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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667574/genomic-non-coding-regions-reveal-hidden-patterns-of-mumps-virus-circulation-in-spain-2005-to-2015
#1
Ana M Gavilán, Aurora Fernández-García, Angel Rueda, Ana Castellanos, Josefa Masa-Calles, Noemí López-Perea, María V Torres de Mier, Fernando de Ory, Juan E Echevarría
BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667436/is-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-temporary-patch-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-or-a-new-frontier-of-therapeutics
#3
Alexander Khoruts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667377/the-usefulness-of-determination-of-the-procalcitonin-pct-concentration-in-gbs-piositive-pregnant-womens-blood-serum-for-anticipations-of-infections-in-newborns
#4
Wojciech Cnota, Dominika Mucha, Jan Mucha
Group-B streptococci (GBS) are commensal bacteria of the human body. They may, however, pose a serious life hazard to pregnant women. During labour, newborns of GBS-positive mothers run the risk of infections that may eventually lead to severe complications, sepsis or even death. For this reason, it is very important to find new diagnostic markers that will enable fast and effective diagnostics and control of the disease process. The level of procalcitonin emerges as a promising diagnostic parameter. AIM. Analysis of the impact of the procalcitonin (PCT) level in GBS-positive pregnant women on the possibility of complications and infections in mothers and newborns MATERIAL AND METHODS...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667289/endosomal-receptor-trafficking-retromer-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Alina Fedoseienko, Bayou Chen, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia, Daniel D Billadeau
The tubular endolysosomal network is a quality control system that ensures the proper delivery of internalized receptors to specific subcellular destinations in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although retromer was originally described in yeast as a regulator of endosome-to-Golgi receptor recycling, mammalian retromer has emerged as a central player in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of a variety of receptors. Over the past decade, information regarding the mechanism by which retromer facilitates receptor trafficking has emerged, as has the identification of numerous retromer-associated molecules including the WASH complex, sorting nexins and TBC1d5...
April 18, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667229/uc-1v150-a-potent-tlr7-agonist-capable-of-activating-macrophages-and-potentiating-mab-mediated-target-cell-deletion
#6
Lekh N Dahal, Adam Gadd, Alexander D Edwards, Mark S Cragg, Stephen A Beers
Toll like receptors (TLR) are critical mediators of the immune system with their activation linked to infection, inflammation and the pathogenesis of immune diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. For this reason, over the last two decades, TLR and their associated signalling pathways have been targeted therapeutically to enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Several TLR ligands, both endogenous and synthetic are at various phases of clinical testing, and new ligands are continually emerging. Agonists of TLR7 are known immune response modifiers, simultaneously stimulating several cell types, resulting in immune cell activation and cytokine and chemokine release...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666961/a-novel-sampling-method-to-detect-airborne-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-feasibility-study
#7
Alicia B Mitchell, Benjamin Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Lachlan S Barnes, Marek Nalos, Brian G Oliver, Anthony S McLean
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. METHODS: We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666923/chemical-analysis-and-giardicidal-effectiveness-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-cymbopogon-citratus-stapf
#8
Eman M H Méabed, Alaa I B Abou-Sreea, Mohamed H H Roby
Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. METHODS: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666821/probiotics-for-the-control-of-helminth-zoonosis
#9
REVIEW
Abadi Amare Reda
This paper is a comprehensive, concise, and an up to date review about probiotics effect and mechanisms against helminth infections of zoonotic importance. Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans in a reversible way. Despite zoonotic helminth diseases being still a challenge to the public health and the agriculture industries globally, they were still neglected in both human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, the increasing emergence of anthelmintic drug resistance constitutes failures of most disease control strategies, alarming for a quest to new alternative control approaches...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666782/new-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#10
REVIEW
Marika Rossini, Paola Rizzo, Ilaria Bononi, Anthony Clementz, Roberto Ferrari, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, but severe form of cancer, with an incidence that varies significantly within and among different countries around the world. It develops in about one to two persons per million of the general population, leading to thousands of deaths every year worldwide. To date, the MPM is mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Asbestos represents the predominant etiological factor, with approximately 70% of cases of MPM with well-documented occupational exposure to asbestos, with the exposure time, on average greater than 40 years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666713/comprehensive-treatment-of-severe-periodontal-and-periimplant-bone-destruction-caused-by-iatrogenic-factors
#11
Gregor-Georg Zafiropoulos, Andreas Parashis, Taha Abdullah, Evangelos Sotiropoulos, Gordon John
Dental implant success requires placement after periodontal therapy, with adequate bone volume, plaque control, primary stability, control of risk factors, and use of well-designed prostheses. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic management of a patient with severe iatrogenic periodontal/periimplant bone destruction. Methods. A 55-year-old female smoker with fixed partial dentures (FPDs) supported on teeth and implants presented with oral pain, swelling, bleeding, and a 10-year history of multiple implant placements and implants/prosthesis failures/replacements...
2018: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666475/lincrna-cox2-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-autophagy-mediated-neuroinflammation
#12
Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Wen Li, Xiangdong Guo, Zhihui Zhang, Ying Liu, Long Jia, Yan Li, Yinghui Ren, Hongwei Yang, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yurong Da, Junwei Hao, Zhi Yao, Rongxin Zhang
Inflammasome activation plays key roles in host defense, but also contributes to the pathogenesis of auto-inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. As autophagy is connected with both the innate and adaptive immune systems, autophagic dysfunction is also closely related to inflammation, infection, and neurodegeneration. Here we identify that lincRNA-Cox2, previously known as a mediator of both the activation and repression of immune genes expression in innate immune cells, could bind NF-κB p65 and promote its nuclear translocation and transcription, modulating the expression of inflammasome sensor NLRP3 and adaptor ASC...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666434/stable-transformation-of-babesia-bigemina-and-babesia-bovis-using-a-single-transfection-plasmid
#13
Marta G Silva, Donald P Knowles, Monica L Mazuz, Brian M Cooke, Carlos E Suarez
Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, are the two major causes of bovine babesiosis, a global neglected disease in need of improved methods of control. Here, we describe a shared method for the stable transfection of these two parasites using electroporation and blasticidin/blasticidin deaminase as a selectable marker. Stably transfected B. bigemina and B. bovis were obtained using a common transfection plasmid targeting the enhanced green fluorescent protein-BSD (egfp-bsd) fusion gene into the elongation factor-1α (ef-1α) locus of B...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666390/distribution-and-clinical-associations-of-integrating-conjugative-elements-and-cag-pathogenicity-islands-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-indonesia
#14
Langgeng Agung Waskito, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Maria Inge Lusida, Ari Fahrial Syam, Rumiko Suzuki, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomohisa Uchida, Muhammad Hamdan, Nasronudin, Yoshio Yamaoka
The clinical associations and correlations with other virulence factors such as cag pathogenicity island (PAI) of the Integrating Conjugative Elements Helicobacter pylori TFSS (ICEHptfs), a new type IV secretion system (TFSS) in H. pylori has not been described. Among 103 studied strains from Indonesia, almost all strains (99.0%) contained cag PAI with more than half (55.8%) were intact cag PAI. Patients infected with intact cag PAI strains showed significantly higher antral activity, inflammation and atrophy as well as corporal inflammation than those with non-intact cag PAI strains, confirming the virulence of cag PAI...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#15
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666049/m1-and-m2-macrophages-differentially-regulate-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-ex-vivo-expansion
#16
Yi Luo, Lijian Shao, Jianhui Chang, Wei Feng, Y Lucy Liu, Michele H Cottler-Fox, Peter D Emanuel, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Irwin D Bernstein, Lingbo Liu, Xing Chen, Jianfeng Zhou, Peter J Murray, Daohong Zhou
Uncovering the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal is regulated can lead to the development of new strategies for promoting ex vivo HSC expansion. Here, we report the discovery that alternative (M2)-polarized macrophages (M2-MΦs) promote, but classical (M1)-polarized macrophages (M1-MΦs) inhibit, the self-renewal and expansion of HSCs from mouse bone marrow (BM) in vitro. The opposite effects of M1-MΦs and M2-MΦs on mouse BM HSCs were attributed to their differential expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and arginase 1 (Arg1), because genetic knockout of Nos2 and Arg1 or inhibition of these enzymes with a specific inhibitor abrogated the differential effects of M1-MΦs and M2-MΦs...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#17
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665877/the-impact-of-2015-nhsn-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-definition-change-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-clabsi-rates-and-clabsi-prevention-efforts-at-an-academic-medical-center
#18
Sonali D Advani, Rachael A Lee, Martha Long, Mariann Schmitz, Bernard C Camins
The 2015 changes in the catheter-associated urinary tract infection definition led to an increase in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-related candidemia in some health systems due to the change in CLABSI attribution. However, our rates remained unchanged in 2015 and further declined in 2016 with the implementation of new vascular-access guidelines.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
April 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665869/review-risks-of-disease-transmission-through-semen-in-cattle
#19
M D Givens
The purpose of this paper is to review scientific evidence concerning pathogens that could potentially be transmitted via bovine semen. As a result of a careful analysis of the characteristics of infections that may cause transmission of disease through semen, effective control procedures can be identified that provide minimal constraint to the introduction of new bulls into herds for natural breeding and importation of valuable novel genetics through artificial insemination. The potential for transmission through bovine semen and corresponding effective control procedures are described for bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine leukemia virus, lumpy skin disease virus, bluetongue virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and Schmallenberg virus...
April 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665857/the-htlv-1-oncoprotein-tax-is-modified-by-the-ubiquitin-related-modifier-1-urm1
#20
Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe, Ali Bazarbachi
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling...
April 17, 2018: Retrovirology
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