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Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Julia Tabatabai, Paul Schnitzler, Carlo Farah, Steffen Rameil, Peter Sander, Anna Koromyslova, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries...
September 2016: MSphere
Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
Paul A Insel, Susan G Amara, Terrence F Blaschke, Urs A Meyer
Major advances in scientific discovery and insights can result from the development and use of new techniques, as exemplified by the work of Solomon Snyder, who writes a prefatory article in this volume. The Editors have chosen "New Methods and Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Pharmacology and Toxicology" as the Theme for a number of articles in this volume. These include ones that review the development and use of new experimental tools and approaches (e.g., nanobodies and techniques to explore proteinprotein interactions), new types of therapeutics (e...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Miguel A Soler, Ario de Marco, Sara Fortuna
Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand
Variable heavy chain of HcAb (VHH), the smallest intact antibody fragment, possesses sub-nanomolar affinity to antigens. In spite of conventional antibodies, these fragments recognize concave and linear epitopes. VHHs are one the best weapon for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine and biopharmaceutics. HER2 is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and ovarian cancers. For many reasons, HER2 is a prominent target for drug delivery to breast tumor. In this study, we designed a robust prokaryotic expression system to express functional VHHs against HER2 receptor...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Asuncion Mejias, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mark E Peeples, Octavio Ramilo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, immunocompromised patients and the elderly. Despite the high disease burden, an effective and safe vaccine is lacking, although several candidates are currently in development. Current treatment for RSV infection remains largely supportive and RSV-specific options for prophylaxis are limited to palivizumab. In the past few years, novel therapeutic options including nanobodies, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have emerged and there are several products in preclinical and Phase-I, -II or -III clinical trials...
September 27, 2016: Vaccine
Alireza Farasat, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Ghader Hosseinzadeh, Sharareh Sajjadi, Mehdi Kamali, Amir Homayoun Keihan
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in many cancers such as head-neck, breast, prostate, and skin cancers for this reason it is a good target in cancer therapy and diagnosis. In nanobody-based cancer diagnosis and treatment, nanobodies with high affinity toward receptor (e.g. EGFR) results in effective treatment or diagnosis of cancer. In this regard, the main aim of this study is to develop a method based on molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for designing of 7D12 based nanobody with high affinity compared with wild-type nanobody...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Sanne A M van Lith, Ilse Roodink, Joost J C Verhoeff, Petri I Mäkinen, Jari P Lappalainen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Jos Raats, Erwin van Wijk, Ronald Roepman, Stef J Letteboer, Kiek Verrijp, William P J Leenders
Diffuse gliomas are primary brain cancers that are characterised by infiltrative growth. Whereas high-grade glioma characteristically presents with perinecrotic neovascularisation, large tumor areas thrive on pre-existent vasculature as well. Clinical studies have revealed that pharmacological inhibition of the angiogenic process does not improve survival of glioblastoma patients. Direct targeting of tumor vessels may however still be an interesting therapeutic approach as it allows pinching off the blood supply to tumor cells...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Parameswaran Hariharan, Magnus Andersson, Xiaoxu Jiang, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, H Ronald Kaback, Lan Guan
Camelid nanobodies (Nbs) raised against the outward-facing conformer of a double-Trp mutant of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) stabilize the permease in outward-facing conformations. Isothermal titration calorimetry is applied herein to dissect the binding thermodynamics of two Nbs, one that markedly improves access to the sugar-binding site and another that dramatically increases the affinity for galactoside. The findings presented here show that both enthalpy and entropy contribute favorably to binding of the Nbs to wild-type (WT) LacY and that binding of Nb to double-Trp mutant G46W/G262W is driven by a greater enthalpy at an entropic penalty...
October 12, 2016: Biochemistry
Yuanyuan Liu, Dongjian Jiang, Xin Lu, Wei Wang, Yang Xu, Qinghua He
The widespread use of Cry proteins in transgenic plants for insect control has raised concerns about the environment and food safety in the public. An effective detection method for introduced Cry proteins is of significance for environmental risk assessment and product quality control. This paper describes a novel phage mediated immuno-PCR (iPCR) for the ultrasensitive determination of Cry proteins based on nanobodies. Three nanobodies against Cry1Ac protein were obtained from a naı̈ve phage displayed nanobody library without animal immunization process and were applied to the iPCR assay for Cry1Ac...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tengfei Li, Matthias Vandesquille, Fani Koukouli, Clémence Dudeffant, Ihsen Youssef, Pascal Lenormand, Christelle Ganneau, Uwe Maskos, Christian Czech, Fiona Grueninger, Charles Duyckaerts, Marc Dhenain, Sylvie Bay, Benoît Delatour, Pierre Lafaye
Detection of intracerebral targets with imaging probes is challenging due to the non-permissive nature of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present work describes two novel single-domain antibodies (VHHs or nanobodies) that specifically recognize extracellular amyloid deposits and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles, the two core lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Following intravenous administration in transgenic mouse models of AD, in vivo real-time two-photon microscopy showed gradual extravasation of the VHHs across the BBB, diffusion in the parenchyma and labeling of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ema Romão, Francisco Morales-Yánez, Yaozhong Hu, Maxine Crauwels, Pieter De Pauw, Gholamreza Ghassanzadeh Hassanzadeh, Nick Devoogdt, Chloé Ackaert, Cécile Vincke, Serge Muyldermans
BACKGROUND: The discovery of functional heavy chain-only antibodies devoid of light chains in sera of camelids and sharks in the early nineties provided access to the generation of minimal-sized, single-domain, in vivo affinity-matured, recombinant antigen-binding fragments, also known as Nanobodies. METHODS: Recombinant DNA technology and adaptation of phage display vectors form the basis to construct large naïve, synthetic or medium sized immune libraries from where multiple Nanobodies have been retrieved...
September 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Simona Scarano, Samuele Lisi, Corinne Ravelet, Eric Peyrin, Maria Minunni
The failure of therapeutic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients can be related to the late onset of symptoms and, consequently, to a delayed pharmacological aid to counteract neurodegenerative progression. This is coupled to the fact that the diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone introduces high misdiagnosis rate. The availability of assessed biomarkers is therefore of crucial importance not only to counteract late diagnosis, but also to manage patients at high risk of AD development eligible for novel therapies...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Majid Piramoon, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Kobra Omidfar, Zohreh Noaparast, Seyed Mohammad Abedi
Nanobodies are important biomolecules for tumor targeting. In this study, we synthesized and labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobody OA-cb6 with (99m) Tc(CO)3 (+) and evaluated its characteristics for targeting the EGFR in the A431 human epidermal carcinoma cell line. Nanobody radiolabeling was achieved with high yield and radiochemical purity, and the radioconjugate was stable. Biodistribution results in nude mice exhibited a favorable tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h post-injection, and tumor location was visualized at 4 h after injection of radiolabeled nanobody...
September 21, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Roghaye Arezumand, Reza Mahdian, Sirous Zeinali, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Kamran Mansouri, Hossein Khanahmad, Nabiollah Namvar-Asl, Hamzeh Rahimi, Mahdi Behdani, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Mehdi Eavazalipour, Ali Ramazani, Serge Muyldermans
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) family, is considered as an important antigen associated with pathological conditions such as cancer cell growth, and metastasis. PlGF-targeting via nanobody (Nb) therefore could be beneficial to modulate these pathologies. In this work, phage-display and computational approach was employed to develop a high affinity PlGF-specific Nb. An Nb library was constructed against human recombinant PlGF (rPlGF). After panning on immobilized rPlGF the periplasmic-extract (PE) of individual colonies were screened by ELISA (PE-ELISA)...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
Roshank Ahani, Farzin Roohvand, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Mohammad Hossein Etemadzadeh, Nasir Mohajel, Mahdi Behdani, Zahra Shahosseini, Navid Madani, Kayhan Azadmanesh
Introduction of selectivity/specificity into viral-based gene delivery systems, such as lentiviral vectors (LVs), is crucial in their systemic administration for cancer gene therapy. The pivotal role of tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) in tumor angiogenesis and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2 or KDR) in TAECs makes them a potent target in cancer treatment. Herein, we report the development of VEGFR2-targeted LVs pseudotyped with chimeric sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein (cSVE2s)...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Sadek Ismail, Marie-Julie Gherardi, Alexander Froese, Madjid Zanoun, Véronique Gigoux, Pascal Clerc, Frederique Gaits-Iacovoni, Jan Steyaert, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Daniel Fourmy
Until very recently, G-protein dependent signal of GPCRs was thought to originate exclusively from the plasma membrane and internalized GPCRs were considered silent. Here, we demonstrated that, once internalized and located in the membrane of early endosomes, glucose-dependent Insulinotropic receptor (GIPR) continues to trigger production of cAMP and PKA activation. Direct evidence is based on identification of the active form of Gαs in early endosomes containing GIPR using a genetically encoded GFP tagged nanobody, and on detection of a distinct FRET signal accounting for cAMP production at the surface of endosomes containing GIP, compared to endosomes without GIP...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xiulei Xue, Xiaobo Fan, Qingrong Qu, Guoqiu Wu
The variable regions of the camel heavy chain antibody, also known as nanobody is the smallest antibody with antigen-binding efficiency. CTGF is considered important during extracellular matrix deposition which was involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis related diseases. There are several anti-CTGF-C nanobody drugs under developing in pharmacy. In this study, we described the screening of a novel anti-CTGF-C nanobody from the peripheral blood of immunized camel by phage display. The screened nanobody was further expressed and purified from E...
December 2016: AMB Express
Qing Zhou, Guanghui Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Min Zhu, Yakun Wan, Yanfei Shen
Cry1C is one of the emerging toxin proteins produced by the Bacillus thuringiensis in the genetically modified crops for pest control in agriculture; thus, it is vital to measure the Cry1C level in crops for the healthy and environmental concerns. Current detections of Cry1C mainly rely on instrumental analysis such as high-performance liquid chromatography, which are time-consuming and are generally cost-prohibitive. Herein, a simple nanobodies (Nbs)-based electrochemical immunosensor has been first proposed for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cry1C...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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