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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447718/no-240-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy
#1
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447109/sepsis-2018-definitions-and-guideline-changes
#2
Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a global healthcare issue and continues to be the leading cause of death from infection. Early recognition and diagnosis of sepsis is required to prevent the transition into septic shock, which is associated with a mortality rate of 40% or more. DISCUSSION: New definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock [Sepsis-3]) have been developed. A new screening tool for sepsis (quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]) has been proposed to predict the likelihood of poor outcome in out-of-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis...
February 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446470/hev-and-hav-seroprevalence-in-men-that-have-sex-with-men-msm-an-update-from-milan-italy
#3
Letizia Greco, Sara Colonia Uceda Renteria, Davide Guarneri, Anna Orlandi, Antonella Zoccoli, Susanna Benardon, Marco Cusini, Giovanna Lunghi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. The overall anti HEV IgG seroprevalence in MSM was 10.2% (65/636), instead in the control group the detection rate was 5...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438279/recent-updates-on-treatment-of-ocular-microbial-infections-by-stem-cell-therapy-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Seoh Wei Teh, Pooi Ling Mok, Munirah Abd Rashid, Mae-Lynn Catherine Bastion, Normala Ibrahim, Akon Higuchi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Rajan Mariappan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436992/antimicrobial-synthetic-polymers-an-update-on-structure-activity-relationships
#5
Cansu Ergene, Edmund F Palermo
The rising incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections, combined with a declining number of new antibiotic drug approvals, has generated an alarming therapeutic gap that critically undermines public health. Host Defense Peptides (HDPs), sometimes referred to as "Nature's Antibiotics", are short chain, amphiphilic and cationic peptide sequences found in all multicellular organisms as part of their innate immunity. While there is a vast diversity in terms of HDP sequence and secondary structure, they all seem to share physiochemical characteristics that can be appropriated for macromolecular design by the synthetic polymer chemist...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436781/rsv-prophylaxis-guideline-changes-and-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#6
Adam S Walpert, Ian D Thomas, Merlin C Lowe, Michael D Seckeler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747...
February 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433965/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-an-essential-safe-and-effective-prevention-tool-for-sexual-health
#7
M Siguier, J-M Molina
Preexposure prophylaxis of HIV with antiretroviral drugs is a prevention tool available in France since 2016, combined with the prevention methods already used (condoms, post-exposure treatment, rapid treatment of diagnosed HIV infections, etc.). It is targeted at populations at high risk of HIV infection, especially men who have sex with men, for whom traditional prevention methods are insufficient. We collected clinical research data, which resulted in the launch of preexposure prophylaxis in the United States and then elsewhere in the world, safety, tolerability and cost data, as well as ongoing research data (new molecules/methods of administration)...
February 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433184/transoral-versus-transnasal-approach-for-craniovertebral-junction-pathologies-never-say-never
#8
Massimiliano Visocchi, Francesco Signorelli, Chenlong Liao, Mario Rigante, Gaetano Paludetti, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Alessandro Olivi
OBJECTIVE: For many years, the microsurgical transoral approach (TOA) has been accepted as the "gold standard" for the surgical treatment of a variety of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathologies affecting the craniovertebral junction. In the present study, we try to investigate both experimental and clinical fronts of such a challenging surgery, starting from the updated literature experience. TOA is actually presented as an "old-fashioned" surgical technique dealing with possible bacterial contamination, the need of postoperative nose gastric tube feeding for a week, the possible nasopharyngeal incompetence, and the postoperative tongue swelling...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432219/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-pathway-mabs-and-migraine-prevention
#9
Koen Paemeleire, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway have been developed for episodic and chronic migraine prevention, either through binding the CGRP ligand (eptinezumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab) or the CGRP receptor (erenumab). We provide an update on published Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials, safety/tolerability data, pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of these biologicals. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy data from Phase 2 trials are corroborated by those from published Phase 3 trials, with a multitude of publications expected in 2018...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431861/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-agents-to-induce-regression-and-prevent-the-progression-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#10
REVIEW
Shannon M Grabosch, Osman M Shariff, C William Helm
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2014, Issue 4. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) precedes the development of invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Current treatment of CIN is quite effective, but there is morbidity for the patient related to pain, bleeding, infection, cervical stenosis and premature birth in a subsequent pregnancy. Effective treatment with medications, rather than surgery, would be beneficial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, to induce regression and prevent the progression of CIN...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429390/belgian-guidelines-for-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-2017
#11
Agnès Libois, Eric Florence, Inge Derdelinckx, Jean Cyr Yombi, Sophie Henrard, Françoise Uurlings, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Sabine D Allard, Rémy Demeester, Filip Van Wanzeele, Nathalie Ausselet, Stéphane De Wit
We present the updated Belgian guidelines for the use of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (NONOPEP). This document is inspired by UK guidelines 2015, adapted to the Belgian situation and approved by all AIDS reference centers in Belgium. When recommended, NONOPEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of exposure but can be offered up to 72 h. The duration of NONOPEP should be 28 days. These current guidelines include epidemiologic estimations, which can be used to calculate the risk of infection after a potential exposure and help to decide whether or not to start prophylaxis...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428241/ethnomedical-uses-and-pharmacological-activities-of-most-prevalent-species-of-genus-piper-in-panama-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Armando A Durant-Archibold, Ana I Santana, Mahabir P Gupta
ETHNOPHARMACOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427826/tocilizumab-and-refractory-takayasu-disease-four-case-reports-and-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
P Decker, P Olivier, J Risse, S Zuily, D Wahl
BACKGROUND: Relapses upon corticosteroids tapering and immunosuppressive agents are frequent in Takayasu arteritis (TA). Interleukin-6 is highly involved in physiopathology of TA. Many reports showed efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) in refractory TA cases. We report four cases and an updated literature review on the TCZ efficacy and safety in patients with TA. METHODS: Patients with TA defined by ACR 1990 criteria were included. Clinical, biological and imaging data were retrospectively reported...
February 7, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427448/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-women-in-bulgaria-a-2017-update
#14
Stefan Kovachev, Victor Slavov
The distribution and prevalence of 33 high-, medium-, and low-risk HPV genotypes were surveyed in women aged between 15 and 54 years and with normal cytology in the biggest cities and regions in Bulgaria (viz., Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas) and in two smaller communities (viz., Pleven and Vidin). This survey was also intended to update previous data collected in 2012 and to assess the results of a national campaign to immunize all 12-year-old girls against HPV, which was also started in 2012. The GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyze HPV status in cervical samples collected in 2012-2016 from 5,277 women who had visited 47 gynecological clinics across the study sites...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426621/update-on-the-management-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-position-paper-from-the-catalan-society-of-digestology
#15
Jordi Sánchez Delgado, Pilar García-Iglesias, Llúcia Titó, Ignasi Puig, Montse Planella, Emili Gené, Joan Saló, Francesc Martínez-Cerezo, Javier Molina-Infante, Javier P Gisbert, Xavier Calvet
More than 30 years after its discovery, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains the most common cause of gastric and duodenal diseases. H. pylori is the leading cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Several consensuses have recently been published on the management of H. pylori infection. The general guidelines of the Spanish consensus, the Toronto Consensus and the Maastricht V Consensus of 2016 are similar but concrete recommendations can vary significantly...
February 6, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425816/recent-updates-for-designing-ccr5-antagonists-as-anti-retroviral-agents
#16
REVIEW
Harshil R Shah, Jignasa Ketan Savjani
The healthcare system faces various challenges in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy due to resistance to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) as a consequence of the evolutionary process. Despite the success of antiretroviral drugs like Zidovudine, Zalcitabine, Raltegravir WHO ranks HIV as one of the deadliest diseases with a mortality of one million lives in 2016. Thus, there emerges an urgency of developing a novel anti-retroviral agent that combat resistant HIV strains. The clinical development of ART from a single drug regimen to current triple drug combination is very slow...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425233/introduction-of-a-hydrolysis-probe-pcr-assay-for-high-throughput-screening-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-with-the-ability-to-include-or-exclude-detection-of-staphylococcus-argenteus
#17
Katja Bogestam, Martin Vondracek, Mattias Karlsson, Hong Fang, Christian G Giske
Many countries using sensitive screening methods for detection of carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have a sustained low incidence of MRSA infections. For diagnostic laboratories with high sample volumes, MRSA screening requires stability, low maintenance and high performance at a low cost. Herein we designed oligonucleotides for a new nuc targeted hydrolysis probe PCR to replace the standard in-house nuc SybrGreen PCR assay. This new, more time-efficient, PCR assay resulted in a 40% increase in daily sample capacity, with maintained high specificity and sensitivity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424487/streptococcus-equi-infections-in-horses-guidelines-for-treatment-control-and-prevention-of-strangles-revised-consensus-statement
#18
A G Boyle, J F Timoney, J R Newton, M T Hines, A S Waller, B R Buchanan
This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles. This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. The statement redefines the "gold standard" for detection of possible infection and reviews the new technologies available in polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and serology and their use in outbreak control and prevention...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423787/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-statin-a-clinical-update
#19
REVIEW
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Leonardo Roever, Alexandre Gonçalves, Elmiro Santos Resende
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This clinical update is intended to focus in relationship between HIV infection and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and statin. RECENT FINDINGS: Though ART significantly changed the course of HIV infection, it is related to numerous side effects principally to the lipid profile. In this way, statins became one of the most used lipid-lowering therapies in this population. In our clinical update, we evaluated studies that demonstrate the relationship and molecular mechanisms that HIV infection and ART use trigger dyslipidemia and also the use of statin to reduce this condition...
February 8, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423421/an-updated-review-of-iclaprim-a-potent-and-rapidly-bactericidal-antibiotic-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-and-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-gram-positive-including-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#20
REVIEW
David B Huang, Catherine D Strader, James S MacDonald, Mark VanArendonk, Richard Peck, Thomas Holland
New antibiotics are needed because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim, a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, not currently approved, is being studied for the treatment of skin infections and nosocomial pneumonia caused by Gram-positve bacteria, including multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim showed noninferiority at -10% to linezolid in 1 of 2 phase 3 studies for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections with a weight-based dose (0...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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