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Infections review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528535/campylobacter-infections-a-significant-issue-of-veterinary-urban-hygiene-dog%C3%A2-related-risk-factors
#1
Filomena Iannino, Guido Di Donato, Enzo Ruggieri, Stefania Salucci, Fabrizio De Massis, Elisabetta Di Giannatale
Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous bacteria and campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in Europe, since 2005. Handling or consuming contaminated/undercooked meat (especially poultry) are the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. However, in recent years, the role of dogs as a source of infection for humans has been amply demonstrated. Approximately 6% of human campylobacteriosis cases are due to contact with pets. This review analyses the current literature related to risk factors at the dog-human interface...
March 3, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528528/ustekinumab-a-review-in-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease
#2
Yvette N Lamb, Sean T Duggan
Ustekinumab (Stelara(®)) has been recently approved in the EU and the USA as intravenous induction and subcutaneous maintenance therapy for adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease who have failed or were intolerant to treatment with immunomodulators, corticosteroids or at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist. Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody to the shared p40 subunit of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 cytokines, has a unique mechanism of action distinct from that of TNF antagonists...
May 20, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528481/consent-an-event-or-a-memory-in-lumbar-spinal-surgery-a-multi-centre-multi-specialty-prospective-study-of-documentation-and-patient-recall-of-consent-content
#3
William B Lo, Ciaran P McAuley, Martin J Gillies, Patrick J Grover, Erlick A C Pereira
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multi-centre, multi-specialty medical notes review and patient interview. PURPOSE: The consenting process is an important communication tool which also carries medico-legal implications. While written consent is a pre-requisite before spinal surgery in the UK, the standard and effectiveness of the process have not been assessed previously. This study assesses standard of written consent for elective lumbar decompressive surgery for degenerative disc disease across different regions and specialties in the UK; level of patient recall of the consent content; and identifies factors which affect patient recall...
May 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528469/multiple-sclerosis-treatment-with-fingolimod-profile-of-non-cardiologic-adverse-events
#4
REVIEW
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Fingolimod was the first oral medication approved for management of multiple sclerosis and is currently used by tens of thousands patients worldwide. Fingolimod acts via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, maintaining peripheral lymphocytes entrapped in the lymph nodes. In consequence, there is a reduction in the infiltration of aggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. The drug is safe and effective, and its first hours of use are associated with related to S1P receptors in the heart...
May 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528445/interindividual-spread-of-herpesviruses
#5
Keith W Jarosinski
Interindividual spread of herpesviruses is essential for the virus life cycle and maintenance in host populations. For most herpesviruses, the virus-host relationship is close, having coevolved over millions of years resulting in comparatively high species specificity. The mechanisms governing interindividual spread or horizontal transmission are very complex, involving conserved herpesviral and cellular proteins during the attachment, entry, replication, and egress processes of infection. Also likely, specific herpesviruses have evolved unique viral and cellular interactions during cospeciation that are dependent on their relationship...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#6
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528442/herpesvirus-capsid-assembly-and-dna-packaging
#7
Jason D Heming, James F Conway, Fred L Homa
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528439/innate-immune-mechanisms-and-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-and-disease
#8
Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Megan H Orzalli, David M Knipe
Innate immune responses play a major role in the control of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, and a multiplicity of mechanisms have emerged as a result of human evolution to sense and respond to HSV infections. HSV in turn has evolved a number of ways to evade immune detection and to blunt human innate immune responses. In this review, we summarize the major host innate immune mechanisms and the HSV evasion mechanisms that have evolved. We further discuss how disease can result if this equilibrium between virus and host response is disrupted...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528396/penetration-of-vancomycin-into-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Jessica E Beach, Jerrold Perrott, Ricky D Turgeon, Mary H H Ensom
INTRODUCTION: Infectious disease and pharmacokinetic textbooks indicate that vancomycin has poor penetration into the central nervous system due to its hydrophilic nature and high molecular weight. Recent literature suggests that penetration of vancomycin into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is higher than previously reported; therefore, we conducted a systematic review to assess the penetration of vancomycin into CSF. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL electronic databases for English-language human studies evaluating serum and CSF concentrations of intravenous vancomycin...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528282/management-options-in-the-treatment-of-femoral-pseudoaneurysms-secondary-to-intravenous-drug-abuse-a-case-series
#10
James Rammell, Nisheeth Kansal, Vish Bhattacharya
INTRODUCTION: Infected femoral pseudoaneurysms are a common presentation in intravenous drug users with little consensus as to the optimum management of these patients. Whilst emergency revascularisation options are available, excision and ligation of the femoral artery remains the most common operative intervention but risks leaving the patient with critical ischaemia or intermittent claudication. This case series reviewed the outcomes of 4 patients who underwent excision-ligation without revascularisation of an infected femoral pseudoaneurysm at a district general hospital...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528220/properties-of-the-tapasin-homologue-tapbpr
#11
REVIEW
Andreas Neerincx, Louise H Boyle
The presentation of antigenic peptides by MHC class I molecules plays a vital role in generating T cell responses against infection and cancer. Over the last two decades the central role of tapasin as a peptide editor that influences the loading and optimisation of peptides onto MHC class I molecules has been extensively characterised. Recently, it has become evident that the tapasin-related protein, TAPBPR, functions as a second peptide editor which influences the peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527757/comparative-analysis-of-peri-operative-complications-between-a-multicenter-prospective-cervical-deformity-database-and-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample-database
#12
Peter G Passias, Samantha R Horn, Cyrus M Jalai, Gregory Poorman, Olivia J Bono, Subaraman Ramchandran, Justin S Smith, Justin K Scheer, Daniel M Sciubba, D Kojo Hamilton, Gregory Mundis, Cheongeun Oh, Eric O Klineberg, Virginie Lafage, Christopher I Shaffrey, Christopher P Ames
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Complication rates for adult cervical deformity are poorly characterized given the complexity and heterogeneity of cases. PURPOSE: To compare peri-operative complication rates following adult cervical deformity corrective surgery between a prospective multi-center database for cervical deformity patients (PCD) and Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective review of prospective databases. PATIENT SAMPLE: 11,501 adult cervical deformity patients (11,379 patients from NIS and 122 patients from PCD database)...
May 17, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527295/periostitis-ossificans-arising-in-the-mandibular-bone-of-young-patient-report-of-an-unusual-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Masakatsu Fukuda, Katsuyuki Inoue, Hideaki Sakashita
Periostitis ossificans, also known as Garré osteomyelitis, is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that forms new bone under the periosteum resulting from a periosteal reaction to chronic inflammation or infections. It commonly affects the mandible secondary to odontogenic infection. The therapeutic approach involves eliminating the infectious cause and antibiotic administration. This report describes an unusual case of periostitis ossificans arising from the mandible of an 11-year-old boy. The cause of infection was correlated with a lower right unerupted third molar, which had no obvious connection with the oral cavity...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#15
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526906/mycobacterium-chelonae-infection-of-the-buttocks-secondary-to-lipofilling-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Sarah E Hammond, Ahmed Al-Bayati, Natalie Joumblat, Christopher J Salgado
Mycobacterium chelonae is a nontuberculous mycobacterium, classified as a Runyon type IV mycobacterium. In relation to humans, it is most commonly associated with tissue trauma or pulmonary infections. The majority of medical reports describe finding M. chelonae in the surgical setting, attributing infection to inadequate sterilization of surgical equipment. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include pain, erythema, and draining subcutaneous nodules and skin lesions. Therefore, the diagnosis of M. chelonae is often difficult to establish without prior suspicion of the disease, but can be confirmed with culture...
May 19, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526568/analysis-of-complications-following-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-for-the-treatment-of-severe-angular-kyphosis-greater-than-100%C3%A2
#18
Yunus Atici, Mehmet Bulent Balioglu, Deniz Kargin, Muhammed Mert, Akif Albayrak, Mehmet Akif Kaygusuz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the complications, efficacy and safety of posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) in severe angular kyphosis (SAK) greater than 100°. METHODS: The medical records of 17 patients (mean age 17.9 (range, 9-27) years) with SAK who underwent PVCR, were reviewed. Mean follow-up period was 32.2 (range, 24-64) months. Diagnosis of the patients included congenital kyphosis in 11 patients, post-tuberculosis kyphosis in 3 patients and neurofibromatosis in 3 patients...
May 16, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526427/atypical-presentations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Camilla Barros Meireles, Laís Chaves Maia, Gustavo Coelho Soares, Ilara Parente Pinheiro Teodoro, Maria do Socorro Vieira Gadelha, Cláudio Gleidiston Lima da Silva, Marcos Antonio Pereira de Lima
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in 88 countries, showing relevant prevalences. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on atypical lesions of CL around the world, addressing clinico-epidemiological, immunological and therapeutic aspects. A search of the literature was conducted via electronic databases Scopus and PubMed for articles published between 2010 and 2015. The search terms browsed were "cutaneous leishmaniasis", "atypical" and "unusual". Based on the eligibility criteria, 34 out of 122 articles were included in the final sample...
May 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#20
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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