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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909436/characterization-of-a-pestivirus-h-isolate-originating-from-goats
#1
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
Natural Pestivirus H infections in cattle have been reported worldwide; however, only a few cases of Pestivirus H have been described in non-bovine ruminants such as goats. A new Pestivirus H HN1507 strain was isolated from an infected goat in 2015 and the genome sequence was determined. The full-length genome sequence was 12,556 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the complete genome and Npro fragments, revealed that the isolate belonged to Pestivirus H and was closely related to strains from Italy...
June 16, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909397/evolution-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ndm-in-the-clinic-effects-of-ndm-mutations-on-stability-zinc-affinity-mono-zinc-activity
#2
Zishuo Cheng, Pei W Thomas, Lincheng Ju, Alexander Bergstrom, Kelly Mason, Delaney Clayton, Callie Miller, Christopher R Bethel, Jamie VanPelt, David L Tierney, Richard C Page, Robert A Bonomo, Walter Fast, Michael W Crowder
Infections by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are difficult to manage owing to broad antibiotic resistance profiles and because of the inability of clinically-used β-lactamase inhibitors to counter the activity of metallo-β-lactamases often harbored by these pathogens. Of particular importance is New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), which requires a dinuclear zinc ion cluster for catalytic activity. Here, we compare the structures and functions of clinical NDM variants 1-17. The impact of NDM variants on structure is probed by comparing comparing melting temperature and refolding efficiency and also by spectroscopy (UV-Vis, 1 H-NMR, and EPR) of di-cobalt metalloforms...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909041/influenza-virus
#3
Edward C Hutchinson
This infographic briefly summarises the natural history, replication cycle, and pathogenesis of influenza viruses, the cause of seasonal influenza and of influenza pandemics. Influenza viruses infect many vertebrates, with Influenza A, B and C viruses (IAV, IBV, and ICV) infecting humans. High mutation rates allow the evasion of immunity. IAV from different host species can 'reassort' their segmented genomes, producing pandemic strains that are antigenically novel but otherwise well adapted to humans. The 'Great Influenza' pandemic of 1918 remains the worst outbreak of infectious disease in history...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908921/il-15-and-ifn-%C3%AE-signal-through-the-erk-pathway-to-inhibit-hcv-replication-independent-of-type-i-ifn-signaling
#4
Fatemeh Vahedi, Amanda J Lee, Susan E Collins, Marianne V Chew, Evan Lusty, Branson Chen, Anisha Dubey, Carl D Richards, Jordan J Feld, Rodney S Russell, Karen L Mossman, Ali A Ashkar
Despite effective new treatments for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, development of drug resistance, safety concerns and cost are remaining challenges. More importantly, there is no vaccine available against hepatitis C infection. Recent data suggest that there is a strong correlation between spontaneous HCV clearance and human NK cell function, particularly IFN-γ production. Further, IL-15 has innate antiviral activity and is also one of the main factors that activates NK cells to produce IFN-γ. To examine whether IL-15 and IFN-γ have direct antiviral activity against HCV, Huh7...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908917/potential-effectiveness-of-long-acting-injectable-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-modelling-study
#5
Brandon D L Marshall, William C Goedel, Maximilian R F King, Alyson Singleton, David P Durham, Philip A Chan, Jeffrey P Townsend, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM); however, adherence is an ongoing concern. Long-acting injectable PrEP is being tested in phase 3 trials and could address challenges associated with adherence. We examined the potential effectiveness of long-acting injectable PrEP compared with oral PrEP in MSM. METHODS: We used an agent-based model to simulate HIV transmission in a dynamic network of 11 245 MSM in Atlanta, GA, USA...
June 13, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908880/microphysiological-systems-meet-hipsc-technology-new-tools-for-disease-modeling-of-liver-infections-in-basic-research-and-drug-development
#6
Martin Raasch, Enrico Fritsche, Andreas Kurtz, Michael Bauer, Alexander S Mosig
Complex cell culture models such as microphysiological models (MPS) mimicking human liver functionality in vitro are in the spotlight as alternative to conventional cell culture and animal models. Promising techniques like microfluidic cell culture or micropatterning by 3D bioprinting are gaining increasing importance for the development of MPS to address the needs for more predictivity and cost efficiency. In this context, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new perspectives for the development of advanced liver-on-chip systems by recreating an in vivo like microenvironment that supports the reliable differentiation of hiPSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC)...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908838/a-new-frontier-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-surveillance-in-home-infusion-therapy
#7
Sara C Keller, Deborah Williams, Clare Rock, Shiv Deol, Polly Trexler, Sara E Cosgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908593/viruses-in-polar-lake-and-soil-ecosystems
#8
Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908592/ecological-complexity-in-plant-virus-host-range-evolution
#9
Michael J McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal
The host range of a plant virus is the number of species in which it can reproduce. Most studies of plant virus host range evolution have focused on the genetics of host-pathogen interactions. However, the distribution and abundance of plant viruses and their hosts do not always overlap, and these spatial and temporal discontinuities in plant virus-host interactions can result in various ecological processes that shape host range evolution. Recent work shows that the distributions of pathogenic and resistant genotypes, vectors, and other resources supporting transmission vary widely in the environment, producing both expected and unanticipated patterns...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908589/plant-and-insect-viruses-in-managed-and-natural-environments-novel-and-neglected-transmission-pathways
#10
Roger A C Jones
The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus' ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908583/from-isolation-to-prosperity-rediscovering-the-carville-leprosarium
#11
Natalie J Atkin
For centuries, patients afflicted with the peripheral nerve damaging disease, leprosy-sometimes referred to as Hansen's Disease-were excluded from society and harshly stigmatized. Such stigmatization often stemmed from the belief that the disease was a punishment by G-d for wrongdoing. Leprosy's origins remain rooted throughout various European countries; however, the disease established its presence in North America around the late 18th century. In particular, major port cities that experienced high volume trade, such as New Orleans, were most susceptible to infection...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908323/novel-myxobolus-and-ellipsomyxa-species-cnidaria-myxozoa-parasiting-brachyplatystoma-rousseauxii-siluriformes-pimelodidae-in-the-amazon-basin-brazil
#12
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Antônio A M Maia, Lincoln L Corrêa, Jerri L Bartholomew, Edson A Adriano
We describe two novel myxosporean parasites from Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, an economically important freshwater catfish from the Amazon basin, Brazil. Myxobolus tapajosi n. sp., was found in the gill filaments of 23.5% of 17 fish, with myxospores round to oval in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view: length 15 (13.5-17) μm and width 10.7 (9.6-11.4) μm; polar capsules equal, length 5.8 (4.6-7.1) μm and width 3 (2.3-3.8) μm containing polar tubules with 6-7 turns. Ellipsomyxa amazonensis n. sp. myxospores were found floating freely or inside plasmodia in the gall bladder of 23...
June 13, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908290/antibacterial-efficacy-of-an-endodontic-sonic-powered-irrigation-system-an-in-vitro-study
#13
Chang Zeng, Jon Willison, Mohamed M Meghil, Brian E Bergeron, Christopher W Cutler, Franklin R Tay, Lina Niu, Jingzhi Ma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of EDDY, a new sonic-powered irrigation system, in reducing intracanal bacteria load. METHODS: Thirty-eight instrumented, autoclaved single-rooted human premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212) for 21 days. Two teeth were used as negative control without bacterial contamination. For the bacteria-inoculated teeth, 6 were used as positive control without irrigation. The remaining 30 teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (N = 15), using 3% NaOCl as irrigant: (A) 30-gauge syringe needle irrigation (SNI), (B) EDDY (VDW, Munich, Germany)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908209/the-second-generation-thiazolide-haloxanide-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-avian-influenza-virus-replication
#14
Simone La Frazia, Sara Piacentini, Anna Riccio, Jean Francois Rossignol, M Gabriella Santoro
The emergence of new avian influenza virus (AIV) strains able to infect humans represents a serious threat to global human health. In addition to surveillance and vaccine development, antiviral therapy remains crucial for AIV control; however, the increase in drug-resistant AIV strains underscores the need for novel approaches to anti-influenza chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the thiazolide anti-infective nitazoxanide (NTZ) inhibits influenza A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) virus replication, and this effect was associated with inhibition of viral hemagglutinin (HA) maturation...
June 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907940/infection-and-recurrence-rates-of-the-c-qur-v-patch-%C3%A2-in-ventral-hernia-repairs
#15
D Cheng, L Bonato, C Leinkram
PURPOSE: Ventral hernias are a common surgical issue and a myriad of surgical mesh designs has been developed for their treatment. Many of these new mesh designs have not been extensively tested and their complications rates are largely unknown. The C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ combines a unique knit construction polypropylene mesh with an omega-3 fatty acid coating. There has only previously been one reported study investigating this mesh. METHODS: A multicentre cohort study, with a single surgeon, of 168 consecutive patients with ventral hernias underwent repair using a standardized open pre-peritoneal approach with the novel C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ between January 2013 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907368/clinical-efficacy-of-fosfomycin-combinations-against-a-variety-of-gram-positive-cocci
#16
Nieves M Coronado-Álvarez, Diego Parra, Jorge Parra-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years we have witnessed an increase in the resistance of microorganisms to the available antimicrobials and a decrease in the number of new antimicrobials. Fosfomycin is a safe and cheap broad-spectrum antibiotic which has shown very promising results in combination therapy, mainly against gram-negative microorganisms. Little is known, however, about its clinical efficacy against gram-positive microorganisms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with severe gram-positive infections who received fosfomycin as part of their treatment from 2011 to 2017...
June 12, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907254/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-detection-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-sensu-lato-in-human-and-intermediate-hosts-for-use-in-control-and-elimination-programs
#17
Weerachai Saijuntha, Kanyarat Duenngai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Trevor N Petney, Ross H Andrews, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by infection with the fish-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato that afflicts more than 10million people in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The disease is characterized by a chronic infection that induces hepatobiliary inflammation, especially periductal fibrosis, which can be detected by ultrasonography. This chronic inflammation eventually leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a usually fatal bile duct cancer that develops in approximately 1% of O...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907109/epidemiological-trends-and-risk-factors-associated-with-dengue-disease-in-pakistan-1980-2014-a-systematic-literature-search-and-analysis
#18
Jehangir Khan, Inamullah Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Bushra Khalid
BACKGROUND: Dengue is becoming more common in Pakistan with its alarming spreading rate. A historical review needs to be carried out to find the root causes of dengue dynamics, the factors responsible for its spread and lastly to formulate future strategies for its control. METHODS: We searched (January, 2015) all the published literature between 1980 and 2014 to determine spread/burden of dengue disease in Pakistan. RESULTS: A total of 81 reports were identified, showing high numbers of dengue cases in 2010, 2011, and 2013...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907076/developing-a-video-intervention-to-prevent-unplanned-pregnancies-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-older-adolescents
#19
Aaron Plant, Jorge A Montoya, Emerald G Snow, Karin Coyle, Cornelis Rietmeijer
Older adolescent African American and Latina females have disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This article describes the development of a new video intervention for this population, modeled on Safe in the City (SITC), an evidence-based STI prevention video. Plan A was created from 2015 to 2016, using a systematic process similar to SITC. This included forming a project team with reproductive health experts, hiring a video production company and screenwriter, conducting a clinic staff survey (n = 8), and soliciting priority population input using three focus groups (n = 41) followed by a review panel (n = 9)...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906789/new-and-noteworthy-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-and-treatment
#20
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
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