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Mindfulness meditation

Kim E Innes, Terry Kit Selfe, Sahiti Kandati, Sijin Wen, Zenzi Huysmans
Objective: Disease-modifying treatments for OA remain elusive, and commonly used medications can have serious side effects. Although meditation and music listening (ML) have been shown to improve outcomes in certain chronic pain populations, research in OA is sparse. In this pilot RCT, we explore the effects of two mind-body practices, mantra meditation (MM) and ML, on knee pain, function, and related outcomes in adults with knee OA. Methods: Twenty-two older ambulatory adults diagnosed with knee OA were randomized to a MM (N=11) or ML program (N=11) and asked to practice 15-20 minutes, twice daily for 8 weeks...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature, we compare two states of sleep and meditation in terms of their role in the formation or suppression of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory. We aim to suggest that the occurrence of false memory under these two states is a result of reinforcing some abilities and changes in cognitive systems which can ultimately improve some aspects of cognitive functions. In our analogy, we propose that: (1) both sleep and meditation may improve source monitoring ability whose failure is one of the most important mechanisms in producing false memories, and (2) despite improvement in source monitoring ability, adaptive cognitive processes, as mechanisms which are common in sleep and meditation, can still produce false memories...
September 22, 2018: Psychological Research
Megan Strowger, Laura G Kiken, Karuna Ramcharran
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is critical for health, yet only about half of the U.S. adult population meets basic aerobic physical activity recommendations and almost a third are inactive. Mindfulness meditation is gaining attention for its potential to facilitate health-promoting behavior and may address some limitations of existing interventions for physical activity. However, little evidence exists on mindfulness meditation and physical activity. This study assessed whether mindfulness meditation is uniquely associated with physical activity in a nationally representative sample...
October 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Camila Ferreira-Vorkapic, Claudio Joaquim Borba-Pinheiro, Murilo Marchioro, Daniel Santana
Background: World statistics for the prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders shows that a great number of individuals will experience some type of anxiety or mood disorder at some point in their lifetime. Mind-body interventions such as Hatha Yoga and seated meditation have been used as a form of self-help therapy and it is especially useful for challenging occupations such as teachers and professors. Aims: In this investigation, we aimed at observing the impact of Yoga Nidra and seated meditation on the anxiety and depression levels of college professors...
September 2018: International Journal of Yoga
Catherine J Norris, Daniel Creem, Reuben Hendler, Hedy Kober
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00315.].
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marina Boni, Robert Schütze, Robert T Kane, Katherine L Morgan-Lowes, Jean Byrne, Sarah J Egan
OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence that yoga and mindfulness meditation can alleviate symptoms of anxiety, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between yoga practice and self-reported anxiety as well as the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and emotional avoidance. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 367 participants were recruited online and completed measures of anxiety, avoidance, and mindfulness...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Sandi M Tenfelde, Lena Hatchett, Karen L Saban
OBJECTIVE: To explore African American (AA) women's use of mind-body therapies, such as yoga and mindfulness, and factors that impact their experiences, observations and opinions. DESIGN: Focus groups were conducted to better understand how AA women perceive mind-body therapies and how to best bring these interventions into their community. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. SETTING: The urban Midwest. OUTCOME MEASURES: In addition to qualitative outcomes, descriptive measures included the Perceived Stressor Scale, Beliefs About Yoga Scale, and Determinants of Meditation Practice Inventory (DOMPI)...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Paul J Zak
Buddhism shares with science the task of examining the mind empirically. But Buddhism has pursued, for two millennia, direct investigation of the mind through penetrating introspection. Neuroscience, on the other hand, relies on third-person knowledge in the form of scientific observation. In the book that is the subject of this review, two friends, one a Buddhist monk trained as a molecular biologist, and the other, a distinguished neuroscientist, offer their perspectives on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, epistemology, meditation, and neuroplasticity ...
November 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan, Joseph Glicksohn
Time estimation is an important component of the ability to organize and plan sequences of actions as well as cognitive functions, both of which are known to be altered in dyslexia. While attention deficits are accompanied by short Time Productions (TPs), expert meditators have been reported to produce longer durations, and this seems to be related to their increased attentional resources. In the current study, we examined the effects of a month of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), which is a structured sensorimotor training program that involves sequencing of motor responses based on verbal commands, on TP using a pre-post design...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Benjamin Schöne, Thomas Gruber, Sebastian Graetz, Martin Bernhof, Peter Malinowski
The beneficial effects of mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions have stimulated a rapidly growing body of scientific research into underlying psychological processes. Resulting evidence indicates that engaging with mindfulness meditation is associated with increased performance on a range of cognitive tasks. However, the mechanisms promoting these improvements require further investigation. We studied changes in behavioural performance of 34 participants during a multiple object tracking (MOT) task that taps core cognitive processes, namely sustained selective visual attention and spatial working memory...
September 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nazila Isgandarova
This article first describes Sufism, the mystical/spiritual tradition of Islam then move to define Islamic psychotherapy and the various aspects of muraqaba by providing an overview of the Sufi literature. I will also highlight how the techniques used in muraqaba can be adapted and used as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques. Although muraqaba might not be effective for all mental health issues, I suggest a possible value of muraqaba for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Inessa Kraft, Joana Bisol Balardin, João Ricardo Sato, Jens Sommer, Patricia Tobo, Carla Barrichello, Edson Amaro, Elisa Harumi Kozasa
Quality of life is an important issue concerning people all over the world and affecting patients in the mental health field. When considering the potential neural links between quality of life and the brain, a brain network that comes into mind is the default mode network (DMN). Its architecture and function has been investigated in relation to various research fields including social and emotional cognition, meditation and neuropsychiatric disorders as well as happiness. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between various quality of life domains (physiological, psychological, social and environmental) and the functional connectivity of the default mode network at rest in a sample of 42 healthy working female managers...
September 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Mercy N Mumba, Lilian J Findlay, Diane E Snow
Approximately 10% of the 20 million Americans who are suffering from substance use disorders are suffering from prescription opioid and heroine misuse. This has led to a rise in overdoses as well as emergency room visits, with over 1000 individuals across the United States being seen in emergency rooms every day. Unfortunately, about 90% of drug overdoses are unintentional. Therefore, finding effective ways to treat opioid use disorders and preventing relapse has now become a national priority. This review of the relevant literature highlights current treatment options available for opioid use disorders, including motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, mindfulness based relapse prevention, medication assisted therapies, and combination therapies...
July 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Julia C Basso, Alexandra McHale, Victoria Ende, Douglas J Oberlin, Wendy A Suzuki
Meditation is an ancient practice that cultivates a calm yet focused mind; however, little is known about how short, practical meditation practices affect cognitive functioning in meditation-naïve populations. To address this question, we randomized subjects (ages of 18-45) who were non-experienced meditators into either a 13-min daily guided meditation session or a 13-min daily podcast listening session (control group) for a total duration of 8 weeks. We examined the effects of the daily meditation practice relative to podcast listening on mood, prefrontal and hippocampal functioning, baseline cortisol levels, and emotional regulation using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
August 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Fred W Allendorf
The Buddha taught that everything is connected and constantly changing. These fundamental observations of the world are shared by ecology and evolution. We are living in a time of unprecedented rates of extinction. Science provides us with the information that we need to address this extinction crisis. However, the problems underlying extinction generally do not result from a lack of scientific understanding, but they rather result from an unwillingness to take the needed action. I present mindfulness and meditative aspects of Zen practice that provide the deeper "knowing," or awareness that we need to inspire action on these problems...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Prashanth Panta, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) associated with prolonged betel-quid (BQ) use. It affects both physiological and psychological dimensions, leading to a significant morbidity. Some challenges in OSF research include: Assessment and correction of: (i) Quality of life, (ii) burning sensation, and (iii) nutritional deficiency. There are numerous medical treatments for OSF, but most of them fail to offer complete rehabilitation. This is because some underpinnings of this condition like "mental factors" that contribute to habit continuation at root level, "poor quality of life," and "nutritional deficiencies" are still uncorrected...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Alberto Amutio, Clemente Franco, Laura C Sánchez-Sánchez, María Del C Pérez-Fuentes, José J Gázquez-Linares, William Van Gordon, María Del M Molero-Jurado
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex psychosomatic pain condition. In addition to generalized pain and various cognitive difficulties, new FMS diagnostic criteria acknowledge fatigue and sleep problems as core aspects of this condition. Indeed, poor sleep quality has been found to be a significant predictor of pain, fatigue, and maladaptive social functioning in this patient group. While there is promising evidence supporting the role of mindfulness as a treatment for FMS, to date, mindfulness intervention studies have principally focused on dimensions of pain as the primary outcome with sleep problems either not being assessed or included as a secondary consideration...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thomas Beblo, Sarah Pelster, Christine Schilling, Kristian Kleinke, Benjamin Iffland, Martin Driessen, Silvia Fernando
Mindfulness meditation yields beneficial effects on the processing of emotions. However, it is still unclear whether the focus of attention during meditation influences these effects. In the present study we aimed at comparing the effects of breathing meditation and emotion-focused meditation on the immediate and delayed processing of negative and positive emotions. The study included 65 adult novice meditators who were exposed to positively and negatively valenced film clips. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions...
September 2018: Behavior Therapy
Daniela Dentico, David Bachhuber, Brady A Riedner, Fabio Ferrarelli, Giulio Tononi, Richard J Davidson, Antoine Lutz
Our recent finding of a meditation-related increase in low-frequency NREM sleep EEG oscillatory activities peaking in the theta-alpha range (4-12 Hz) was not predicted. From a consolidated body of research on sleep homeostasis, we would expect a change peaking in slow wave activity (1-4 Hz) following an intense meditation session. Here we compared these changes in sleep with the post-meditation changes in waking rest scalp power to further characterize their functional significance. High-density EEG recordings were acquired from 27 long-term meditators (LTM) on three separate days at baseline and following two 8-h sessions of either mindfulness or compassion-and-loving-kindness meditation...
August 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
A Taylor Véronique, Mathieu Roy, Luke Chang, Louis-Nascan Gill, Christian Mueller, Pierre Rainville
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based practice is a form of cognitive/affective training that may help reduce suffering by attenuating maladaptive anticipatory processes. This study's objective was to examine the pain modulating impact of classical fear learning in meditation practitioners. METHODS: The hyperalgesic effects of pain expectation and uncertainty were assessed outside formal meditation in 11 experienced meditators (>1000h) compared to meditation-naïve controls during a Pavlovian classical fear-conditioning paradigm involving two visual stimuli (CS+/CS-), one of which (CS+) co-terminated with a noxious electrical stimulus (US) on 50% of trials...
August 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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