Yang, Wei Luo, Linlong Tang, Xiangxing Bai, Chongqian Leng, Chaoyan Ma, Xingzhan Wei, Jing Wang, Jun Shen, Shirong Lu, Kuan Sun, Haofei Shi
Driven by huge demand for flexible optoelectronic devices, high-performance flexible transparent electrodes are continuously sought. In this work, a flexible multilayer transparent electrode with the structure of ZnO/Ag/CuSCN (ZAC) is engineered, featuring inorganic solution-processed cuprous thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a hole-transport antireflection coating. The ZAC electrode exhibits an average transmittance of 94% (discounting the substrate) in the visible range, a sheet resistance ( Rsh ) of 9.7 Ω/sq, a high mechanical flexibility without Rsh variation after bending 10 000 times, a long-term stability of 400 days in ambient environment, and a scalable fabrication process...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sousuke Imamura, Yuhta Nomura, Tokiaki Takemura, Imran Pancha, Keiko Taki, Kazuki Toguchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Kan Tanaka
Chloroplasts are plant organelles that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis depends upon chloroplast ribosomes and their translational activity. However, regulation of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis remains an important unanswered question. In this study, we found that inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR), a general eukaryotic checkpoint kinase, results in a decline in chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Upon TOR inhibition, transcriptomics and other analyses revealed increased expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) gene (CmRSH4b), which encodes a homolog of the guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) synthetases that modulate rRNA synthesis in bacteria...
April 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Charly Fornasier-Santos, Grégoire P Millet, Xavier Woorons
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine the effects of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL) on running repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in team-sport players. METHODS: Twenty-one highly trained rugby players performed, over a 4-week period, seven sessions of repeated 40-m sprints either with VHL (RSH-VHL, n = 11) or with normal breathing (RSN, n = 10). Before (Pre-) and after training (Post-), performance was assessed with an RSA test (40-m all-out sprints with a departure every 30 s) until task failure (85% of the reference velocity assessed in an isolated sprint)...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
D B Shpakovsky, A A Shtil, E V Kharitonashvili, V Yu Tyurin, T A Antonenko, A A Nazarov, V P Osipova, N T Berberova, L S Foteeva, C Schmidt, I Ott, E R Milaeva
Metal-based drugs are gaining momentum as a rapidly developing area of medicinal inorganic chemistry. Among gold pharmaceuticals, auranofin is a well known antirheumatic drug. The efficacy of gold-organic complexes largely depends on their pro-oxidant properties since auranofin targets the redox enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). However, an uncontrollable oxygen burst may be harmful for healthy cells; therefore, the search for chemical modifications to attenuate oxidation-related general toxicity of gold containing anti-inflammatory drugs is justified...
March 1, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
E M Harding-Esch, E C Cousins, S-L C Chow, L T Phillips, C L Hall, N Cooper, S S Fuller, A V Nori, R Patel, S Thomas-William, G Whitlock, S J E Edwards, M Green, J Clarkson, B Arlett, J K Dunbar, C M Lowndes, S T Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Rapid Point-Of-Care Tests for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may reduce onward transmission and reproductive sexual health (RSH) sequelae by reducing turnaround times between diagnosis and treatment. The io® single module system (Atlas Genetics Ltd.) runs clinical samples through a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-based CT cartridge, delivering results in 30min. METHODS: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study of the io® CT-assay in four UK Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM)/RSH clinics on additional-to-routine self-collected vulvovaginal swabs...
February 2018: EBioMedicine
Vahid Rahimi, Jalil Hajizadeh, Arash Zibaee, Jalal Jalali Sendi
Plant lectins could reduce insect populations by imposing imbalances in biology and physiology. Here, an agglutinin was extracted from Polygonum persicaria L. (PPA; Polygonales: Polygonaceae) and its effects were investigated on life table parameters and antioxidant system of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PPA significantly changed demographic parameters showing adverse effects on age-stage survival rate (Sxj), age-specific survival rate (lx), age-specific fecundity rate (mx), age stage specific fecundity (fxj), and life expectancy (exj)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jia-Wei Liu, Lei Feng, Hai-Feng Su, Zhi Wang, Quan-Qin Zhao, Xing-Po Wang, Chen-Ho Tung, Di Sun, Lan-Sun Zheng
Although there has been an upsurge of interest in anisotropic assembly of inorganic nanoparticles, atomically precise self-assembly of anisotropic metal clusters is extremely rare. Herein, we presented two novel silver nanoclusters, Ag52 (SD/Ag23) and Ag76 (SD/Ag24), which are interiorly templated by five MoO4 2- and a pair of Mo6 O22 8- anions, respectively, and coprotected by bridging RSH and terminal diphosphine ligands exteriorly. Regiospecific distribution diphosphine ligands on the surface and the arrangement of multiple molybdate templates within the nanoclusters synergetically tailor their shapes to anisotropic oblate spheroid and elongated rod, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Suzan Gunduz, Semra Kara, Ayşe Aktas, Abdulkadir Eren, Vedat Bakan
Macrosomia is a risk factor for birth injuries and is associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. Cephalohematoma and clavicular fracture are the most frequent birth injuries. Intraabdominal injuries are uncommon birth injuries. Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of rectus abdominis muscle. It is associated with trauma, operations and anticoagulant therapy, especially in adults and elders. We present a macrosomic male neonate with difficult vaginal delivery, who had in the physical examination periumblical ecchymose of 1x1 cm and a parietal cephalohametoma of 1x1 cm...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Melek Cemre Manav, Jelena Beljantseva, Martin S Bojer, Tanel Tenson, Hanne Ingmer, Vasili Hauryliuk, Ditlev E Brodersen
The stringent response is a global reprogramming of bacterial physiology that renders cells more tolerant to antibiotics and induces virulence gene expression in pathogens in response to stress. This process is driven by accumulation of the intracellular alarmone guanosine-5'-di(tri)phosphate-3'-diphosphate ((p)ppGpp), which is produced by enzymes of the RelA SpoT homologue (RSH) family. The Gram-positive Firmicute pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus , encodes three RSH enzymes: a multidomain RSH (Rel) that senses amino acid starvation on the ribosome and two small alarmone synthetase (SAS) enzymes, RelQ (SAS1) and RelP (SAS2)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amma Benneh-Akwasi Kuma, Amma Twumwa Owusu-Ansah, Mary Akua Ampomah, Fredericka Sey, Edeghonghon Olayemi, Mehdi Nouraie, Solomon Fiifi Ofori-Acquah
Individuals with sickle cell disease particularly with the homozygous (SS) genotype historically have relatively low blood pressure. Nonetheless, they develop vasculopathy-associated organ dysfunction and the risk of organ dysfunction increases at blood pressures that are normal in the general population. This phenomenon is termed relative systemic hypertension (RSH) with a systolic blood pressure range of 120-139 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure range of 70-89 mmHg. The significance of RSH lies in its association with renal insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension, stroke and propensity to progress to systemic hypertension...
2018: PloS One
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