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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786879/comorbidity-of-viral-hepatitis-and-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Pavel Kolkhir, Natalia Pereverzina, Olga Olisova, Marcus Maurer
Chronic viral infections including those by hepatitis B (CHB) virus and hepatitis C (CHC) virus have been reported to be comorbidities of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Here, we performed the first comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature (Pubmed, Web of Science and Google Scholar) on the prevalence of CHB and CHC in patients with CSU and vice versa. The prevalence of CHB and CHC in CSU does not appear to be increased. Less than 5% and less than 2% of CSU patients have markers of CHB and CHC, respectively, according to most of the 32 studies reviewed...
May 22, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786866/characterization-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-pathogen-inactivated-and-quarantine-plasma-in-routine-use-for-treatment-of-acquired-immune-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#2
R Herbrecht, M Ojeda-Uribe, D Kientz, C Fohrer, A Bohbot, O Hinschberger, K-L Liu, E Remy, C Ernst, J-S Lin, L Corash, J P Cazenave
BACKGROUND: Auto-immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a morbid multi-organ disorder. Cardiac involvement not recognized in initial disease descriptions is a major cause of morbidity. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) requires exposure to multiple plasma donors with risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI). Pathogen inactivation (PI) with amotosalen-UVA, the INTERCEPT Blood System for Plasma (IBSP) is licensed to reduce TTI risk. METHODS: An open-label, retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of quarantine plasma (QP) and IBSP in TTP and defined treatment emergent cardiac abnormalities...
May 21, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786555/innate-immunity-in-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes
#3
REVIEW
Lena Fischer, David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) offer great opportunities for studies of host-pathogen interactions and tissue regeneration, as well as hepatotoxicity. To reliably predict the outcome of infection or to enhance graft survival, a finely tuned innate immune system is essential. Hepatocytes have long been considered solely metabolic and their critical innate immune potential is only recently gaining attention. Viral infection studies show that pathogen detection by cytosolic receptors leads to interferon (IFN) induction in primary hepatocytes and HLCs...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#4
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#5
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785793/outcomes-associated-with-fetal-parvovirus-b19-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Bascietto, Marco Liberati, Daniela Murgano, Danilo Buca, Antonia Iacovelli, Maria Elena Flacco, Lamberto Manzoli, Alessandra Familiari, Giovanni Scambia, Francesco D'Antonio
OBJECTIVE: To explore the outcome of fetuses affected by congenital Parvovirus B19 (PB19) Infection. METHODS: The outcomes observed were: miscarriage, perinatal death (PND), intra-uterine death (IUD), neonatal death (NND), spontaneous resolution of hydrops or fetal anemia, intra-uterine transfusion (IUT), resolution of hydrops or anemia after transfusion, fetal loss following transfusion, abnormal brain scan after birth, abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. All the observed outcomes were reported in fetuses presenting and in those not presenting signs of hydrops on ultrasound...
May 22, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785663/enterobacteria-and-host-resistance-to-infection
#7
REVIEW
Eugene Kang, Alanna Crouse, Lucie Chevallier, Stéphanie M Pontier, Ashwag Alzahrani, Navoun Silué, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Xavier Montagutelli, Samantha Gruenheid, Danielle Malo
Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria. Although many species exist as part of the natural flora of animals including humans, some members are associated with both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on members of this family that have important roles in human disease: Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella, and Yersinia, providing a brief overview of the disease caused by these bacteria, highlighting the contribution of animal models to our understanding of their pathogenesis and of host genetic determinants involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection...
May 21, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785658/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-positive-urine-culture-at-the-time-of-pediatric-urologic-surgery
#8
Michael A Maccini, David J Chalmers, Vijaya M Vemulakonda, Jeffrey B Campbell
PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pediatric patients. Unrecognized bacteriuria at the time of urologic surgery puts patients at increased risk for perioperative complications. Many pediatric urologists obtain preoperative or intraoperative urine cultures prior to surgery, but data are lacking regarding rates and risk factors for positive intraoperative urine cultures. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing pediatric urologic surgery to examine factors associated with positive intraoperative urine cultures...
May 21, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785632/virulence-factors-in-salmonella-typhimurium-the-sagacity-of-a-bacterium
#9
REVIEW
Anamaria M P Dos Santos, Rafaela G Ferrari, Carlos A Conte-Junior
Currently, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is responsible for most cases of food poisoning in several countries. It is characterized as a non-specific zoonotic bacterium that can infect both humans and animals and although most of the infections caused by this microorganism cause only a self-limiting gastroenteritis, some ST strains have been shown to be invasive, crossing the intestinal wall and reaching the systemic circulation. This unusual pathogenicity ability is closely related to ST virulence factors...
May 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#10
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785476/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-a-multifunctional-interferon-antagonist
#11
Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae. It is also the live vaccine that was used to eradicate smallpox. Like other poxviruses, VACV replicates in the cytoplasm and has a large double-stranded (ds)DNA genome and a complex virion. Approximately, half of the VACV genes are nonessential for virus replication in cell culture but encode a remarkable array of immunomodulators that antagonise the innate immune response to virus infection. This short review concerns one such protein, C6, that is a multifunctional inhibitor of interferon...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785356/examining-the-potential-for-south-american-arboviruses-to-spread-beyond-the-new-world
#12
Víctor Hugo Peña-García, Michael K McCracken, Rebecca C Christofferson
Zika and chikungunya viruses emerged as public health emergencies in the Western Hemisphere where previously they had not been reported on a large scale. Millions were infected as the viruses met with virtually no herd immunity upon emergence. Purpose of the Review: We explore the histories of these two recent arbovirus experiences in South America. We then review similarly three endemic South American viruses: yellow fever, Oropouche, and Mayaro viruses. Recent Findings: We discuss the commonalities of the transmission systems and the possibility of an atypical emergence, that of New World virus to the Old World...
December 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785327/ex-vivo-confocal-microscopy-an-emerging-technique-in-dermatology
#13
Elisa Cinotti, Jean Luc Perrot, Bruno Labeille, Frédéric Cambazard, Pietro Rubegni
This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery...
April 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785307/a-review-of-percutaneous-transluminal-angioplasty-in-hemodialysis-fistula
#14
REVIEW
Ioannis Bountouris, Georgia Kritikou, Nikolaos Degermetzoglou, Konstantinos Ioannis Avgerinos
The number of patients in dialysis increases every year. In this review, we will evaluate the role of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) according to patency of arteriovenous fistula and grafts. The main indication of PΤΑ is stenosis > 50% or obstruction of the vascular lumen of an arteriovenous fistula and graft. It is usually performed under local anesthesia. The infection rate is as low as the number of complications. Fistula can be used in dialysis in the same day without the need for a central venous catheter...
2018: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#15
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785212/reduction-of-vascular-inflammation-ldl-c-or-both-for-the-protection-from-cardiovascular-events
#16
REVIEW
Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios G Athyros
Background: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low grade arterial inflammation are key pathogenic factors for atherosclerosis and its manifestation, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: In this narrative review we assessed if decreasing LDL-C levels or inflammation or both is more effective in reducing CVD events. Results: In the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), all statin trials of the 90s' and the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) the benefit came from the LDL-C reduction...
2018: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785203/conflict-and-tuberculosis-in-sudan-a-10-year-review-of-the-national-tuberculosis-programme-2004-2014
#17
Sara A Hassanain, Jeffrey K Edwards, Emilie Venables, Engy Ali, Khadiga Adam, Hafiz Hussien, Asma Elsony
Background: Sudan is a fragile developing country, with a low expenditure on health. It has been subjected to ongoing conflicts ever since 1956, with the Darfur crisis peaking in 2004. The conflict, in combination with the weak infrastructure, can lead to poor access to healthcare. Hence, this can cause an increased risk of infection, greater morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis (TB), especially amongst the poor, displaced and refugee populations. This study will be the first to describe TB case notifications, characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period in Darfur in comparison with the non-conflict Eastern zones within Sudan...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#18
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784861/genome-variation-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-salmonella-typhimurium-pathovariants
#19
Priscilla Branchu, Matt Bawn, Robert A Kingsley
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) is one of approximately 2500 distinct serovars of the genus Salmonella , but is exceptional in its wide distribution in the environment, livestock, and wild animals. S Typhimurium causes a large proportion of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, accounting for a quarter of infections, second only to S Enteritidis in incidence. S Typhimurium was once considered the archetypal broad host range Salmonella serovar due to its wide distribution in livestock and wild animals and much of what we know of the interaction of Salmonella with the host comes from research using a small number of laboratory strains of the serovar (LT2, SL1344, ATCC14028)...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784840/oxidative-stress-and-first-line-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#20
Wing Wai Yew, Kwok Chiu Chang, Denise P Chan
Hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs is a serious adverse reaction with significant morbidity and even rarely mortality. This form of toxicity potentially impacts the treatment outcome of tuberculosis in some patients. Confining to first-line antituberculosis drugs, this review addresses whether and how oxidative stress, and more broadly, disturbance in redox homeostasis alongside mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the hepatotoxicity induced by them. Risk factors for such toxicity that have been identified, in addition to genetic factors, principally include old age, malnutrition, alcoholism, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B infection, HIV infection and pre-existing liver disease...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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