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Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tyler J Titcomb, Samantha T Schmaelzle, Emily T Nuss, Jesse F Gregory, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
BACKGROUND: Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Karin Amrein, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Mette M Berger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Stefanie Aurich, Jan-Christoph Simon, Regina Treudler
We report a 78 year-old non-atopic female with polyneuropathy who started to receive monthly intramuscular injections of thiamine hydrochloride. She had an anaphylaxis after the fourth injection. Skin prick test (SPT) with pure commercially available aqueous preparations was positive for thiamine hydrochloride. A titrated, single blinded, placebo-controlled oral provocation test with thiamine hydrochloride was well tolerated. The patient was then diagnosed as compartment allergy with hypersensitivity to parenteral but not to oral thiamine...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
David R Sannino, Adam J Dobson, Katie Edwards, Esther R Angert, Nicolas Buchon
The microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster has a substantial impact on host physiology and nutrition. Some effects may involve vitamin provisioning, but the relationships between microbe-derived vitamins, diet, and host health remain to be established systematically. We explored the contribution of microbiota in supplying sufficient dietary thiamine (vitamin B1 ) to support D. melanogaster at different stages of its life cycle. Using chemically defined diets with different levels of available thiamine, we found that the interaction of thiamine concentration and microbiota did not affect the longevity of adult D...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Guillaume Aw Beaudoin, Timothy S Johnson, Andrew D Hanson
In plants, the hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) and thiazole precursors of thiamin are synthesized and coupled together to form thiamin in plastids. Mutants unable to form HMP can be rescued by exogenous HMP, implying the presence of HMP transporters in the plasma membrane and plastids. Analysis of bacterial genomes revealed a transporter gene that is chromosomally clustered with thiamin biosynthesis and salvage genes. Its closest Arabidopsis homolog, the plastidic nucleobase transporter (PLUTO), is co-expressed with several thiamin biosynthetic enzymes...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Leila Azadbakht, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Hamid Afshar, Awat Feizi, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the growing evidence about dietary patterns, this study aimed at the association between patterns of nutrients intake and psychological disorders. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, diet and psychological factors including anxiety, depression, and general health (GHQ) were assessed through self-administered questionnaires in 3846 Iranian adults. Daily intakes of 57 nutrients and bioactive compounds were calculated. Nutrient patterns (NPs) were derived using factor analysis...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jamie Perin, Gregory Prokopowicz, Margaret Furtado, Konstantinos Papas, Kimberley E Steele
BACKGROUND: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and can lead to significant morbidity, but little research on the efficacy of vitamin supplementation regimens exists. We compared the efficacy and tolerability of an investigational versus a standard multivitamin regimen in patients undergoing RYGB. METHODS: Fifty-six patients, aged 18 to 65, were randomized to an investigational versus a standard multivitamin. Plasma levels of vitamins A, B-12, D, E-α, E-β/γ, thiamine, folate, iron, iron-binding capacity, iron saturation, prealbumin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured at 3 and 6 months postoperatively...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
R Wirth, R Diekmann, G Janssen, O Fleiter, L Fricke, A Kreilkamp, M K Modreker, C Marburger, S Nels, M Pourhassan, R Schaefer, H-P Willschrei, D Volkert
Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening complication that may occur after initiation of nutritional therapy in malnourished patients, as well as after periods of fasting and hunger. Refeeding syndrome can be effectively prevented and treated if its risk factors and pathophysiology are known. The initial measurement of thiamine level and serum electrolytes, including phosphate and magnesium, their supplementation if necessary, and a slow increase in nutritional intake along with close monitoring of serum electrolytes play an important role...
March 2, 2018: Der Internist
Olga N Solovjeva, Marina V Kovina, Maria G Zavialova, Victor G Zgoda, Dmitrii S Shcherbinin, German A Kochetov
Transketolase catalyzes the transfer of a glycolaldehyde residue from ketose (the donor substrate) to aldose (the acceptor substrate). In the absence of aldose, transketolase catalyses the one-substrate reaction that involves only ketose. The mechanism of this reaction was unknown.  Here we show that hydroxypyruvate  serves as a substrate for one-substrate reaction and the reaction product is erythrulose rather than glycol aldehyde, as was shown earlier for xylulose 5-phosphate. The amount of erythrulose released into the medium is equimolar to a double amount of the transformed substrate...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Lisa Buddrus, Emma S V Andrews, David J Leak, Michael J Danson, Vickery L Arcus, Susan J Crennell
Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC is a key enzyme in homofermentative metabolism where ethanol is the major product. PDCs are thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg2+ ion-dependent enzymes that catalyse the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. As this enzyme class is rare in bacteria, current knowledge of bacterial PDCs is extremely limited. One approach to further the understanding of bacterial PDCs is to exploit the diversity provided by evolution. Ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) is a method of computational molecular evolution to infer extinct ancestral protein sequences, which can then be synthesized and experimentally characterized...
March 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Désirée S Jansson, Caroline Bröjer, Aleksija Neimanis, Torsten Mörner, Charles L Murphy, Faruk Otman, Per Westermark
Since the late 1990s, high mortality and declining populations have been reported among sea birds including Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Baltic Sea area in Northern Europe. Repeated BoNT type C/D botulism outbreaks have occurred, but it remains unclear whether this is the sole and primary cause of mortality. Thiamine deficiency has also been suggested as a causal or contributing factor. With this study, we aimed to investigate gross and microscopic pathology in Herring gulls from affected breeding sites in Sweden in search of contributing diseases...
2018: PloS One
Jiahn-Chou Guan, Ghulam Hasnain, Timothy J Garrett, Christine D Chase, Jesse Gregory, Andrew D Hanson, Donald R McCarty
[This corrects the article on p. 370 in vol. 5, PMID: 25136345.].
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shaoming Sang, Xiaoli Pan, Zhichun Chen, Fan Zeng, Shumei Pan, Huimin Liu, Lirong Jin, Guoqiang Fei, Changpeng Wang, Shuhua Ren, Fangyang Jiao, Weiqi Bao, Weiyan Zhou, Yihui Guan, Yiqiu Zhang, Hongcheng Shi, Yanjiang Wang, Xiang Yu, Yun Wang, Chunjiu Zhong
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism of brain glucose hypometabolism, an invariant neurodegenerative feature that tightly correlates with cognitive impairment and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains elusive. METHODS: Positron emission tomography with 2-[18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism, presented as the rate of 2-[18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose standardized uptake value ratio (FDG SUVR) in patients with AD or control subjects and in mice with or without thiamine deficiency induced by a thiamine-deprived diet...
March 1, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Yuanli Lei, Ming-Hua Zheng, Weijian Huang, Jie Zhang, Yingru Lu
RATIONALE: Circulatory failure, especially with low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), as observed in septic shock, thyrotoxicosis, and anemia, is a particular pattern that should suggest thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. The clinical picture of wet beriberi secondary to thiamine deficiency only demonstrates non-specific clinical manifestations. For a diagnosis of wet beriberi, medical history is very important. Interestingly, imprisonment was also found to be related to thiamine deficiency...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zev M Nakamura, Jason R Tatreau, Donald L Rosenstein, Eliza M Park
BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome due to thiamine deficiency. There is no consensus regarding thiamine dosing when Wernicke encephalopathy is suspected. A longstanding dosing strategy for Wernicke encephalopathy is 100mg daily, yet updated clinical guidelines suggest using high-dose intravenous (HDIV) thiamine. OBJECTIVE: To describe thiamine prescribing practices at a large, public academic hospital and investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with HDIV thiamine in patients with encephalopathy who received IV thiamine...
January 11, 2018: Psychosomatics
Hideki Onishi, Mayumi Ishida, Iori Tanahashi, Takao Takahashi, Kenji Ikebuchi, Yoshitada Taji, Hisashi Kato, Tatsuo Akechi
OBJECTIVE: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency. Although WE has been recognized in cancer patients, it can be overlooked because many patients do not exhibit symptoms that are typical of WE, such as delirium, ataxia, or ocular palsy. Furthermore, outpatients with WE who intermittently present at psycho-oncology clinics have not been described as far as we can ascertain. METHOD: This report describes two patients who did not exhibit the complete classic triad of symptoms among a series with cancer and WE, and who attended a psycho-oncology outpatient clinic...
February 26, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Derrick Lonsdale
Starting with a brief history of beriberi and the discovery that thiamin deficiency is its cause, the symptoms and signs are reviewed. None are pathognomonic. The disease has a low mortality and a long morbidity. The appearance of the patient can be deceptive, often being mistaken for psychosomatic disease in the early stages. The chemistry of thiamin and the laboratory methodology for depicting its deficiency are outlined. The diseases associated with thiamin deficiency, apart from malnutrition, include a number of genetically determined conditions where mutations, either in the cofactor relationship or a transporter, provide the etiology...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Anne Pihl Bali, Hans Jasper Genee, Morten Sommer
Understanding and engineering solute transporters is important for metabolic engineering and the development of therapeutics. However, limited available experimental data on membrane transporters makes sequence-function relationships complex to predict. Here we apply a ligand-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of E. coli cells only if they functionally express an importer that is specific to the biosensor ligand. Using this system in a directed evolution framework, we successfully engineer the specificity of nicotinamide riboside transporters, PnuC, to accept thiamine as a substrate...
February 23, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Heitor Pons Leite, Lúcio Flávio Peixoto de Lima, José Augusto de A C Taddei, Ângela Tavares Paes
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that low blood thiamine concentrations in malnourished critically ill children are associated with higher risk of 30-d mortality. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 202 consecutively admitted children who had whole blood thiamine concentrations assessed on admission and on days 5 and 10 of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary outcome variable was 30-d mortality. Mean blood thiamine concentrations within the first 10 d of ICU stay, age, sex, malnutrition, C-reactive protein concentration, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, and severe sepsis/septic shock were the main potential exposure variables for outcome...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition
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