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mountaineering rock climbing

Gareth Roderique-Davies, Robert M Heirene, Stephen Mellalieu, David A Shearer
Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Eva Sierra Quintana, Carmen María Martínez Caballero, Sara Abigail Batista Pardo, Salas Abella Barraca, María de la Vieja Soriano
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with nontraumatic medical problems rescued by a Spanish mountain emergency response service (061 Aragon). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational analysis of records of mountain rescues completed between July 2010 and December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients with nontraumatic medical emergencies were rescued; 82.3% were males. Most patients were between the ages of 50 and 59 years...
October 2017: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Michael Simon, Dominik Popp, Christoph Lutter, Volker Schöffl
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the general (Constant Murley score) and sports-specific (change in International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation [UIAA] grade) outcome after surgical repair of rotator cuff injuries in rock climbers. METHODS: In a retrospective study, 12 rock climbers (10 men, 2 women; age 55 years; SD±9; range 28-66 years [mean±SD with range] with rotator cuff lesions were re-evaluated 27±16 (12-72) months after arthroscopic surgical repair of the rotator cuff of the shoulder...
December 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Salvador Carranza, Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Sithum Jayasinghe, Thomas Wilms, Johannes Els
BACKGROUND: The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains...
2016: PeerJ
Jess M Coulter, Winston J Warme
We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck...
September 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Derek J Roberts, Jean-Francois Ouellet, Paul B McBeth, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Elijah Dixon, Chad G Ball
BACKGROUND: The "weekend warrior" engages in demanding recreational sporting activities on weekends despite minimal physical activity during the week. We sought to identify the incidence and injury patterns of major trauma from recreational sporting activities on weekends versus weekdays. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Alberta Trauma Registry comparing all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while engaging in physical activity on weekends versus weekdays between 1995 and 2009...
June 2014: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
D Aras, C Akalan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of anxiety about falling on selected physiological parameters on the lead (LC) and top-rope climbing (TRC) methods. For this purpose the physical differences between the two methods have been eliminated and the effect of only the anxiety about falling on the physiological parameters has been studied. METHODS: A total of 26 intermediate level sport rock climbers, 22 male and 4 female with an average age of 27...
February 2014: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Volker R Schöffl, Georg Hoffmann, Thomas Küpper
OBJECTIVE: Rock climbing's popularity continues to rise, with people of all ages regularly participating in the sport. Climbing literature suggests climbers get injured mostly in their upper extremities. Most studies on climbing injury analysis are conducted retrospectively, with all the inherent problems of a retrospective setup (no exact time collection, biased injury perception, etc). Prospective data are still missing. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated all attendees of a major German indoor climbing gym in Stuttgart, Germany, with bouldering and lead climbing facilities...
September 2013: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Thomas Küpper, David Hillebrandt, Juergen Steffgen, Volker Schöffl
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of data to establish minimal requirements for technical alpine climbing skills needed by rescue teams involved in alpine helicopter rescue operations to perform such operations safely. METHODS: A year of rescue operations (N = 2731) were investigated for the technical difficulties of the terrain. The difficulties were graded according to the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) scale for rocky terrain and steepness for ice slopes...
November 2013: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Julia Schüler, Jeanne Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Previous research has focused on the positive consequences of flow, an intrinsically rewarding state of deep absorption. In contrast, the present research links flow to impaired risk awareness and to risky behaviour. We expected flow to enhance self-efficacy beliefs, which in turn were hypothesised to result in low risk awareness and risky behaviour in sports. In addition, we predicted that individuals' level of experience in the activity would moderate the expected effects...
November 2013: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Alex K Folkl
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between chronic climbing-related injuries and functional and quality-of-life impairments in chronically injured sport climbers and boulderers. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, anonymous survey was developed to assess the association between chronic climbing-related injuries and severity of injury-related pain, impact on activities of daily living, and impact on continued pursuit of rock climbing and other athletic endeavors...
June 2013: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Arif Mithat Amca, Laurent Vigouroux, Serdar Aritan, Eric Berton
The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds...
November 2012: Sports Biomechanics
T Dickson, S Fryer, N Draper, D Winter, G Ellis, M Hamlin
AIM: Blood samples for the determination of plasma cortisol concentration are generally obtained via venipuncture or capillary sampling at the fingertip. During rock climbing the upper body, forearms and fingertips are subject to continual loading and gripping making sampling at these sites problematic. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in plasma cortisol concentrations from capillary samples taken at the fingertip and first (big) toe in a rock climbing context. METHODS: Nine (8 males, 1 female) climbers completed a succession of climbing bouts at three different angles (91°,100° and 110°)...
December 2012: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Andreas Schweizer
Rock climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are highly popular new sport disciplines. An increasing number of indoor climbing gyms throughout the country offer the possibility to perform the sport regularly independently from the weather. As a result a variety of new pathologies like the closed flexor tendon pulley rupture of the finger and syndromes caused by overuse mainly in the upper extremity have appeared and should be familiar to physicians and therapists working in the field of sports medicine. An overview of the most common and most specific climbing related injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment options with a focus on the upper extremity are presented...
2012: Swiss Medical Weekly
Volker Schöffl, Audry Morrison, Isabelle Schöffl, Thomas Küpper
Climbing and mountaineering sports are gaining more and more public interest. This chapter reviews scientific studies on injuries and accidents in climbing and mountaineering sports to evaluate the danger of these sports and their specific injuries and preventive measures. An initial PubMed query was performed using the key words 'rock climbing', 'sport climbing', 'mountaineering', 'alpine injuries' and 'climbing injuries'. More than 500 extracted papers were analyzed which gave information on injury, mortality/fatality, prevention and risk factors...
2012: Medicine and Sport Science
Daniel A Lack, Alison L Sheets, Jacob M Entin, David C Christenson
OBJECTIVE: To describe rates and patterns of rock climbing rescue incidents, morbidity and mortality in Boulder County, CO. METHODS: Rocky Mountain Rescue Group incident reports from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed to provide a 14-year statistical account of rock climbing incidents. RESULTS: Rock climbing rescues in Boulder accounted for 428 of a total of 2198 (19.5%) mountain and wilderness rescue victims. Most rock climbing victims were male (78%), and 46% of victims were between the ages of 20 and 29 years; most rock climbing incidents occurred on weekend days (median time of 3:30 pm) during the spring, summer, and autumn...
September 2012: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Margherita Di Paola, Carlo Caltagirone, Laura Petrosini
This article analyzes whether climbing, a motor activity featured by upward movements by using both feet and hands, generation of new strategies of motor control, maintenance of not stable equilibrium and adoption of long-lasting quadrupedal posture, is able to modify specific brain areas. MRI data of 10 word-class mountain climbers (MC) and 10 age-matched controls, with no climbing experience were acquired. Combining region-of-interest analyses and voxel-based morphometry we investigated cerebellar volumes and correlation between cerebellum and whole cerebral gray matter...
October 2013: Human Brain Mapping
Nicholas T Bacon, Jonathan E Wingo, Mark T Richardson, Greg A Ryan, Tracey C Pangallo, Phillip A Bishop
The purpose of this study was to examine 2 recovery modalities (with and without an ice bag treatment) on closed-handed and open-handed weight-assisted pull-ups in recreationally-trained rock climbers. Healthy and recreationally active volunteers (n = 9) completed 4 counterbalanced trials separated by 72 hours. Trials included 3 sets of closed-handed and open-handed weight-assisted pull-ups supported by 50% of body weight, until failure. Between each set, participants sat quietly in a chair and engaged in approximately 20 minutes of either passive or ice bag treatment...
May 2012: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Maurizio Fanchini, Frédéric Violette, Franco M Impellizzeri, Nicola A Maffiuletti
The purpose of this study was to compare maximal muscle strength and rapid force capacity of finger flexors between boulder and lead climbers of national-international level. Ten boulder (mean ± SD, age 27 ± 8 years) and 10 lead climbers (age 27 ± 6 years) volunteered for the study. Ten nonclimbers (age 25 ± 4 years) were also tested. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and rate of force development (RFD) produced in "crimp" and "open-crimp" hand positions were evaluated on an instrumented hold...
February 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
C Phillips, L Becker, E Bradley
This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty...
March 2012: Chaos
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