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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921993/can-sergentomyia-diptera-psychodidae-play-a-role-in-the-transmission-of-mammal-infecting-leishmania
#1
Carla Maia, Jérôme Depaquit
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#2
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921424/-mind-as-an-immunomodulator
#3
Cyril Höschl, Jiří Horáček
Review paper highlights the connection between psyche and the bodys immune defense mechanisms and summarizes new findings on the relations between nervous and immune systems. The article also briefly describes the outcome of authors own original works on the relationship between infections and schizophrenia, and their notice about possible immunomodulatory effects of antipsychoticsKey words: antipsychotics - immunity - infection - inflammation - mind - pain - schizophrenia.
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921342/cross-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection-by-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vibrio-vulnificus-rtxa1-martxvv
#4
Tae Hee Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Chang-Seop Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Hye Ryun Woo, Kyung Min Chung
Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921318/meningococcal-vaccination-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Christopher W Blackwell
Recent outbreaks of meningitis in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York City, and other locations across the United States have heightened public health concerns regarding the increasing incidence of meningococcal infections in this vulnerable population. MSM have unique risk factors that result in greater threat from certain infectious diseases, including meningococcal infection. Men who have sex with men who are infected with HIV are at even higher risk. This article explores the increased risks among MSM in contracting and communicating meningococcal infection, use of vaccination as primary prevention, and outreach strategies that may help address this issue and lessen the disease burden associated with meningococcal infection in these sexual minorities...
December 5, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921270/halogenated-indoles-eradicate-bacterial-persister-cells-and-biofilms
#6
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921175/molecular-characterization-of-a-new-soybean-infecting-member-of-the-genus-nepovirus-identified-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#7
Tuba Yasmin, Berlin D Nelson, Houston A Hobbs, Nancy K McCoppin, Kris N Lambert, Leslie L Domier
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new soybean-infecting member of the genus Nepovirus (provisionally named "soybean latent spherical virus" [SLSV]) was identified by high-throughput sequencing of RNAs from soybean leaf samples from North Dakota, USA. The sequences of RNAs 1 (8,190 nt) and 2 (5,788 nt) were completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Each contained a single long open reading frame and a 3' nontranslated region of greater than 1,500 nt. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two ORFs were most closely related to nepoviruses in subgroup C...
December 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921011/mechanisms-of-infectivity-and-evasion-derived-from-microvesicles-cargo-produced-by-trypanosoma-cruzi
#8
REVIEW
Bruna C Borges, Isadora A Uehara, Laysa O S Dias, Paula C Brígido, Claudio V da Silva, Marcelo J B Silva
Cell invasion by the intracellular protozoans requires interaction of proteins from both the host and the parasite. Many parasites establish chronic infections, showing they have the potential to escape the immune system; for example, Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease. Parasite internalization into host cell requires secreted and surface molecules, such as microvesicles. The release of microvesicles and other vesicles, such as exosomes, by different eukaryotic organisms was first observed in the late twentieth century...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920884/novel-combinations-of-synthesized-zno-nps-and-ceftazidime-evaluation-of-their-activity-against-standards-and-new-clinically-isolated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Elham Isaei, Shahla Mansouri, Fereshteh Mohammadi, Sadegh Taheritarigh, Zohreh Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacteria can be considered as a main problem in infection management. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), individually or in combination with antibiotics, can be considered as good candidates for struggling against drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: In this study, Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method in low temperature as a cost effective procedure and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#10
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920481/new-real-time-pcr-method-to-identify-single-point-mutations-in-hepatitis-c-virus
#11
Qian Chen, Irene Belmonte, Maria Buti, Leonardo Nieto, Damir Garcia-Cehic, Josep Gregori, Celia Perales, Laura Ordeig, Meritxell Llorens, Maria Eugenia Soria, Rafael Esteban, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Josep Quer
AIM: To develop a fast, low-cost diagnostic strategy to identify single point mutations in highly variable genomes such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: In patients with HCV infection, resistance-associated amino acid substitutions within the viral quasispecies prior to therapy can confer decreased susceptibility to direct-acting antiviral agents and lead to treatment failure and virological relapse. One such naturally occurring mutation is the Q80K substitution in the HCV-NS3 protease gene, which confers resistance to PI inhibitors, particularly simeprevir...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920384/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-wild-an-eco-evolutionary-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Teppo Hiltunen, Marko Virta, Anna-Liisa Laine
The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920294/effects-of-increasing-the-affinity-of-card-for-rna-polymerase-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growth-rrna-transcription-and-virulence
#13
Ashley L Garner, Jayan Rammohan, Jeremy P Huynh, Lucas M Onder, James Chen, Brian Bae, Drake Jensen, Leslie A Weiss, Ana Ruiz Manzano, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell, Bryce E Nickels, Eric A Galburt, Christina L Stallings
: CarD is an essential RNA polymerase (RNAP) interacting protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that stimulates formation of RNAP-promoter open complexes. CarD plays a complex role in Mtb growth and virulence that is not fully understood. Therefore, to gain further insight into the role of CarD in Mtb growth and virulence we determined the effect of increasing the affinity of CarD for RNAP. Using site-directed mutagenesis guided by crystal structures of CarD bound to RNAP, we identified amino acid substitutions that increase the affinity of CarD for RNAP...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920178/animal-models-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-and-disease
#14
Nicole N Haese, Rebecca M Broeckel, David W Hawman, Mark T Heise, Thomas E Morrison, Daniel N Streblow
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe joint pain in humans. Although acute symptoms often resolve within a few days, chronic joint and muscle pain can be long lasting. In the last decade, CHIKV has caused widespread outbreaks of unprecedented scale in the Americas, Asia, and the Indian Ocean island regions. Despite these outbreaks and the continued expansion of CHIKV into new areas, mechanisms of chikungunya pathogenesis and disease are not well understood...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919934/development-and-validation-of-risk-prediction-model-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-postpartum-women-multinational-cohort-study
#15
Alyshah Abdul Sultan, Joe West, Matthew J Grainge, Richard D Riley, Laila J Tata, Olof Stephansson, Kate M Fleming, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Jonas F Ludvigsson
OBJECTIVE:  To develop and validate a risk prediction model for venous thromboembolism in the first six weeks after delivery (early postpartum). DESIGN:  Cohort study. SETTING:  Records from England based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and data from Sweden based registry. PARTICIPANTS:  All pregnant women registered with CPRD-HES linked data between 1997 and 2014 and Swedish medical birth registry between 2005 and 2011 with postpartum follow-up...
December 5, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919430/carbon-dioxide-insufflation-deflects-airborne-particles-from-an-open-surgical-wound-model
#16
P Kokhanenko, G Papotti, J E Cater, A C Lynch, J A van der Linden, C J T Spence
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections remain a significant burden on healthcare systems and may benefit from new countermeasures. AIM: To assess the merits of open surgical wound CO2 insufflation via a gas diffuser to reduce airborne contamination, and to determine the distribution of CO2 in and over a wound. METHODS: An experimental approach with engineers and clinical researchers was employed to measure the gas flow pattern and motion of airborne particles in a model of an open surgical wound in a simulated theatre setting...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919253/cystic-fibrosis-lung-environment-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#17
Anjali Y Bhagirath, Yanqi Li, Deepti Somayajula, Maryam Dadashi, Sara Badr, Kangmin Duan
BACKGROUND: The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are highly complex, subject to various environmental conditions as well as a distinct microbiota. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the most important pulmonary pathogens and the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. A multifarious interplay between the host, pathogens, microbiota, and the environment shapes the course of the disease. There have been several excellent reviews detailing CF pathology, Pseudomonas and the role of environment in CF but only a few reviews connect these entities with regards to influence on the overall course of the disease...
December 5, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919207/safety-and-effectiveness-of-24-week-treatment-with-iguratimod-a-new-oral-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug-for-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-interim-analysis-of-a-postmarketing-surveillance-study-of-2679-patients-in-japan
#18
Tsuneyo Mimori, Masayoshi Harigai, Tatsuya Atsumi, Takao Fujii, Masataka Kuwana, Hiroaki Matsuno, Shigeki Momohara, Syuji Takei, Naoto Tamura, Yoshinari Takasaki, Satoshi Ikeuchi, Satoru Kushimoto, Takao Koike
OBJECTIVE: To determine the real-world safety and effectiveness of iguratimod (IGU) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a 52-week, Japanese, postmarketing surveillance study was conducted. An interim analysis at week 24 was performed. METHODS: This study included all RA patients who received IGU following its introduction to the market. All adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were collected. Effectiveness was evaluated by the change in Disease Activity Score 28-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) from baseline to week 24...
December 6, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918967/nanoencapsulation-an-efficient-and-promising-approach-to-maximize-wound-healing-efficacy-of-curcumin-a-review-of-new-trends-and-state-of-the-art
#19
REVIEW
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Shiow-Fern Ng, Shahzeb Khan, Haliza Katas
Wound healing is a multifarious and vibrant process of replacing devitalized and damaged cellular structures, leading to restoration of the skin's barrier function, re-establishment of tissue integrity, and maintenance of the internal homeostasis. Curcumin (CUR) and its analogs have gained widespread recognition due to their remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and wound healing activities. However, their pharmaceutical significance is limited due to inherent hydrophobic nature, poor water solubility, low bioavailability, chemical instability, rapid metabolism and short half-life...
November 30, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918888/online-continuing-interprofessional-education-on-hospital-acquired-infections-for-latin-america
#20
Julio C Medina-Presentado, Alvaro Margolis, Lucia Teixeira, L Lorier, Ana C Gales, Graciela Pérez Sartori, Maura S Oliveira, Verónica Seija, Daniela Paciel, Rafael Vignoli, Silvia Guerra, Henry Albornoz, Zaida Arteta, Antonio Lopez-Arredondo, Sofía García
INTRODUCTION: Latin America is a large and diverse region, comprising more than 600 million inhabitants and one million physicians in over 20 countries. Resistance to antibacterial drugs is particularly important in the region. This paper describes the design, implementation and results of an international bi-lingual (Spanish and Portuguese) online continuing interprofessional interactive educational program on hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial resistance for Latin America, supported by the American Society for Microbiology...
December 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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