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Infections review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906436/iliac-crest-bone-graft-a-23-years-hystory-of-infection-at-donor-site-in-vertebral-arthrodesis-and-a-review-of-current-bone-substitutes
#1
L Babbi, G Barbanti-Brodano, A Gasbarrini, S Boriani
OBJECTIVE: This is an exemplary case report underlining a relevant morbidity which could be associated to the use of autologous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) for spine fusion. CASE REPORT: Starting from 1990, a 25-years-old woman underwent two subsequent surgical treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphoma vertebral localizations. In the second surgery, arthrodesis was obtained with autograft through right posterior iliac crest osteotomy. During the chemotherapy treatment following the surgery, the patient suffered from infection at posterior iliac crest scar, the site of previous graft, caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906067/aspartylglycosaminuria-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Maria Arvio, Ilkka Mononen
Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU), a recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease, is the most common disorder of glycoprotein degradation with a high prevalence in the Finnish population. It is a lifelong condition affecting on the patient's appearance, cognition, adaptive skills, physical growth, personality, body structure, and health. An infantile growth spurt and development of macrocephalia associated to hernias and respiratory infections are the key signs to an early identification of AGU. Progressive intellectual and physical disability is the main symptom leading to death usually before the age of 50 years...
December 1, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906015/validation-of-a-self-reported-hiv-symptoms-list-the-iss-hiv-symptoms-scale
#4
Raffaella Bucciardini, Katherina Pugliese, Daniela Francisci, Andrea Costantini, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Miriam Cognigni, Chiara Tontini, Stefano Lucattini, Luca Fucili, Massimiliano Di Gregorio, Marco Mirra, Vincenzo Fragola, Sara Pompili, Rita Murri, Stefano Vella
BACKGROUND: To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). METHODS: The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. RESULTS: The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items)...
April 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906011/prevalence-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-coinfection-in-ghana-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality and may impact significantly on healthcare resource utilization. However, in Ghana, accurate estimates of the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection needed to inform policy decisions and the design of public health interventions are currently lacking. In this study, our aim was to determine the HIV/HBV coinfection prevalence rate in Ghana. METHODS: Primary studies reporting prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Ghana were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, science direct, Google scholar and Africa journals online (AJOL) databases...
May 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#7
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906005/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-hiv-1-protection-autologous-allogeneic-or-both
#8
REVIEW
Jef Hens, Wim Jennes, Luc Kestens
Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA)...
March 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905994/the-role-of-il-10-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection
#9
REVIEW
Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905921/systematic-review-of-the-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-angiopoietin-2-in-plasmodium-species-infections-biomarkers-or-therapeutic-targets
#10
Gerdie M de Jong, Jasper J Slager, Annelies Verbon, Jaap J van Hellemond, Perry J J van Genderen
BACKGROUND: Levels of both angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) correlate with malaria disease severity and are proposed as biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets. To establish their role in malaria, a systematic review was performed of the literature on Ang-1 and Ang-2 with regard to their potential as biomarkers in malaria and discuss their possible place in adjuvant treatment regimens. METHODS: Ten electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies investigating Ang-1 and Ang-2 in human and murine malaria in both clinical and experimental settings...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905838/engineering-hiv-specific-immunity-with-chimeric-antigen-receptors
#11
Scott G Kitchen, Jerome A Zack
HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905834/rubella-outbreak-and-outbreak-management-in-a-school-setting-china-2014
#12
Caiyun Chang, Huilai Ma, Wenjia Liang, Pei Hu, Xianghuan Mo, Zhijie An, Huizhen Zheng
BACKGROUND: An active response to a rubella outbreak may interrupt disease transmission, and outbreak response immunization (ORI) can increase immunity among persons who might otherwise not be protected. On March 17, 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a middle school in Guangzhou city, China. We conducted an investigation to assess impact of a policy of exclusion of cases from school and of ORI. METHODS: Active surveillance was used to find cases of rubella...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905832/dengue-vaccine-acceptance-and-willingness-to-pay
#13
Harapan Harapan, Jonny K Fajar, Ulrich Kuch
The introduction of new vaccines is accompanied by a variety of challenges. Among these, very important ones concern the questions whether the public is willing to accept and willing to purchase the vaccine. Here we discuss factors associated with these questions in the context of vaccines that are becoming available against dengue virus infection. We reviewed published studies available from PubMed and Embase, conducting a meta-analysis when possible and narrative review when the data did not qualify for meta-analysis...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905672/oral-astragalus-huang-qi-for-preventing-frequent-episodes-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Guobin Su, Xiankun Chen, Zhuangzhu Liu, Lihong Yang, La Zhang, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Zehuai Wen, Xinfeng Guo, Xindong Qin, Jueyao Liang, Xusheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905479/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Annika Lindskog Jonsson, Fredrik Bäckhed
Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905206/long-term-benefit-of-bone-anchored-hearing-systems-in-single-sided-deafness
#16
Martin Kompis, Wilhelm Wimmer, Marco Caversaccio
CONCLUSION: Bone Anchored Hearing Systems (BAHS) can be expected to still be used by ∼85% of patients with single sided deafness (SSD) 5 years after implantation, and by ∼50% after 10 years. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term use of BAHS and the reasons to stop. METHOD: This was a retrospective chart review of all 33 German speaking adults with SSD who had been implanted with a BAHS at one center and of whom the implant status and use of the BAHS were known...
December 1, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905173/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-genotype-1-s-little-brother
#17
REVIEW
J Llaneras, M Riveiro-Barciela, M Buti, R Esteban
Treatment for hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection has undergone a major advance over the past 5 years with the emergence of direct-acting antiviral agents. Previously, genotype 4 treatment had been limited to the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin, with low rates of sustained virological response. The combinations of new direct-acting agents have resulted in a radical improvement in hepatitis C therapy. Much of the currently available efficacy and safety information in the treatment of genotype 4 has been extrapolated through the results of genotype 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905140/herpes-simplex-infection-simulating-richter-transformation-a-series-of-four-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Alireza Salem, Sanam Loghavi, Joseph D Khoury, Rose Lou Marie C Agbay, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Jeffrey L Medeiros
AIMS: Richter transformation (RT) occurs in 5-10% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and is associated with a poor outcome. Histologic manifestations of RT are variable and include an increase in the proportion of large cells including prolymphocytes, immunoblasts and other pleomorphic cells along with an increased proliferation rate and often necrosis. Rarely, superimposed Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection involving lymph nodes in patients with CLL/SLL may mimic RT clinically and histologically...
December 1, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905101/a-review-on-antiviral-activity-of-the-himalayan-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-to-treat-bronchitis-and-related-symptoms
#19
REVIEW
Rahila Amber, Muhammad Adnan, Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat
OBJECTIVES: Bronchitis is a common respiratory tract infection of humans mainly caused by influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The aim of this review was to gather fragmented literature on ethnomedicinal plants used against bronchitis in the Himalayan region and their in-vitro validation against bronchitis causing viral pathogens. KEY FINDINGS: Present review contains ethnomedicines of total 55 plants from different countries of the Himalayas...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905010/erratum-to-aging-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-hiv-infected-women-a-review-of-the-literature-involving-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#20
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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