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Infectious disease epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#1
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035342/seed-transmission-of-beet-curly-top-virus-and-beet-curly-top-iran-virus-in-a-local-cultivar-of-petunia-in-iran
#2
Ameneh Anabestani, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia, Keramat Izadpanah, Saeid Tabein, Gian Paolo Accotto
Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2-78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034905/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-autoimmunity-the-role-of-pathogens-and-commensals
#3
REVIEW
Jean-François Bach
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune disease is prevented in various experimental models by infection with different bacteria, viruses and parasites...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034093/sentinel-surveillance-of-influenza-like-illness-in-the-central-african-republic-2010-2015
#4
Alexandre Manirakiza, Marie-Yvette Batoumbou Ketta, Ulrich Vickos, Giscard Francis Komoyo, Sandra Garba-Ouangole, Colette Bangue, Edgar Djimbele, Ombretta Pasotti, Eugene Kanga, Eloi Nicaise Mboufoungou, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Kathleen Victoir, Jean-Chrysostome Gody, Mirdad Kazanji, Emmanuel Nakoune
BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness (ILI) is an important public health problem worldwide. In the Central African Republic, acute infectious diseases are the commonest reason for consultation. The Institut Pasteur of Bangui set up a surveillance network in 2008 to monitor the circulation of influenza viruses. We report the results of use of this surveillance system during the period 2010-2015. METHODS: The first surveillance centre covered Bangui, the capital of the country, and neighbouring areas and epidemiological data on syndromes similar to ILI...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031518/investigation-of-nonlinear-epidemiological-models-for-analyzing-and-controlling-the-mers-outbreak-in-korea
#5
Inkyung Ahn, Seongman Heo, Seunghyun Ji, Kyung Hyun Kim, Taehwan Kim, Eun Joo Lee, Jooyoung Park, Keehoon Sung
Much concern has arisen regarding serious epidemics due to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. The first MERS case of Korea was reported on 20 May 2015, and since then, the MERS outbreak in Korea has resulted in hundreds of confirmed cases and tens of deaths. Deadly infectious diseases such as MERS have significant direct and indirect social impacts, which include disease-induced mortality and economic losses. Also, a delayed response to the outbreak and underestimating its danger can further aggravate the situation...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#6
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027095/multimodality-imaging-of-pericardial-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Fatimah Almasoudi, Mohamed Ebid, Amjad M Ahmed, Abdelrahman Jamiel
Pericardial diseases have changed their epidemiology in the past few years. With the aging population and decreasing incidence of communicable diseases, the causes of pericardial diseases have significantly changed from infectious and malignant to postradiation and cardiac surgery causes. Despite that, pericardial diseases remain difficult to diagnose. The accurate and timely diagnosis of these diseases is essential to avoid the late sequela of pericardial constriction and pericardial cirrhosis. Echocardiography remains the first test of choice for the assessment of patients with suspected pericardial diseases...
October 12, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026651/snvphyl-a-single-nucleotide-variant-phylogenomics-pipeline-for-microbial-genomic-epidemiology
#8
Aaron Petkau, Philip Mabon, Cameron Sieffert, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Cabral, Mariam Iskander, Mark Iskander, Kelly Weedmark, Rahat Zaheer, Lee S Katz, Celine Nadon, Aleisha Reimer, Eduardo Taboada, Robert G Beiko, William Hsiao, Fiona Brinkman, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar
The recent widespread application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial disease investigations has spurred the development of new bioinformatics tools, including a notable proliferation of phylogenomics pipelines designed for infectious disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Transitioning the use of WGS data out of the research laboratory and into the front lines of surveillance and outbreak response requires user-friendly, reproducible and scalable pipelines that have been well validated...
June 30, 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026397/role-of-contact-tracing-in-containing-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-a-review
#9
Shrivastava Saurabh, Shrivastava Prateek
BACKGROUND: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease which emerged in the month of March in the year 2014 in Guinea has been declared as a public health emergency of international concern. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the review article are to assess the role of contact tracing in the Ebola outbreak and to identify the challenges faced by the health workers while performing contact tracing. METHODS: An extensive search of all materials related to the Ebola outbreak and contact tracing was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021983/an-integrated-framework-for-process-driven-model-construction-in-disease-ecology-and-animal-health
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Mancy, Patrick M Brock, Rowland R Kao
Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021518/the-lethal-spanish-influenza-pandemic-in-poland
#11
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap, Lidia B Brydak
The Spanish influenza pandemic in the years 1918-1920 was the largest and most tragic pandemic of infectious disease in human history. Deciphering the structure of the virus (including the determination of complete genome sequence) of this pandemic and the phylogenetic analysis and explanation of its virulence became possible thanks to molecular genetic analysis of the virus isolated from the fixed and frozen lung tissue of influenza victims who died in 1918 and were buried frozen in Alaska and Spitsbergen...
October 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020316/machine-learning-for-healthcare-on-the-verge-of-a-major-shift-in-healthcare-epidemiology
#12
Jenna Wiens, Erica S Shenoy
The increasing availability of electronic health data presents a major opportunity in healthcare for both discovery and practical applications to improve healthcare. However, for healthcare epidemiologists to best utilize these data, computational techniques that can handle large complex datasets are required. Machine learning (ML), the study of tools and methods for identifying patterns in data, can help. The appropriate application of ML to these data promises to transform patient risk stratification broadly in the field of medicine, and especially in infectious diseases...
August 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020241/infections-atherosclerosis-and-coronary-heart-disease
#13
Naga Venkata K Pothineni, Swathi Subramany, Kevin Kuriakose, Lily F Shirazi, Francesco Romeo, Prediman K Shah, Jawahar L Mehta
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Pathophysiological similarities between chronic infections and atherosclerosis triggered interest in a clinical association between these conditions. Various infectious microbes have been linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease in epidemiological studies. However, this association failed to satisfy the Koch's postulates of causation with multiple clinical trials demonstrating inefficacy of anti-infective therapies in mitigating atherosclerotic cardiovascular events...
July 12, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019317/precept-an-evidence-assessment-framework-for-infectious-disease-epidemiology-prevention-and-control
#14
Thomas Harder, Anja Takla, Tim Eckmanns, Simon Ellis, Frode Forland, Roberta James, Joerg J Meerpohl, Antony Morgan, Eva Rehfuess, Holger Schünemann, Teun Zuiderent-Jerak, Helena de Carvalho Gomes, Ole Wichmann
Decisions in public health should be based on the best available evidence, reviewed and appraised using a rigorous and transparent methodology. The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) defined a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence in infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control that takes different domains and question types into consideration. The methodology rates evidence in four domains: disease burden, risk factors, diagnostics and intervention. The framework guiding it has four steps going from overarching questions to an evidence statement...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018124/straight-from-the-horse-s-mouth-genomic-epidemiology-of-an-icelandic-equine-epidemic
#15
Mark R Davies
Despite tight biosecurity measures, an outbreak of respiratory disease rapidly spread across the Icelandic equine population in 2010. Horse transportation was brought to a halt in order to contain the spread of the infectious agent. In a recent article, Björnsdóttir and colleagues (S. Björnsdóttir et al., mBio 8:e00826-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00826-17) employ the power and resolution of "genomic epidemiology," the combination of whole genomic sequencing and epidemiological approaches, to examine the source and spread of the outbreak...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017751/varicella-infection-in-a-non-universally-vaccinated-population-actual-epidemiology-in-bulgaria-2013-2015
#16
Tatina T Todorova
BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common and usually mild disease but it has great importance in regard to general infectious morbidity. The current study aimed to characterize possible risk factors of varicella epidemiology in Bulgaria, a country where infection follows its natural epidemiological pattern as no mandatory or recommended vaccine is currently applied. METHODS: Administrative regions of Bulgaria were used as units of observation and a set of sociodemographic and economic determinants, as well as geographic location (south or north) were tested for associations with the mean 3-year varicella incidence rates (2013-2015)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017499/imported-malaria-in-spain-2009-2016-results-from-the-redivi-collaborative-network
#17
Francesca F Norman, Ana López-Polín, Fernando Salvador, Begoña Treviño, Eva Calabuig, Diego Torrús, Antonio Soriano-Arandes, Jose-Manuel Ruíz-Giardín, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Jose-Antonio Pérez-Molina, Ana Perez-Ayala, Magdalena García, Azucena Rodríguez, María Martínez-Serrano, Miren Zubero, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is a frequent diagnosis in travellers and migrants. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with imported malaria within a Spanish collaborative network registering imported diseases (+REDIVI). In addition, the possible association between malaria and type of case, gender, age or area of exposure was explored. METHODS: Cases of imported malaria were identified among all cases registered in the +REDIVI database during the period October 2009-October 2016...
October 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017219/-consensus-based-guidelines-for-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-guideline-on-behalf-of-the-german-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-dgpi
#18
C Feiterna-Sperling, F Brinkmann, C Adamczick, F Ahrens, M Barker, C Berger, L D Berthold, M Bogyi, U von Both, T Frischer, W Haas, P Hartmann, D Hillemann, F W Hirsch, K Kranzer, F Kunitz, E Maritz, A Pizzulli, N Ritz, R Schlags, T Spindler, S Thee, K Weizsäcker
Recently, epidemiological data shows an increase of childhood tuberculosis in Germany. In addition to this, drug resistant tuberculosis becomes more frequent. Therefore, diagnosis, prevention and therapy in childhood and adolescence remain a challenge. Adult guidelines do not work for children, as there are age specific differences in manifestation, risk of progression and diagnostic as well as therapeutic pathways.The German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) has initiated a consensus-based (S2k) process and completed a paediatric guideline in order to improve and standardize care for children and adolescents with tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016319/clinical-epidemiology-of-septic-arthritis-caused-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-in-northeast-thailand
#19
Prapit Teparrukkul, Jiraphorn Nilsakul, Susanna Dunachie, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Septic arthritis is a medical emergency, and if not treated appropriately, it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Melioidosis, a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is highly endemic in South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia. We reviewed the medical charts of adult patients admitted with bacterial septic arthritis at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from January 2012 to December 2014. Bacterial septic arthritis was defined as one or more hot swollen joints with isolation of a pathogenic organism from an affected joint or from blood...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991397/record-linkage-study-of-the-pathogen-specific-burden-of-respiratory-viruses-in-children
#20
Faye Janice Lim, Christopher Charles Blyth, Parveen Fathima, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Reliance on hospital discharge diagnosis codes alone will likely underestimate the burden of respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory viruses more accurately, we used record linkage to examine data relating to all children hospitalized in Western Australia between 2000 and 2012. PATIENTS/METHODS: We extracted hospital, infectious disease notification and laboratory data of a cohort of children born in Western Australia between 1996 and 2012...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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