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Infections update

Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Arnolfo Petruzziello, Samantha Marigliano, Giovanna Loquercio, Carmela Cacciapuoti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden in Europe, causing an increasing level of liver-related morbidity and mortality, characterized by several regional variations in the genotypes distribution. A comprehensive review of the literature from 2000 to 2015 was used to gather country-specific data on prevalence and genotype distribution of HCV infection in 33 European countries (about 80 % of the European population), grouped in three geographical areas (Western, Eastern and Central Europe), as defined by the Global Burden of Diseases project (GBD)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Susanna Esposito, Giada Di Pietro
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection among infants and the elderly worldwide. Despite its long history, no licensed vaccine is available. Recently, advances in the knowledge of RSV biology and pathology as well as the development of new techniques to generate vaccine candidates have increased the number of promising vaccines. The aim of this review is to analyze RSV characteristics, to consider the history of RSV vaccines and to discuss RSV vaccines currently in development...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Craig M Coopersmith, Clifford S Deutschman
New definitions of sepsis and septic shock were published in early 2016, updating old definitions that have not been revisited since 2001. These new definitions should profoundly affect sepsis research. In addition, these paper present clinical criteria for identifying infected patients who are highly likely to have or to develop sepsis or septic shock. In contrast to previous approaches, these new clinical criteria are evidence based. In this review, two of the authors of the new definitions detail the content of the papers and explore the implications for shock and sepsis researchers...
September 29, 2016: Shock
Zhongheng Zhang, Nathan J Smischney, Haibo Zhang, Sven Van Poucke, Panagiotis Tsirigotis, Jordi Rello, Patrick M Honore, Win Sen Kuan, Juliet June Ray, Jiancang Zhou, You Shang, Yuetian Yu, Christian Jung, Chiara Robba, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Pietro Caironi, David Grimaldi, Stefan Hofer, George Dimopoulos, Marc Leone, Sang-Bum Hong, Mabrouk Bahloul, Laurent Argaud, Won Young Kim, Herbert D Spapen, Jose Rodolfo Rocco
Sepsis is a heterogeneous disease caused by an infection stimulus that triggers several complex local and systemic immuno-inflammatory reactions, which results in multiple organ dysfunction and significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging because there is no gold standard for diagnosis. As a result, the clinical diagnosis of sepsis is ever changing to meet the clinical and research requirements. Moreover, although there are many novel biomarkers and screening tools for predicting the risk of sepsis, the diagnostic performance and effectiveness of these measures are less than satisfactory, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend clinical use of these new techniques...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Sanjay Hadigal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kiran M Perkins, Adrian Lawsin, Nabeeh A Hasan, Michael Strong, Alison L Halpin, Rachael R Rodger, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Matthew B Crist, Suzanne Schwartz, Julia Marders, Charles L Daley, Max Salfinger, Joseph F Perz
In the spring of 2015, investigators in Switzerland reported a cluster of six patients with invasive infection with Mycobacterium chimaera, a species of nontuberculous mycobacterium ubiquitous in soil and water. The infected patients had undergone open-heart surgery that used contaminated heater-cooler devices during extracorporeal circulation (1). In July 2015, a Pennsylvania hospital also identified a cluster of invasive nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among open-heart surgery patients. Similar to the Swiss report, a field investigation by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, with assistance from CDC, used both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence to identify an association between invasive Mycobacterium avium complex, including M...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Maria Stepanova, Trevor Locklear, Nila Rafiq, Alita Mishra, Chapy Venkatesan, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Chronic HCV infection is often considered a contraindication for receiving a heart transplantation. METHODS: From the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we selected all adults with and without HCV infection who underwent a single organ heart transplantation in 1995-2013; the mortality status was updated in September 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,812 heart transplant recipients were included; N=756 (2.30%) HCV-positive...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from drinking contaminated water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on the leg. Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination (1), and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries where dracunculiasis was endemic...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Shubha Rao, Puja Seth, Tanja Walker, Guoshen Wang, Mesfin S Mulatu, John Gilford, Emilio J German
The 2015 National HIV/AIDS Strategy provides an updated plan to address health disparities in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1,2). Hispanics/Latinos* are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. In 2014, 23% of HIV diagnoses were among Hispanics/Latinos, who represented 16% of the U.S. population (3). To examine HIV testing services, CDC analyzed 2014 data from the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) system submitted by 60 CDC-funded health departments(†) and 151 community-based organizations...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
B Dréno, E Araviiskaia, E Berardesca, G Gontijo, M Sanchez Viera, L F Xiang, R Martin, T Bieber
The skin is a complex barrier organ made of a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors which impact this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. Unlike the gut and stool microbiome which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome only started recently...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Paria Pashazadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Maryam Hejazi, Maryam Hashemi, Miguel de la Guardia
Salmonella infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people and growing menace to society. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. Traditional methodologies for salmonella analysis provide high reliability and very low limits of detection. Among them immunoassays and Nucleic acid-based assays provide results within 24h, but they are expensive, tedious and time consuming. So, there is an urgent need for development of rapid, robust and cost-effective alternative technologies for real-time monitoring of salmonella...
August 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sara de la Fuente, Carmen de Mendoza
Despite the fact that HIV infection can still not be eradicated from carriers, tremendous advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to achieving sustained suppression of HIV replication in most treated individuals. This translates into huge benefits for both patients and their sexual partners. This message was emphasized during the last IAS Conference, held in Durban, South Africa, at the end of July 2016. In parallel with this major AIDS event, two major publications were released: the updated recommendations on HIV therapy and the PARTNER study...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Christian Carlucci, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of fundamental importance to human health. Our increased understanding of gut microbial composition and functional interactions in health and disease states has spurred research efforts examining the gut microbiome as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides updated insight into the state of the gut microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), ulcerative colitis (UC), and obesity while addressing the rationale for the modulation of the gut microbiome using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-based therapies...
October 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
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