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Infectious disease epidemiology

Joceline Lega, Heidi E Brown
Recent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiological data sets, does not require knowledge or estimation of disease transmission parameters, is robust to noise and to small data sets, and runs quickly due to its mathematical simplicity...
October 11, 2016: Epidemics
T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani, T Kuchuloria
Health care associated infections are the most frequent adverse event accompanying healthcare delivery worldwide. Of these, respiratory tract infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), have been recognized as the most common infections in acute hospitals. Sparse anecdotal and epidemiologic data from intensive care units (ICU) and infectious diseases physicians, as well as several publications in this field, suggest that the etiology of VAP in Georgia is most likely Klebsiella pneumoniae. This review article discusses the challenges of infection control in the Georgian health care system, with a focus on VAP...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Xin Yao, Lian-Lian Bian, Wei-Wei Lu, Jing-Xin Li, Qun-Ying Mao, Yi-Ping Wang, Fan Gao, Xing Wu, Qiang Ye, Xiu-Ling Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Zhenglun Liang
Herpangina (HA) and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are common infectious diseases caused by human enteroviruses and frequently occurr in young children. Previous published studies have mainly focused on HFMD, while the HA epidemiological and etiological characteristics in mainland China have not been described. From June, 2013 to March, 2014, HA and HFMD patients were monitored in participants from clinical trial of EV-A71 vaccine conducted during 2012-2013. A total of 95 HA patients and 161 HFMD patients were defined...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Y Yang, Y D Du
Tick-borne encephalitis, also called forest encephalitis, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus. Central nervous system lesion is the major clinical symptom of tick-borne encephalitis, as an acute infectious disease, the case fatality rate is as high as 10%-20%. Virology experts consider it as a key and difficult point in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, outcome, diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Michael M Petrov, Atanaska Petrova, Irina Stanimirova, Marina Mircheva-Topalova, Lalka Koycheva, Rayna Velcheva, Mariana Stoycheva-Vartigova, Ralitsa Raycheva, Galina Asseva, Petar Petrov, Velichka Kardjeva, Marianna Murdjeva
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs...
October 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Eric T Lofgren, Andrea M Egizi, Nina H Fefferman
The modern healthcare system involves complex interactions among microbes, patients, providers, and the built environment. It represents a unique and challenging setting for control of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. We examine an extension of the perspectives and methods from ecology (and especially urban ecology) to address these unique issues, and we outline 3 examples: (1) viewing patients as individual microbial ecosystems; (2) the altered ecology of infectious diseases specifically within hospitals; and (3) ecosystem management perspectives for infection surveillance and control...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bohumír Procházka, Jan Kynčl
In epidemiology, it is very important to estimate the baseline incidence of infectious diseases, but the available data are often subject to outliers due to epidemic outbreaks. Consequently, the estimate of the baseline incidence is biased and so is the predicted epidemic threshold which is a crucial reference indicator used to suspect and detect an epidemic outbreak. Another problem is that the "usual" incidence varies in a season dependent manner, i.e. it may not be constant throughout the year, is often periodic, and may also show a trend between years...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Michael Cieslak, Susie S Mikkelsen, Helle F Skall, Marine Baud, Nicolas Diserens, Marc Y Engelsma, Olga L M Haenen, Shirin Mousakhani, Valentina Panzarin, Thomas Wahli, Niels J Olesen, Heike Schütze
One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes...
2016: PloS One
Peter Brommesson, Uno Wennergren, Tom Lindström
The structure of contacts that mediate transmission has a pronounced effect on the outbreak dynamics of infectious disease and simulation models are powerful tools to inform policy decisions. Most simulation models of livestock disease spread rely to some degree on predictions of animal movement between holdings. Typically, movements are more common between nearby farms than between those located far away from each other. Here, we assessed spatiotemporal variation in such distance dependence of animal movement contacts from an epidemiological perspective...
2016: PloS One
Kevin Cheeseman, Gabriela Certad, Jonathan B Weitzman
Over 20 % of cancers have infectious origins, including well-known examples of microbes such as viruses (HPV, EBV) and bacteria (H. pylori). The contribution of intracellular eukaryotic parasites to cancer etiology is largely unexplored. Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that eukaryotic protozoan, such as intracellular apicomplexan that cause diseases of medical or economic importance, can be linked to various cancers: Theileria and Cryptosporidium induce host cell transformation while Plasmodium was linked epidemiologically to the "African lymphoma belt" over fifty years ago...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Edward Goldstein, Virginia E Pitzer, Justin J O'Hagan, Marc Lipsitch
Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, though they are often modified by other, non-temporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent work suggests that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection)...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology
Walter A Alarcon
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and state health departments collect data on laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels (BLLs). This report presents data on elevated BLLs among employed adults (defined as persons aged ≥16 years) in the United States for 1994-2013. This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (1). The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks appears in the same volume of the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases (2)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Simple D Singh, S Jane Henley, A Blythe Ryerson
This report provides, in tabular and graphic form, official federal statistics on the occurrence of cancer for 2012 and trends for 1999-2012 as reported by CDC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1). Cancer incidence data are from population-based cancer registries that participate in CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program reported as of November 2014. Cancer mortality data are from death certificate information reported to state vital statistics offices through 2012 and compiled into a national file for the entire United States by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Edward C Holmes, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Kristian G Andersen
The 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa was of unprecedented magnitude and changed our perspective on this lethal but sporadically emerging virus. This outbreak also marked the beginning of large-scale real-time molecular epidemiology. Here, we show how evolutionary analyses of Ebola virus genome sequences provided key insights into virus origins, evolution and spread during the epidemic. We provide basic scientists, epidemiologists, medical practitioners and other outbreak responders with an enhanced understanding of the utility and limitations of pathogen genomic sequencing...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Klára Piukovics, Gabriella Terhes, Tímea Gurbity-Pálfi, Ágnes Bereczki, Ferenc Rárosi, Judit Deák, Zita Borbényi, Edit Urbán
Because of the widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs, CMV infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies worldwide. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse the epidemiology of CMV infection in haematological patients. Between 2008 and 2014, 1238 quantitative CMV DNA detections from plasma specimens were performed. These specimens were collected from 271 patients with haematological malignancy. Patients were grouped on the basis of underlying diseases (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies and other haematological diseases)...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Steven E Massey
Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
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