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Infections update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238285/urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-sth-in-cameroon-an-epidemiological-update-at-barombi-mbo-and-barombi-kotto-crater-lakes-assessing-prospects-for-intensified-control-interventions
#1
Suzy J Campbell, J Russell Stothard, Faye O'Halloran, Deborah Sankey, Timothy Durant, Dieudonné Eloundou Ombede, Gwladys Djomkam Chuinteu, Bonnie L Webster, Lucas Cunningham, E James LaCourse, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté
BACKGROUND: The crater lakes of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis having had several important control initiatives previously. To collect contemporary epidemiological information, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken inclusive of: signs and symptoms of disease, individual treatment histories, local water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related factors and malacological surveillance, with molecular characterisation of specimens...
February 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237618/updates-of-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ovarian-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ghassan M Saed, Michael P Diamond, Nicole M Fletcher
Clinical and epidemiological investigations have provided evidence supporting the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), collectively known as oxidative stress, in the etiology of cancer. Exogenous factors such as chronic inflammation, infection and hypoxia are major sources of cellular oxidative stress. Specifically, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis, neoangiogenesis, and dissemination of local or distant ovarian cancer, as it is known to induce phenotypic modifications of tumor cells by cross talk between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma...
February 23, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228394/update-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccinology
#3
Luis M de la Maza, Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham
Attempts to produce a vaccine to protect against Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) induced trachoma were initiated more than 100 years ago and continued for several decades. Using whole organisms protective responses were obtained. However, upon exposure to C. trachomatis, disease exacerbation developed in some immunized individuals precluding the implementation of the vaccine. Evidence of the role of C. trachomatis as a sexually transmitted pathogen started to emerge in the 1960's and soon became evident that it can cause acute infections and long term-sequelae in women, men and newborns...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225486/abdominal-cystic-lymphangioma-in-a-term-newborn-a-case-report-and-update-of-new-treatments
#4
Ilaria Amodeo, Giacomo Cavallaro, Genny Raffaeli, Lorenzo Colombo, Monica Fumagalli, Riccardo Cavalli, Ernesto Leva, Fabio Mosca
INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic malformations are benign anomalies derived from the abnormal development of lymphatic channels. Usually asymptomatic, they can cause compression on adjacent structures or present acute complications (bleeding or infection). Small asymptomatic lesions can be conservatively managed since the possibility of spontaneous regressions is described, while symptomatic lesions require active management. Less invasive therapeutic options are now preferred instead of surgery (sclerotherapy, laser therapy)...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221665/totally-percutaneous-versus-surgical-cut-down-femoral-artery-access-for-elective-bifurcated-abdominal-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#5
REVIEW
Madelaine Gimzewska, Alexander Ir Jackson, Su Ern Yeoh, Mike Clarke
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a vascular condition with significant risk attached, particularly if they rupture. It is, therefore, critical to identify and repair these as an elective procedure before they rupture and require emergency surgery. Repair has traditionally been an open surgical technique that required a large incision across the abdomen. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (EVARs) are now a common alternative. In this procedure, the common femoral artery is exposed via a cut-down approach and a graft introduced to the aneurysm in this way...
February 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219691/hepatitis-b-reactivation-associated-with-immune-suppressive-and-biological-modifier-therapies-current-concepts-management-strategies-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Rohit Loomba, T Jake Liang
Hepatitis B reactivation associated with immune suppressive and biological therapies is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to hepatitis B virus infection. The population at risk for HBV reactivation includes those who are either currently infected with HBV or have past exposure to HBV. Since curative and eradicative therapy for HBV is not currently available, there is a large reservoir of individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population...
February 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218712/epidemiology-of-classic-and-novel-human-astrovirus-gastroenteritis-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Diem-Lan Vu, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó, Susana Guix
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217699/the-female-urinary-microbiota-urinary-health-and-common-urinary-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Linda Brubaker, Alan J Wolfe
This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216243/effect-of-laminar-airflow-ventilation-on-surgical-site-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Peter Bischoff, N Zeynep Kubilay, Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, Petra Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: The role of the operating room's ventilation system in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) is widely discussed, and existing guidelines do not reflect current evidence. In this context, laminar airflow ventilation was compared with conventional ventilation to assess their effectiveness in reducing the risk of SSIs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and WHO regional medical databases from Jan 1, 1990, to Jan 31, 2014...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213421/bovine-tb-infection-status-in-cattle-in-great-britain-in-2015
#10
K A Harris, L Brunton, A Brouwer, M P Romero Garcia, J C Gibbens, N H Smith, P A Upton
This report, provided by the APHA, presents the key descriptive epidemiological parameters of bovine TB in cattle in Great Britain from January 1 to December 31, 2015, providing summary information on the epidemic, including key statistics and epidemiological parameters as presented in the annual surveillance report for Great Britain, with supporting detail from specific reports for England and Wales. It updates the previous annual summaries for 2012 to 2014, also published in Veterinary Record.
February 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212409/pathogenic-waterborne-free-living-amoebae-an-update-from-selected-southeast-asian-countries
#11
Mohamad Azlan Abdul Majid, Tooba Mahboob, Brandon G J Mong, Narong Jaturas, Reena Leeba Richard, Tan Tian-Chye, Anusorn Phimphila, Panomphanh Mahaphonh, Kyaw Nyein Aye, Wai Lynn Aung, Joon Chuah, Alan D Ziegler, Atipat Yasiri, Nongyao Sawangjaroen, Yvonne A L Lim, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212157/current-approaches-to-myopia-control
#12
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212120/neurogenic-voiding-dysfunction
#13
Petros Georgopoulos, Apostolos Apostolidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to analyze and discuss all recently published articles associated with neurogenic voiding discussion providing readers with the most updated knowledge and trigger for further research. RECENT FINDINGS: They include the proposal of a novel classification system for the pathophysiology of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) which combines neurological defect in a distinct anatomic location, and data on bowel dysfunction, autonomic dysreflexia and urine biomarkers; review of patient-reported outcome measures in NLUTD; review of the criteria for the diagnosis of clinically significant urinary infections; novel research findings on the pathophysiology of NLUTD; and review of data on minimally and more invasive treatments...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210531/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-updates-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-advances-in-laboratory-testing-to-aid-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Louis Lteif
Clostridium difficile remains a major source of nosocomial infections and associated diarrhea. More recently, community-acquired cases are on the rise creating a concern for a serious public health threat. Appropriate infection control precautions as well as prevention and optimal management may help to avoid detrimental outbreaks. A key step is utilizing laboratory testing for quick and accurate diagnosis of potential cases. This overview article describes Clostridium difficile infection control and prevention methods and updates the most recent management strategies including a focus on the utilization and interpretation of laboratory diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#15
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209198/distribution-and-fate-of-hiv-1-unintegrated-dna-species-a-comprehensive-update
#16
REVIEW
Faysal Bin Hamid, Jinsun Kim, Cha-Gyun Shin
Reverse transcription of viral RNA and the subsequent integration of reverse transcripts are the classical early events of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Simultaneously, abundant unintegrated DNAs (uDNAs), are formed in cells ubiquitously. The uDNAs either undergo recombination or degradation or persist inactively for long periods in the nucleus as future resources. Among them, 2-LTR circles are considered a dead-end for viral spread. Their contribution to the HIV-1 infection is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the preintegration transcription of the aberrant DNAs and the consequent alterations of cellular factors have already been reported...
February 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208046/mycobacterium-chimaera-and-cardiac-surgery
#17
Andrew J Stewardson, Rhonda L Stuart, Allen C Cheng, Paul Dr Johnson
There is an ongoing investigation into infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria associated with contaminated heater-cooler units used in cardiac surgery. The overall risk is low, but surgical site and disseminated infections have been reported, including one possible case in Australia, mainly with surgery involving implantation of prosthetic material. Mycobacterium chimaera infection should be considered in patients who have previously undergone surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and who present with cardiac or disseminated infection or sternal wound infection unresponsive to standard antibiotic therapy...
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207489/b-cell-abnormalities-and-impact-on-antibody-response-in-hiv-infection
#18
Alessandra Noto, Giuseppe Pantaleo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the current development in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) and their potential use in the prevention and therapeutic settings, and an evaluation of the B-cell abnormalities that may impair antibody responses in HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of bNabs directed against different vulnerable regions of HIV Envelope (Env)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203284/novel-emerging-treatments-for-hepatitis-c-infection-a-fast-moving-pipeline
#19
REVIEW
Ara A Kardashian, Paul J Pockros
Advances in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C has been one of the pinnacles of medical science in the last 25 years. The age of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has led to cure rates >95% with shorter duration and low toxicity regimens, thus changing the landscape of the era of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV). However, there remain some challenges with these therapies as there are multiple regimens available with a fair amount of sophistication required to administer them. Treatment continues to require knowledge of prior treatment status, viral genotype and fibrosis assessment, thus affording an opportunity for improvement in future regimens...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198169/-consensus-document-on-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-adults-at-risk-by-age-and-underlying-clinical-conditions-2017-update
#20
F González-Romo, J J Picazo, A García Rojas, M Labrador Horrillo, V Barrios, M C Magro, P Gil Gregorio, R de la Cámara, A Rodríguez, J Barberán, F Botía Martínez, M Linares Rufo, I Jimeno Sanz, J M Portolés, F Sanz Herrero, J Espinosa Arranz, V García-Sánchez, M Galindo Izquierdo, E Mascarós
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) represent an important health problem among aging adults and those with certain underlying pathologies and some diseases, especially immunosuppressed and some immunocompetent subjects, who are more susceptible to infections and present greater severity and worse evolution. Among the strategies to prevent IPD and PP, vaccination has its place, although vaccination coverage in this group is lower than desirable. Nowadays, there are 2 vaccines available for adults...
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
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