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Infectious disease epidemiology

Cedar L Mitchell, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Rebecca E Colman, Joseph Busch, Heidie Hornstra-O'Neill, Paul S Keim, David M Wagner, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Dawn N Birdsell
BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of pathogenic organisms is a useful tool for linking human cases together and/or to potential environmental sources. The resulting data can also provide information on evolutionary patterns within a targeted species and phenotypic traits. However, the instruments often used to generate genotyping data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), can be expensive and sometimes require advanced technologies to implement. This places many genotyping tools out of reach for laboratories that do not specialize in genetic studies and/or lack the requisite financial and technological resources...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Ehsan Mostafavi
Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans' demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Moriah J Castleman, Srijana Pokhrel, Kathleen D Triplett, Donna F Kusewitt, Bradley O Elmore, Jason A Joyner, Jon K Femling, Geetanjali Sharma, Helen J Hathaway, Eric R Prossnitz, Pamela R Hall
Numerous studies have reported sex bias in infectious diseases, with bias direction dependent on pathogen and site of infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), yet sex bias in susceptibility to S. aureus SSTI has not been described. A search of electronic health records revealed an odds ratio of 2.4 for S. aureus SSTI in males versus females. To investigate the physiological basis of this bias, we compared outcomes between male and female mice in a model of S...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Emily J Flies, Philip Weinstein, Sharolyn J Anderson, Iain Koolhof, Johannes Foufopoulos, Craig R Williams
Background: Zoonotic vector-borne disease prevalence is affected by vector, human and reservoir host factors, which are influenced by habitat and climate; these five components interact on microhabitat to landscape scales but are often analyzed at a single spatial scale. Methods: We present an information theoretic, multi-scale, multiple regression analysis of the ecological drivers of Ross River virus. We analyze the spatial pattern of 20 years of Ross River virus infections from South Australia (1992-2012; n = 5,261) using variables across these five components of disease ecology at three spatial scales...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
S Pala, C Conti, P Goldoni, D Silvaggio, M Nicolai, E Schiariti, G B Orsi
OBJECTIVES: A retrospective study describing syphilis epidemiological and clinical features in patients referring to an infectious diseases centre in Rome, Italy. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2015 demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected from all adult patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of the Teaching Hospital Umberto I in Rome. RESULTS: Overall 723 patients, 495 males and 228 females, with syphilis infection diagnosis were included...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Fernando Godinho Zampieri, Márcio Soares, Lunna Perdigão Borges, Jorge Ibrain Figueira Salluh, Otávio Tavares Ranzani
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Epimed Monitor Database®, a Brazilian intensive care unit quality improvement database. METHODS: We described the Epimed Monitor® Database, including its structure and core data. We presented aggregated informative data from intensive care unit admissions from 2010 to 2016 using descriptive statistics. We also described the expansion and growth of the database along with the geographical distribution of participating units in Brazil...
November 30, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Brittany D Rife, Carla Mavian, Xinguang Chen, Massimo Ciccozzi, Marco Salemi, Jae Min, Mattia Cf Prosperi
Background: Phylodynamics, the study of the interaction between epidemiological and pathogen evolutionary processes within and among populations, was originally defined in the context of rapidly evolving viruses and used to characterize transmission dynamics. The concept of phylodynamics has evolved since the early 21st century, extending its reach to slower-evolving pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, and to the identification of influential factors in disease spread and pathogen population dynamics...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel, Ming-Wei Chao
The association between inflammation and cancer has long been recognized. Several studies have found that different types of tumors develop at sites of chronic inflammation. It is stated that over 15%-20% of malignancies worldwide can be related to infections caused by viruses, bacteria, and schistosomes. Inflammatory conditions are characterized by overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and overproduction of nitric oxide/reactive nitrogen species (ROSs/RNSs) in epithelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) may also lead to cellular alterations and eventually to inflammation...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Kieran Moore, Maximilien Boulet, Julia Lew, Nicholas Papadomanolakis-Pakis
Over the past decade, Canada and the United States have been facing an epidemic of harms from prescription opioids. More recently, opioid-naïve individuals have been exposed to illicit opioids through adulterated combination products. This has resulted in sudden surges of opioid-related mortality. A proactive public health solution is needed to prevent further death. We propose examining these surges in opioid overdoses as outbreaks and investigating them in a similar way to an outbreak of an infectious disease...
September 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
M B Tanabe, S A Patel
Blastoschizomyces capitatus is an uncommon opportunistic yeast associated with infections in neutropaenic patients secondary to haematological malignancies, with a special predilection for the lungs. Globalisation and population migration impact on the epidemiology of infection with this organism but its effect on the immunocompetent population has rarely been described. We present here a case report, an overview of 11 other cases published between 2000 and 2016, and a comprehensive literature review of Blastoschizomyces pneumonia in the non-immunocompromised...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Ben Hu, Jose L Gonzales, Simon Gubbins
Epidemiological parameters for livestock diseases are often inferred from transmission experiments. However, there are several limitations inherent to the design of such experiments that limits the precision of parameter estimates. In particular, infection times and latent periods cannot be directly observed and infectious periods may also be censored. We present a Bayesian framework accounting for these features directly and employ Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to provide robust inferences and quantify the uncertainty in our estimates...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Naim Mahroum
BACKGROUND: Mayaro virus (MAYV), first discovered in Trinidad in 1954, is spread by the Haemagogus mosquito. Small outbreaks have been described in the past in the Amazon jungles of Brazil and other parts of South America. Recently, a case was reported in rural Haiti. OBJECTIVE: Given the emerging importance of MAYV, we aimed to explore the feasibility of exploiting a Web-based tool for monitoring and tracking MAYV cases. METHODS: Google Trends is an online tracking system...
December 1, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Andrés Guillermo Benchetrit, Marisa Fernández, Amadeo Javier Bava, Marcelo Corti, Norma Porteiro, Liliana Martínez Peralta
OBJECTIVES: Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) reactivation in HIV patients is considered an opportunistic infection, usually with fatal outcome. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and clinical features of T. cruzi infection in HIV patients, and compare these findings between patients with and without Chagas' disease reactivation. METHODS: Medical records of T. cruzi-HIV co-infected patients assisted at the Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mile Bosilkovski, Aleksandar Stojanov, Milena Stevanovic, Zarko Karadzovski, Kiril Krstevski
AIM: To analyze the impact of measures undertaken to control brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia on demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease in humans. METHODS: Demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 340 patients with brucellosis were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated at the University Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje during three time periods: 1989-1990 when no national strategy for disease control existed, 2000-2001 when some activities for control were performed and 2011-2014 when an organized and financially supported strategy was accomplished...
December 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases
Nikita Lakdawala, Katalin Ferenczi, Jane M Grant-Kels
Granulomatous diseases represent a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by histiocytic inflammation that affect patients of any age. These diseases differ widely in their pathogenesis and include infectious and noninfectious conditions. This review focuses on noninfectious granulomatous conditions, with particular emphasis on age-related differences in the onset, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and age-specific management of specific granulomatous disorders. Knowledge of age-specific aspects of granulomatous conditions in adults and children improves both the extent of the diagnostic workup and the management of these patients...
November 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
Gabriel Adrian Popescu, Roxana Serban, Adriana Pistol, Andreea Niculcea, Andreea Preda, Daniela Lemeni, Ioana Sabina Macovei, Daniela Tălăpan, Alexandru Rafila, Dragoş Florea
AIMS: To evaluate the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in several Romanian hospitals. METHODS: A survey was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014 in 9 hospitals selected from different Romanian regions. RESULT: The survey identified 393 patients with C. difficile infection. The median age was 67 years (range: 2-94 years) with 56% of patients older than 65 years. The mean C. difficile infection prevalence was 5.2 per 10...
November 30, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
Wu Wanhong, Ye Changchang, Huang Ping
Preterm birth (PB) is defined as the birth of a baby less than 37 weeks of gestational age. Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as a newborn baby's weight of less than 2 500 g. PB is often accompanied by LBW. Preterm low birth weight (PLBW) is the leading cause of newborn deaths. Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic oral infectious disease, and it is closely related with general health. Epidemiological data show that PD is a risk factor for PLBW and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The possible mechanisms include the direct effects of periodontal bacteria, inflammatory reactions, and immune response; however, the exact pathogenetic mechanism involved remains controversial...
October 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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