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Infectious disease epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107447/a-software-tool-for-estimation-of-burden-of-infectious-diseases-in-europe-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years
#1
Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Cassini, Daniel Lewandowski, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Guido Maringhini, Alessandro Pini, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar
The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103964/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-related-mortality-in-brazil
#2
Francisco R Martins-Melo, Alberto N Ramos, Carlos H Alencar, Mauricélia S Lima, Jorg Heukelbach
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#3
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101308/antibacterial-resistance-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Sehnaz Alp, Murat Akova
Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at substantial risk of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections depending on the time elapsed since transplantation, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the degree of immunosuppression. Infectious complications in HSCT recipients are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial infections constitute the major cause of infectious complications, especially in the early post-transplant period. The emergence of antibacterial resistance complicates the management of bacterial infections in this patient group...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#5
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100788/genomic-infectious-disease-epidemiology-in-partially-sampled-and-ongoing-outbreaks
#6
Xavier Didelot, Christophe Fraser, Jennifer Gardy, Caroline Colijn
Genomic data is increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom - a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by colouring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#7
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099652/path-of-infectious-diseases-in-brazil-in-the-last-50-years-an-ongoing-challenge
#8
Eliseu Alves Waldman, Ana Paula Sayuri Sato
In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#9
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093536/noma-overview-of-a-neglected-disease-and-human-rights-violation
#10
REVIEW
M Leila Srour, Klaas Marck, Denise Baratti-Mayer
Noma is an orofacial gangrene affecting malnourished children and mainly observed in tropical countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological data on noma are scarce, but a current estimate of the global incidence is 30,000-40,000 cases per year, with a mortality rate of approximately 85% and a burden of disease calculated to be a loss of 1-10 million disability-adjusted life years. The etiology of noma is multifactorial with malnutrition as an ever present factor, often in combination with concomitant diseases, such as measles, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and poor oral hygiene...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093076/genetic-source-tracking-of-an-anthrax-outbreak-in-shaanxi-province-china
#11
Dong-Li Liu, Jian-Chun Wei, Qiu-Lan Chen, Xue-Jun Guo, En-Min Zhang, Li He, Xu-Dong Liang, Guo-Zhu Ma, Ti-Cao Zhou, Wen-Wu Yin, Wei Liu, Kai Liu, Yi Shi, Jian-Jun Ji, Hui-Juan Zhang, Lin Ma, Fa-Xin Zhang, Zhi-Kai Zhang, Hang Zhou, Hong-Jie Yu, Biao Kan, Jian-Guo Xu, Feng Liu, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Anthrax is an acute zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. From 26 July to 8 August 2015, an outbreak with 20 suspected cutaneous anthrax cases was reported in Ganquan County, Shaanxi province in China. The genetic source tracking analysis of the anthrax outbreak was performed by molecular epidemiological methods in this study. METHODS: Three molecular typing methods, namely canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis, were used to investigate the possible source of transmission and identify the genetic relationship among the strains isolated from human cases and diseased animals during the outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091971/mate-limitation-in-fungal-plant-parasites-can-lead-to-cyclic-epidemics-in-perennial-host-populations
#12
Virginie Ravigné, Valérie Lemesle, Alicia Walter, Ludovic Mailleret, Frédéric M Hamelin
Fungal plant parasites represent a growing concern for biodiversity and food security. Most ascomycete species are capable of producing different types of infectious spores both asexually and sexually. Yet the contributions of both types of spores to epidemiological dynamics have still to been fully researched. Here we studied the effect of mate limitation in parasites which perform both sexual and asexual reproduction in the same host. Since mate limitation implies positive density dependence at low population density, we modeled the dynamics of such species with both density-dependent (sexual) and density-independent (asexual) transmission rates...
January 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091959/genetic-variation-in-mitochondrial-genes-of-the-tick-haemaphysalis-flava-collected-from-wild-hedgehogs-in-china
#13
Zhong-Bo Li, Tian-Yin Cheng, Xing-Li Xu, Lu-Lin Song, Guo-Hua Liu
The tick Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important ectoparasite, which causes direct damage to their hosts and also acts as a vector of various infectious disease agents in China. Despite its significance, the epidemiology, genetics and biology of H. flava has not been studied in detail. In the present study, the genetic variation in three mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), was examined in H. flava ticks collected from wild hedgehogs in China...
January 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089281/features-of-public-healthcare-services-provided-to-migrant-patients-in-the-eastern-macedonia-and-thrace-region-greece
#14
Christos A Tsitsakis, Anastasios Karasavvoglou, Efstathios Tsaridis, Georgia Ramantani, Giannoula Florou, Persefoni Polychronidou, Stamatios Stamatakis
BACKGROUND: The influx of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers into European Union (EU) countries, especially into Greece, in the last 20 years is an issue of growing concern and requires a rational approach. The aim of this study is to chart the use of public health services by the migrants of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Region, which forms the northeastern border of Greece. METHODS: We collected data from five of the six public hospitals in the specified region, and we carried out a per clinic cross tabulation analysis of admission diagnosis and citizenship variables in order to establish the frequency at which the various diagnoses emerge per distinct group of migrant and non-migrant patients in each clinic...
December 27, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#15
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081120/epidemiology-of-chikungunya-virus-outbreaks-in-guadeloupe-and-martinique-2014-an-observational-study-in-volunteer-blood-donors
#16
Pierre Gallian, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pascale Richard, Françoise Maire, Olivier Flusin, Rachid Djoudi, Jacques Chiaroni, Remi Charrel, Pierre Tiberghien, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078206/infectious-atopic-and-inflammatory-diseases-childhood-adversities-and-familial-aggregation-are-independently-associated-with-the-risk-for-mental-disorders-results-from-a-large-swiss-epidemiological-study
#17
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Stephanie Rodgers, Margot Mutsch, Anja Tesic, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler, Erich Seifritz, Enrique Castelao, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Caroline Vandeleur, Roland von Känel, Rosa Paolicelli, Markus A Landolt, Cornelia Witthauer, Roselind Lieb, Martin Preisig
AIM: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METHODS: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjusting for sex, educational level, familial aggregation, childhood adversities and traumatic experiences in childhood...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077609/travellers-and-influenza-risks-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, P van Genderen, B J Ward, A Wilder-Smith, R Steffen, A D M E Osterhaus
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074713/pathogens-patterns-of-pneumonia-and-epidemiologic-risk-factors-associated-with-respiratory-disease-in-recently-weaned-cattle-in-ireland
#19
Gerard M Murray, Simon J More, Dónal Sammin, Mìcheàl J Casey, Máire C McElroy, Rónan G O'Neill, William J Byrne, Bernadette Earley, Tracy A Clegg, Hywel Ball, Colin J Bell, Joseph P Cassidy
We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072887/dengue-fever-in-travellers-and-risk-of-local-spreading-case-reports-from-southern-italy-and-literature-update
#20
Claudia Fabrizio, Luciana Lepore, Maria Chironna, Gioacchino Angarano, Annalisa Saracino
Dengue fever (DF), an arbovirosis caused by Dengue viruses (DV, serotypes 1-4), is responsible for an increasing number of travel-related acute febrile illnesses due to population growth, climate changes, spreading by viremic travellers, and improved laboratory diagnosis. The presence of efficient vectors (mosquito Aedes albopictus) has also been described in temperate regions including Italy which is considered the most heavily infected European country. Normally characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms, DF incidence is probably underestimated, especially in non-endemic countries, but the risk of severe forms is substantial...
January 5, 2017: New Microbiologica
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