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Infectious disease epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932782/cdc-grand-rounds-modeling-and-public-health-decision-making
#1
Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Richard J Hatchett, Daniel B Jernigan, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Phoebe G Thorpe, Martin I Meltzer
Mathematical models incorporate various data sources and advanced computational techniques to portray real-world disease transmission and translate the basic science of infectious diseases into decision-support tools for public health. Unlike standard epidemiologic methods that rely on complete data, modeling is needed when there are gaps in data. By combining diverse data sources, models can fill gaps when critical decisions must be made using incomplete or limited information. They can be used to assess the effect and feasibility of different scenarios and provide insight into the emergence, spread, and control of disease...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930590/low-mortality-but-increasing-incidence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-endocarditis-in-people-who-inject-drugs-experience-from-a-swedish-referral-hospital
#2
Hilmir Asgeirsson, Anders Thalme, Ola Weiland
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis in people who inject drugs (PWID). The management of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID can be problematic. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to assess the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID in Stockholm, Sweden.The Department of Infectious Diseases at the Karolinska University Hospital serves as a regional referral center for drug users with severe infections...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#3
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927927/use-of-recombinant-antigens-for-sensitive-serodiagnosis-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-caused-by-different-leishmania-species
#4
Camila Massae Sato, Maria Carmen Arroyo Sanchez, Beatriz Julieta Celeste, Malcolm S Duthie, Jeffrey Guderian, Steven G Reed, Maria Edileuza Felinto Brito, Marliane Batista Campos, Helia Valeria de Souza Encarnação, Jorge Guerra, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos de Mesquita, Suzana Kanawati Pinheiro, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Fernando Tobias Silveira, Marina de Assis Souza, Hiro Goto
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL; also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological and pathological basis supported with positive parasitological exams and demonstration of Leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable perfomance...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927201/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-pneumonia-severity-and-mortality-in-bangladeshi-children-5-years-of-age-before-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction
#5
Shampa Saha, Md Hasan, Lindsay Kim, Jennifer L Farrar, Belal Hossain, Maksuda Islam, Asm Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, M Ruhul Amin, Mohammed Hanif, Manzoor Hussain, Shams El-Arifeen, Cynthia G Whitney, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Bangladesh. We present the epidemiology of pneumonia in Bangladeshi children <5 years before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction and investigate factors associated with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Children aged 2-59 months admitted to three Bangladeshi hospitals with pneumonia (i.e., cough or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without danger signs) or severe pneumonia (i...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924642/development-of-an-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-specific-detection-of-a-distinct-genetic-lineage-of-the-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#6
Gonzalo Tomás, Martín Hernández, Ana Marandino, Claudia Techera, Sofia Grecco, Diego Hernández, Alejandro Banda, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV...
December 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923669/emergence-of-tick-borne-pathogens-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-ricketsia-raoultii-and-babesia-microti-in-the-kyiv-urban-parks-ukraine
#7
Yuliya M Didyk, Lucia Blaňárová, Svyatoslav Pogrebnyak, Igor Akimov, Branislav Peťko, Bronislava Víchová
To date, only limited data about the presence of ticks and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in urban parks of Kyiv in northern Ukraine are available. In total, 767 ticks (696 Ixodes ricinus and 69 Dermacentor reticulatus) collected in seven urban parks and one suburban oak wood park in Kyiv were individually analyzed by the PCR assays. Tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, were detected in 11.1% of tested I. ricinus ticks...
October 11, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923518/the-impact-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-on-chinese-blood-safety
#8
REVIEW
Miao He, Jingxing Wang, Limin Chen, Jing Liu, Peibin Zeng
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have always been one of the major threats to public health. Although the implementation of mandatory testing for 4 classical transfusion-transmitted infectious-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis-has reduced the transfusion risk of these pathogens, the potential threat of various EID agents and their constantly evolving variants to blood safety in China is not fully understood. This review presents 9 representative EID agents that are autochthonous and epidemic nationally or regionally in China...
November 4, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#9
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#10
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915303/candida-species-isolated-from-different-body-sites-and-their-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-cross-analysis-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-biofilms
#11
Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Paolo Fazii, Tonino Traini, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908535/mortality-profile-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-france-and-its-change-in-10-years
#12
Jérôme Avouac, Fazia Amrouche, Christophe Meune, Grégoire Rey, André Kahan, Yannick Allanore
OBJECTIVE: To study the mortality profile of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in France. METHODS: Data were collected between 2000 and 2011 from the French Epidemiological Center for the Medical Causes of Death database; all death certificates from adults that either mentioned RA as an underlying cause of death (UCD) or as an associated cause of death (ACD) were evaluated using multiple-cause-of-death analysis. The different causes of death and their frequency were reported, together with the ratio of observed/expected number of death (O/E ratio) to measure the strength of association between RA listed as an ACD and the corresponding UCD...
October 29, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905351/-visualizing-research-lines-in-public-health-an-analysis-based-on-bibliometric-maps-applied-to-the-revista-espa%C3%A3-ola-de-salud-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-2006-2015
#13
Carmen Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: Identifying research lines is essential to understand the knowledge structure of a scientific domain. The aim of this study was to identify the main research topics of within the domain of public health, in the Revista Española de Saslud Pública during 2006-2015. METHODS: Original articles included in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database, available online through the Web of Science (WoS), were selected. The analysis units used were the keywords, KeyWords Plus (KW+), extracted automatically by SSCI...
December 1, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#14
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902387/characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-at-tripoli-medical-centre-libya-between-2008-and-2014
#15
Elloulu BenDarif, Asma Khalil, Abdunnabi Rayes, Emad Bennour, Abdulgader Dhawi, John J Lowe, Shawn Gibbs, Richard V Goering
Bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent a well-known public health problem affecting both healthcare-associated and community populations. Past studies have clearly shown the value of characterizing problem organisms including MRSA through the use of molecular techniques (i.e., strain typing), with the aim of informing local, regional, and national efforts in epidemiological analysis and infection control. The country of Libya represents a challenge for such analysis due to limited historical infectious disease information and major political unrest culminating in the Libyan Civil War (Libyan Revolution) in 2011...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901415/burden-of-surgical-site-infections-associated-with-select-spine-operations-and-involvement-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Harshila Patel, Hanane Khoury, Douglas Girgenti, Sharon Welner, Holly Yu
BACKGROUND: Spine operations may be indicated for treatment of diseases including vertebral injuries, degenerative spinal conditions, disk disease, spinal misalignments, or malformations. Surgical site infection (SSI) is a clinically important complication of spine surgery. Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a leading cause of post-spinal SSIs. METHODS: PubMed and applicable infectious disease conference proceedings were searched to identify relevant published studies...
November 30, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896240/evaluation-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-sari-iran
#17
Seyyed Hosein Seyyedpour, Parvaneh Afshar, Ayoub Barzegarnejad, Shamsi Kalhori, Reza Agah
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii has worldwide distribution and is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in humans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the hemodialysis unit of Fatemeh Zahra hospital at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Iran. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with CKD and 145 healthy volunteers were assessed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG, IgM, and IgA) antibodies using a conventional ELISA technique...
November 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#18
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892444/mortality-patterns-among-hospital-deaths
#19
R K Karki
Background Death occurring in hospital is medically certified by attending physicians with cause of death. In developing countries such as Nepal, limited resources are available related to the pattern of deaths that occur in hospitals, so that the health priorities can be selected wisely. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the pattern, frequency and causes of inpatient mortality in hospital. Method This was a retrospective study of all deaths occurred at the Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890107/an-analysis-of-causative-factors-in-closed-criminal-medical-malpractice-cases-of-the-taiwan-supreme-court-2000-2014
#20
Kuan-Han Wu, Shih-Yu Cheng, Yung-Lin Yen, Chien-Hung Wu, Ming-Ta Tsai, Fu-Jen Cheng
Most medical malpractice in Taiwan leads to criminal prosecution. This study examined the epidemiologic factors and clinical errors that led to medical malpractice convictions in Taiwanese criminal prosecutions. A retrospective, 15-year population-based review of criminal Supreme Court judgments pertaining to medical malpractice against physicians and nurses was conducted. Eighty-four cases were reviewed, yielding data that included the number and specialty involved, accused hospitals, the diagnosis, the time interval between incidents to closure, result of adjudication, the origin of cases (private vs...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
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