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Infectious disease epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672709/surveillance-of-travel-associated-diseases-at-two-referral-centres-in-marseille-france-a-12-year-survey
#1
Karolina M Griffiths, Hélène Savini, Philippe Brouqui, Fabrice Simon, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
Background: With increasing international travel and historically high numbers of residents visiting friends and relatives overseas, travel-associated illnesses are frequent in Marseille, France. We report the changing epidemiology of travel-related illnesses over a 12-year period. Methods: A single site GeoSentinel surveillance analysis was undertaken for 3460 ill returned travellers presenting to two public hospitals in Marseille, France from March 2003 to October 2015, with travel-related illnesses...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671238/dairy-calf-rearing-unit-and-infectious-diseases-diarrhea-outbreak-by-bovine-coronavirus-as-a-model-for-the-dispersion-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#2
Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Juliane Ribeiro, Luciana de Carvalho Balbo, Elis Lorenzetti, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
Dairy calf rearing unit is a management system that is only recently being implemented by some milk producer's cooperatives in southern Brazil. However, aspects related to the health profile of the heifer calves that arrive in the rearing unit as well as about biosecurity practices and microbiological challenges have not yet been evaluated in this rearing system in a tropical country. Diarrhea is the main and most frequent consequence of enteric infections in newborn calves. This study, through some etiological and epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea, has the aim to alert to the possibility of pathogenic microorganism spread in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668677/bayesian-reconstruction-of-transmission-within-outbreaks-using-genomic-variants
#3
Nicola De Maio, Colin J Worby, Daniel J Wilson, Nicole Stoesser
Pathogen genome sequencing can reveal details of transmission histories and is a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. In particular, within-host pathogen genomic variants identified through heterozygous nucleotide base calls are a potential source of information to identify linked cases and infer direction and time of transmission. However, using such data effectively to model disease transmission presents a number of challenges, including differentiating genuine variants from those observed due to sequencing error, as well as the specification of a realistic model for within-host pathogen population dynamics...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668332/neurological-complications-of-zika-virus-infection
#4
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666980/epidemiology-of-uveitis-in-a-us-population-based-study
#5
Marta Mora González, Marissé Masís Solano, Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Nisha R Acharya, Shan C Lin, Matilda F Chan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between self-reported uveitis and purported demographic and clinical risk factors, using an American adult population extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2009 and 2010. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study using a sample of 5106 subjects between 20 and 69 years old. The main outcome for our study was the self-report of a diagnosis of uveitis. The demographic analysis included age, gender, and ethnicity...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666748/mass-gathering-enhanced-syndromic-surveillance-for-the-8th-micronesian-games-in-2014-pohnpei-state-federated-states-of-micronesia
#6
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Eliaser Johnson, Sameer V Gopalani, Eliashib Edward, Charles Loney, Alize Mercier, Tebuka Toatu, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Damian Hoy
Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#7
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657837/inter-and-intracontinental-migrations-and-local-differentiation-have-shaped-the-contemporary-epidemiological-landscape-of-canine-parvovirus-in-south-america
#8
Sofía Grecco, Gregorio Iraola, Nicola Decaro, Alice Alfieri, Amauri Alfieri, Marina Gallo Calderón, Ana Paula da Silva, Daniela Name, Jaime Aldaz, Lucía Calleros, Ana Marandino, Gonzalo Tomás, Leticia Maya, Lourdes Francia, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus that causes one of the most significant infectious diseases of dogs. Although the virus dispersed over long distances in the past, current populations are considered to be spatially confined and with only a few instances of migration between specific localities. It is unclear whether these dynamics occur in South America where global studies have not been performed. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of genetic variability in South American CPV populations and explore their evolutionary relationships with global strains...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657002/clinical-management-of-canine-leishmaniosis-versus-human-leishmaniasis-due-to-leishmania-infantum-putting-one-health-principles-into-practice
#9
Guadalupe Miró, Rogelio López-Vélez
The initiative One World, "One Health" tries to rapidly detect emerging or reemerging human and animal infectious diseases and prevent epidemiological situations such as deforestation, some agricultural practices or the appearance of new foci of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum with alternative reservoirs. With this objective in mind, we here consider leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean basin and compare its current clinical management from two perspectives: that of a veterinarian specialized in infectious and parasitic diseases, and that of a physician specialized in infectious tropical diseases...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653213/neutrophilic-dermatoses-part-ii-pyoderma-gangrenosum-and-other-bowel-and-arthritis-associated-neutrophilic-dermatoses
#10
REVIEW
Hovik J Ashchyan, Caroline A Nelson, Sasha Stephen, William D James, Robert G Micheletti, Misha Rosenbach
Neutrophilic dermatoses are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory skin disorders that present with unique clinical features, but are unified by the presence of a sterile, predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate on histopathology. The morphology of cutaneous lesions associated with these disorders is heterogeneous, which renders diagnosis challenging. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is required to exclude diseases that mimic these disorders and to diagnose potential associated infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653210/neutrophilic-dermatoses-part-i-pathogenesis-sweet-syndrome-neutrophilic-eccrine-hidradenitis-and-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Caroline A Nelson, Sasha Stephen, Hovik J Ashchyan, William D James, Robert G Micheletti, Misha Rosenbach
Neutrophilic dermatoses are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory skin disorders that present with unique clinical features, but are unified by the presence of a sterile, predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate on histopathology. The morphology of cutaneous lesions associated with these disorders is heterogeneous, which renders diagnosis challenging. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is required to exclude diseases that mimic these disorders and to diagnose potential associated infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651860/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-baranya-county-southern-hungary
#12
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649260/decision-support-for-evidence-based-integration-of-disease-control-a-proof-of-concept-for-malaria-and-schistosomiasis
#13
Claire J Standley, Ellie Graeden, Justin Kerr, Erin M Sorrell, Rebecca Katz
Designing and implementing effective programs for infectious disease control requires complex decision-making, informed by an understanding of the diseases, the types of disease interventions and control measures available, and the disease-relevant characteristics of the local community. Though disease modeling frameworks have been developed to address these questions and support decision-making, the complexity of current models presents a significant barrier to on-the-ground end users. The picture is further complicated when considering approaches for integration of different disease control programs, where co-infection dynamics, treatment interactions, and other variables must also be taken into account...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649208/assessing-the-durability-and-efficiency-of-landscape-based-strategies-to-deploy-plant-resistance-to-pathogens
#14
Loup Rimbaud, Julien Papaïx, Jean-François Rey, Luke G Barrett, Peter H Thrall
Genetically-controlled plant resistance can reduce the damage caused by pathogens. However, pathogens have the ability to evolve and overcome such resistance. This often occurs quickly after resistance is deployed, resulting in significant crop losses and a continuing need to develop new resistant cultivars. To tackle this issue, several strategies have been proposed to constrain the evolution of pathogen populations and thus increase genetic resistance durability. These strategies mainly rely on varying different combinations of resistance sources across time (crop rotations) and space...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#15
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644614/comparison-of-pathogen-derived-total-risk-with-indicator-based-correlations-for-recreational-swimming-exposure
#16
Neha Sunger, Kerry A Hamilton, Paula M Morgan, Charles N Haas
Typical recreational water risk to swimmers is assessed using epidemiologically derived correlations by means of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). It has been documented that concentrations of FIB do not necessarily correlate well with protozoa and viral pathogens, which pose an actual threat of illness and thus sometimes may not adequately assess the overall microbial risks from water resources. Many of the known pathogens have dose-response relationships; however, measuring water quality for all possible pathogens is impossible...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643050/jordan-field-epidemiology-training-program-critical-role-in-national-and-regional-capacity-building
#17
Mohannad Al Nsour, Ibrahim Iblan, Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh
Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) are 2-year training programs in applied epidemiology, established with the purpose of increasing a country's capacity within the public health workforce to detect and respond to health threats and develop internal expertise in field epidemiology. The Jordan Ministry of Health, in partnership with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, started the Jordan FETP (J-FETP) in 1998. Since then, it has achieved a high standard of success and has been established as a model for FETPs in the Eastern Mediterranean Region...
April 11, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642835/-evaluation-of-epidemiologic-and-clinical-features-of-oropharyngeal-tularemia-patients-in-the-eastern-anatolia-region-of-turkey
#18
Kemalettin Özden, Ayşe Özden, Ayşe Albayrak, Zülal Özkurt, Hakan Döneray, Mehmet Parlak
Tularemia is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Tularemia is endemic in the northern hemisphere and is usually seen in North America, Europe and Asia. Although the ulceroglandular tularemia is the most common form in these regions, the oropharyngeal form is more prevalent in Eastern Europe, including Turkey. The disease has importance in Turkey due to its wide geographic distribution and periodic outbreaks. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of oropharyngeal tularemia patients...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624703/epidemiology-outcome-and-risk-factors-for-infectious-complications-in-myelofibrosis-patients-receiving-ruxolitinib-a-multicenter-study-on-446-patients
#19
Nicola Polverelli, Giuseppe A Palumbo, Gianni Binotto, Elisabetta Abruzzese, Giulia Benevolo, Micaela Bergamaschi, Alessia Tieghi, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Massimo Breccia, Lucia Catani, Mario Tiribelli, Mariella D'Adda, Nicola Sgherza, Alessandro Isidori, Francesco Cavazzini, Bruno Martino, Roberto Latagliata, Monica Crugnola, Florian Heidel, Costanza Bosi, Adalberto Ibatici, Francesco Soci, Domenico Penna, Luigi Scaffidi, Franco Aversa, Roberto M Lemoli, Umberto Vitolo, Antonio Cuneo, Domenico Russo, Michele Cavo, Nicola Vianelli, Francesca Palandri
Infections represent one of the major concerns regarding the utilization of ruxolitinib (RUX) in patients with myelofibrosis. With the aim to investigate epidemiology, outcome and risk factors for infections in RUX-exposed patients, we collected clinical and laboratory data of 446 myelofibrosis patients treated with RUX between June 2011 and November 2016 in 23 European Hematology Centers. After a median RUX exposure of 23.5 months (range, 1-56), 123 patients (28%) experienced 161 infectious events (grades 3-4 32%, fatal 9%), for an incidence rate of 17 cases per 100 pts/y...
April 6, 2018: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619364/harnessing-big-data-for-communicable-tropical-and-sub-tropical-disorders-implications-from-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
Vincenza Gianfredi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Daniele Nucci, Mariano Martini, Roberto Rosselli, Liliana Minelli, Massimo Moretti
Aim: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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