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Infections update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686993/low-and-high-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5-and-h7-spread-risk-assessment-within-and-between-australian-commercial-chicken-farms
#1
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study quantified and compared the probability of avian influenza (AI) spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms via specified spread pathways using scenario tree mathematical modeling. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature, expert opinion, and a farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 on Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland. Outputs from the models indicate that the probability of no establishment of infection in a shed is the most likely end-point after exposure and infection of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in one chicken for all farm types (non-free range meat chicken, free range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686667/-streptococcus-agalactiae-non-pilus-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-involvement-in-colonization-and-pathogenesis-and-potential-as-vaccine-candidates
#2
REVIEW
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684387/duodenoscope-reprocessing-practice-patterns-in-u-s-endoscopy-centers-a-survey-study
#3
Adarsh M Thaker, V Raman Muthusamy, Alireza Sedarat, Rabindra R Watson, Michael L Kochman, Andrew S Ross, Stephen Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After recent outbreaks of duodenoscope-related infections from multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended implementing one or more of four enhanced reprocessing measures in addition to updated manual cleaning methods and high-level disinfection (HLD). The implementation of these techniques in endoscopy facilities and provider opinions regarding reprocessing priorities remain unknown. METHODS: Physicians, nurse managers, nurses, and infection control staff at endoscopy units performing ERCP in the United States were surveyed to assess current institutional practices and individual opinions regarding future reprocessing solutions...
April 20, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683305/maternity-care-update-preconception-care
#4
Andrew Smith, Wendy B Barr, Erin Bassett-Novoa, Nicholas LeFevre
Family physicians are in a unique position to ensure that women receive preconception care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend preconception care for all women, but particularly for women with comorbid conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and chronic hypertension. Family physicians should ask all women of reproductive age who are at risk of unintended pregnancy if they desire pregnancy within the next year and, based on this answer, provide counseling on contraception or preconception care...
April 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682309/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines-update-april-2018
#5
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680581/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-risk-factors-and-determinants-of-primary-household-and-nosocomial-transmission
#6
REVIEW
David S Hui, Esam I Azhar, Yae-Jean Kim, Ziad A Memish, Myoung-Don Oh, Alimuddin Zumla
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a lethal zoonosis that causes death in 35·7% of cases. As of Feb 28, 2018, 2182 cases of MERS-CoV infection (with 779 deaths) in 27 countries were reported to WHO worldwide, with most being reported in Saudi Arabia (1807 cases with 705 deaths). MERS-CoV features prominently in the WHO blueprint list of priority pathogens that threaten global health security. Although primary transmission of MERS-CoV to human beings is linked to exposure to dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), the exact mode by which MERS-CoV infection is acquired remains undefined...
April 18, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677098/update-treatment-for-hbv-infection-and-persistent-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prospect-for-an-hbv-cure
#7
REVIEW
Joseph Yoo, Hie-Won Hann, Robert Coben, Mitchell Conn, Anthony J DiMarino
Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, its genome, sequence, epidemiology, and hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated. Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still responsible for the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the sixth-most common cancer in the world and the second-most common cancer death. The ultimate goal of treating HBV infection is the prevention of HCC. Fortunately, anti-HBV treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), which began with lamivudine in 1998, has resulted in remarkable improvements in the survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B and a reduced incidence of HCC...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675591/transperineal-rectocele-repair-with-biomesh-updating-of-a-tertiary-refer-center-prospective-study
#8
Giorgio Lisi, M Campanelli, S Grande, M Grande, D Mascagni, G Milito
PURPOSE: Symptomatic rectocele results in obstructed defecation and constipation. Surgical repair may provide symptomatic relief. A variety of surgical procedures have been used in the rectocele repair to enhance anatomical and functional results and to improve long-term outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective study, we treated 25 selected women suffering from simple symptomatic rectocele with transperineal repair using porcine dermal acellular collagen matrix Biomesh (Permacol®)...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675414/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-catterall-king-hypothesis
#9
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673137/herb-induced-liver-injuries-in-developing-nations-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations...
April 17, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671553/cervical-cancer-screening
#11
Caitlyn M Rerucha, Rebecca J Caro, Vernon L Wheeler
Screening in women has decreased the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Precancerous cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias) and cervical carcinomas are strongly associated with sexually-transmitted high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which causes more than 99% of cervical cancers. Screening methods include cytology (Papanicolaou test) and HPV testing, alone or in combination. The American Academy of Family Physicians and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend starting screening in immunocompetent, asymptomatic women at 21 years of age...
April 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669792/transfusion-transmitted-infections-an-update-on-product-screening-diagnostic-techniques-and-the-path-ahead
#12
Christina L Dean, Jenna Wade, John D Roback
The first mandated testing of blood components for infectious diseases began in the 1950s to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI). Since then, changes in pre-donation questionnaires and advances in testing techniques have afforded more sensitive and specific tests for pathogens in addition to allowing for earlier detection. Given that these approaches have very low but detectable failure rates, recent development and implementation of pro-active pathogen reduction approaches is the new forefront of TTI prevention strategies...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668771/ivth-brazilian-consensus-conference-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#13
Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho, James Ramalho Marinho, Robert Genta, Laercio Tenório Ribeiro, Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Schlioma Zaterka, Paulo Pimentel Assumpção, Alfredo José A Barbosa, Ricardo Barbuti, Lucia Libanês Braga, Helenice Breyer, Aloisio Carvalhaes, Décio Chinzon, Marcelo Cury, Gerson Domingues, Jorge Luiz Jorge, Ismael Maguilnik, Frederico Passos Marinho, Joaquim Prado de Moraes-Filho
Significant progress has been obtained since the III Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori infection held in 2012, in Bento Gonçalves, Brazil, and justify a fourth meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. Therefore, the Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori e Microbiota (NBEHPM), association linked to Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) held its fourth meeting again in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, on August 25-27, 2017. Twenty-six delegates, including gastroenterologists, endoscopists, and pathologists from the five regions of Brazil as well as one international guest from the United States, participated in the meeting...
April 16, 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668628/predictors-of-mortality-in-adults-on-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-tuberculosis-in-botswana-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Taryn Young, Marian Loveday
Mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) is high, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to compare mortality and predictors of mortality in those who were antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve to those with prior ART exposure.This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Serowe/Palapye District, Botswana, a predominantly urban district with a large burden of HIV-associated TB with a high case fatality. Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013, patients confirmed with HIV-associated TB were enrolled and followed up...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667186/infectious-diseases-in-older-adults-of-long-term-care-facilities-update-on-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Robin L P Jump, Christopher J Crnich, Lona Mody, Suzanne F Bradley, Lindsay E Nicolle, Thomas T Yoshikawa
The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in older adults in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly nursing facilities, remains a challenge for all health providers who care for this population. This review provides updated information on the currently most important challenges of infectious diseases in LTCFs. With the increasing prescribing of antibiotics in older adults, particularly in LTCFs, the topic of antibiotic stewardship is presented in this review. Following this discussion, salient points on clinical relevance, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, therapy, and prevention are discussed for skin and soft tissue infections, infectious diarrhea (Clostridium difficile and norovirus infections), bacterial pneumonia, and urinary tract infection, as well as some of the newer approaches to preventive interventions in the LTCF setting...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#16
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664765/proceedings-of-the-2017-international-forum-on-gonococcal-infections-and-resistance-2017-ifgir-in-shenzhen-china
#17
Xiang-Sheng Chen
The 2017 International Forum on Gonococcal Infections and Resistance (2017 IFGIR) was held at Shenzhen, China from 17 to 19 September 2017. The key objectives were to gather experts in the field to review and analyze the epidemiological profiles of gonococcal infections and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) at global, regional and national levels; to share and discuss findings from ongoing and completed research studies; and to identify research needs to respond to the spread of gonococcal infections and AMR. The contents of the conference were presented regarding global estimates of infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae; global, regional and country status of gonococcal AMR; molecular techniques for predicting gonococcal AMR and the use of these technologies to enhance gonococcal AMR surveillance and clinical management; and updates on therapeutic approaches to gonococcal AMR...
April 17, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663969/adherence-to-infective-endocarditis-prevention-guidelines-by-israeli-dentists-who-treat-children
#18
Nili Tickotsky, Sarit Faibis, Geula Gellman, Michael Shoshani, Yael Kutiner, Moti Moskovitz
PURPOSE: To examine the rate of adherence of Israeli dentists who treat children and their rate of adherence, in 2010-2011 and in 2016, to changes made to the 2008 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for endocarditis prevention. METHODS: A questionnaire on adherence to AHA guidelines was handed out in two consecutive continuing education courses in 2010-2011 and again in 2016. Data were analyzed using student's t test, chi-square, and analysis of variance...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663919/diagnosis-monitoring-and-control-of-schistosomiasis-an-update
#19
Yanqi Wu, Jiaqing Liu, Yifen Lin, Rennan Weng, Ran Chen, Jian Li, Zhiyue Lv
Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease of tropics and subtropics, which has been associated with illness and death of millions of people, especially children. Although, excessive use of anthelmintic drugs and improvement of sanitation procedures have been in practice, yet timely detection, and diagnosis of low-intensity infections, are of utmost importance for reducing morbidity and final elimination of the disease. The diagnosis methods, currently being used for schistosomiasis, have several limitations, hence warrant further investigations for development of novel detection methods with higher rapidity, reliability, and convenience...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662884/transmission-of-helminths-between-species-of-ruminants-in-austria-appears-more-likely-to-occur-than-generally-assumed
#20
Jakob Winter, Steffen Rehbein, Anja Joachim
Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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