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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822205/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-two-different-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-in-an-area-with-high-seasonal-transmission-of-malaria-in-burkina-faso
#1
Paul Sondo, Karim Derra, Seydou Diallo Nakanabo, Zekiba Tarnagda, Adama Kazienga, Innocent Valea, Herman Sorgho, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Tinga Robert Guiguemdé, Halidou Tinto
In Sahelian countries such as Burkina Faso, malaria transmission is seasonal with a high incidence of transmission during the rainy season. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two recommended treatments (Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine) for uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso regarding this seasonal variation of malaria transmission. This is part of a randomized open label trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Artesunate-Amodiaquine according to routine practice in Nanoro...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821840/antiviral-properties-of-resveratrol-against-pseudorabies-virus-are-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-kinase-activation
#2
Xinghong Zhao, Qiankun Cui, Qiuting Fu, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Yi Yang, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Changliang He, Xiaoxia Liang, Lizi Yin, Juchun Lin, Gang Ye, Gang Shu, Ling Zhao, Fei Shi, Cheng Lv, Zhongqiong Yin
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a pathogen of swine resulting in devastating disease and economic losses worldwide. Resveratrol (Res) exhibits inhibitory activity against a wide range of viruses. Despite these important advances, the molecular mechanism(s) by which Res exerts its broad biological effects have not yet been elucidated. In this paper, the antiviral activity of Res against PRV and its mechanism of action were investigated. The results showed that Res potently inhibited PRV replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 17...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821775/atf3-negatively-regulates-cellular-antiviral-signaling-and-autophagy-in-the-absence-of-type-i-interferons
#3
Vikas Sood, Kiran Bala Sharma, Vishal Gupta, Dhurjhoti Saha, Parashar Dhapola, Manish Sharma, Utsav Sen, Shigetaka Kitajima, Shantanu Chowdhury, Manjula Kalia, Sudhanshu Vrati
Stringent regulation of antiviral signaling and cellular autophagy is critical for the host response to virus infection. However, little is known how these cellular processes are regulated in the absence of type I interferon signaling. Here, we show that ATF3 is induced following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, and regulates cellular antiviral and autophagy pathways in the absence of type I interferons in mouse neuronal cells. We have identified new targets of ATF3 and show that it binds to the promoter regions of Stat1, Irf9, Isg15 and Atg5 thereby inhibiting cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821586/ku70-senses-htlv-1-dna-and-modulates-htlv-1-replication
#4
Jie Wang, Lixia Kang, Di Song, Lu Liu, Shuai Yang, Lingling Ma, Zhixiang Guo, Huaxia Ding, Hui Wang, Bo Yang
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and has been linked to multiple diseases. However, the innate host defense against HTLV-1 is unclear. In this study, we report that the expression of Ku70, a known DNA sensor against DNA viruses, could be induced by HTLV-1 infection in HeLa, PMA-differentiated THP1 cells, primary human monocytes, and human monocyte-derived macrophages. In these cells, the overexpression of Ku70 inhibited the HTLV-1 protein expression, whereas the knockdown of Ku70 promoted the HTLV-1 protein expression...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821419/characterization-expression-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-new-tlr3-and-tlr5m-genes-cloned-from-the-spiny-eel-mastacembelus-armatus
#5
Chong Han, Qiang Li, Zhipeng Zhang, Jianrong Huang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we identify two new TLRs from the spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus (TLR3 and membrane TLR5M). Both MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M were expressed in all tested tissues; expression was highest in liver and spleen, respectively. After infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, expression of both TLRs fluctuated and differed significantly from controls at several time points. The predicted three-dimensional model of the MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M proteins indicates that most sites under positive selection were located in the extracellular domains of TLRs...
August 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821080/investigation-of-chitosan-s-antibacterial-activity-against-vancomycin-resistant-microorganisms-and-their-biofilms
#6
Eduardo M Costa, Sara Silva, Mariana Veiga, Sandra Vicente, Freni K Tavaria, Manuela E Pintado
Vancomycin-resistant microorganisms are a hurdle that traditional antibiotics struggle to overcome. These difficulties have led to search for new solutions based on natural products. Chitosan has been recognized as an effective antibacterial agent against a vast array of microorganisms including antibiotic resistant ones. As such, this work aimed to evaluate chitosan as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in the management/control of two vancomycin-resistant microorganisms, VRSA and VREF, in planktonic and sessile settings...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820902/from-hospitalization-records-to-surveillance-the-use-of-local-patient-profiles-to-characterize-cholera-in-vellore-india
#7
Melissa S Cruz, Tania M AlarconFalconi, Meghan A Hartwick, Aishwarya Venkat, Hanna Y Ehrlich, Shalini Anandan, Honorine D Ward, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Elena N Naumova
Despite availability of high quality medical records, health care systems often do not have the resources or tools to utilize these data efficiently. Yet, hospital-based, laboratory-confirmed records may pave the way for building reliable surveillance systems capable of monitoring temporal trends of emerging infections. In this communication, we present a new tool to compress and visualize medical records with a local population profile (LPP) approach, which transforms information into statistically comparable patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820726/barriers-to-treatment-access-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-case-series
#8
Alexander J Millman, Boatemaa Ntiri-Reid, Risha Irvin, Maggie H Kaufmann, Andrew Aronsohn, Jeffrey S Duchin, John D Scott, Claudia Vellozzi
Restrictive policies on access to new, curative hepatitis C treatments represent a substantial barrier to treating patients infected with hepatitis C. This case series demonstrates challenges experienced by patients and practitioners in accessing these treatments and highlights several strategies for navigating the treatment preauthorization process.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820709/performance-of-a-high-sensitivity-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-asymptomatic-individuals-from-uganda-and-myanmar-and-naive-human-challenge-infections
#9
Smita Das, Ihn Kyung Jang, Becky Barney, Roger Peck, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Tomoka Nakamura, Michael Kalnoky, Paul Labarre, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, Francois Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Sophie Allauzen, Gonzalo J Domingo
Sensitive field-deployable diagnostic tests can assist malaria programs in achieving elimination. The performance of a new Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f Ultra Sensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) was compared with the currently available SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f RDT in blood specimens from asymptomatic individuals in Nagongera, Uganda, and in a Karen Village, Myanmar, representative of high- and low-transmission areas, respectively, as well as in pretreatment specimens from study participants from four Plasmodium falciparum-induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) studies...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820706/high-prevalence-of-treponema-pallidum-infection-in-brazilian-prisoners
#10
Maisa Estopa Correa, Julio Croda, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta de Castro, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Maurício Antonio Pompilio, Ronaldo Omizolo de Souza, Júlio Henrique Ferreira de Sá Queiroz, Kesia Esther da Silva, Albert L Ko, Simone Simionatto
The number of new syphilis cases in Brazil has risen alarmingly in recent years. However, there is limited data regarding syphilis prevalence in the Brazilian prison population. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Treponema pallidum infection, active syphilis, and associated risk factors among Brazilian prisoners. We administered a questionnaire to a population-based sample of prisoners from 12 prisons in Central-West Brazil and collected sera for syphilis testing, from January to December 2013...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#11
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820678/a-new-hybrid-model-using-an-autoregressive-integrated-moving-average-and-a-generalized-regression-neural-network-for-the-incidence-of-tuberculosis-in-heng-county-china
#12
Wudi Wei, Junjun Jiang, Lian Gao, Bingyu Liang, Jiegang Huang, Ning Zang, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Jingzhen Lai, Jun Yu, Fengxiang Qin, Hui Chen, Jinming Su, Li Ye, Hao Liang
It is a daunting task to eradicate tuberculosis completely in Heng County due to a large transient population, human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis coinfection, and latent infection. Thus, a high-precision forecasting model can be used for the prevention and control of tuberculosis. In this study, four models including a basic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, a traditional ARIMA-generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model, a basic GRNN model, and a new ARIMA-GRNN hybrid model were used to fit and predict the incidence of tuberculosis...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820551/fungal-endocarditis-due-to-aspergillus-oryzae-the-first-case-reported-in-the-literature
#13
Andrea Mazza, Nicola Luciani, Marco Luciani, Federico Cammertoni, Alessia Giaquinto, Natalia Pavone, Piergiorgio Bruno, Massimo Massetti
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a life-threatening complication which can occur in less than 10% of patients with valve prosthesis. A fungal etiology of IE is rare and accounts for only 2-4% of all case of endocarditis, but is associated with a higher mortality and morbidity. Herein is reported the first case of fungal endocarditis of aortic valve prosthesis due to Aspergillus oryzae in a 67-year-old caucasian man who nine years previously underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical prostheses, and tricuspid annuloplasty for acute IE due to Enterococcus spp...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820495/human-papillomavirus-and-the-dna-damage-response-exploiting-host-repair-pathways-for-viral-replication
#14
REVIEW
Chelsey C Spriggs, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other genital cancers. In addition, HPV infections are associated with the development of many oropharyngeal cancers. HPVs activate and repress a number of host cellular pathways to promote their viral life cycles, including those of the DNA damage response. High-risk HPVs activate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways, which are essential for viral replication (particularly differentiation-dependent genome amplification)...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820386/cost-of-nosocomial-outbreak-caused-by-ndm-1-containing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-netherlands-october-2015-january-2016
#15
Madelief Mollers, Suzanne P Lutgens, Annelot F Schoffelen, Peter M Schneeberger, Anita W M Suijkerbuijk
During October-December 2015, 29 patients in a hospital in the Netherlands acquired nosocomial infection with a multidrug-resistant, New Delhi-metallo-β-lactamase-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. Extensive infection control measures were needed to stop this outbreak. The estimated economic impact of the outbreak was $804,263; highest costs were associated with hospital bed closures.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820346/attitudes-and-potential-barriers-towards-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#16
P R Allyn, S M O'Malley, J Ferguson, C H Tseng, K W Chew, D Bhattacharya
This study aimed to assess attitudes and potential barriers towards treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, comparing those with and without HIV coinfection. A cross-sectional survey of 82 HCV-infected adults with and without HIV was conducted in greater Los Angeles between November 2013 and July 2015. Overall, there were 53 (64.6%) with HIV coinfection, 20 (25.0%) with self-reported cirrhosis, and 22 (26.8%) with a history of prior HCV treatment. Of all, 93.2% wanted HCV treatment, but 45...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820130/convergence-of-humans-bats-trees-and-culture-in-nipah-virus-transmission-bangladesh
#17
Emily S Gurley, Sonia T Hegde, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahmudur Rahman, M A Yushuf Sharker, Henrik Salje, M Saiful Islam, Jonathan H Epstein, Salah U Khan, A Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, Stephen P Luby
Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819988/behavior-change-following-hiv-diagnosis-findings-from-a-cohort-of-los-angeles-msm
#18
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
The effect of an HIV diagnosis on subsequent behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) remains unclear. From 2009 to 2012 the NIDA funded Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year MSM seeking testing for HIV in Los Angeles, assessing those with new HIV diagnoses for acute/recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 321 men of whom 125 were classified as recently HIV infected, 91 as not recently HIV infected, and 105 as HIV-negative. Differences over time between those with recent HIV infection, not recent HIV infection, and no HIV were evaluated using bivariate and multivariable analyses for repeat measures to assess associations between HIV group, behaviors and condomless receptive (CRAI), intersertive (CIAI), or any condomless anal intercourse (CAI)...
August 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819878/aspergillus-bronchitis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Claudia Brandt, Jobst Roehmel, Volker Rickerts, Volker Melichar, Nadja Niemann, Carsten Schwarz
Aspergillus fumigatus frequently colonizes the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may cause various severe infections, such as bronchitis. Serological data, sputum dependent markers and longitudinal data of treated cases of Aspergillus bronchitis were evaluated for further description of this infection. This study, which comprises three substudies, aimed to analyze epidemiological data of Aspergillus in CF and the entity of Aspergillus bronchitis. In a first step, data of the German Cystic Fibrosis Registry were used to evaluate the frequency of Aspergillus colonization in patients with CF (n = 2599)...
August 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819664/antimicrobial-carbon-nanospheres
#20
Yao-Wen Jiang, Ge Gao, Xiaodong Zhang, Hao-Ran Jia, Fu-Gen Wu
Carbon nanomaterials have found numerous applications in various fields. However, their synthesis and functionalization usually require complicated procedures or tough experimental conditions. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of a new type of functional nanomaterial, quaternized carbon nanospheres (QCNSs), with superior antibacterial activity via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment of chitosan and hexadecylbetaine (abbreviated as BS-16). During the hydrothermal process, the direct reaction and carbonization between the amine-containing chitosan and the carboxyl-containing BS-16 were realized within only one step...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
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