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Emergency randomized controlled

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445097/phase-iib-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-naldemedine-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-patients-with-cancer
#1
Nobuyuki Katakami, Koji Oda, Katsunori Tauchi, Ken Nakata, Katsunori Shinozaki, Takaaki Yokota, Yura Suzuki, Masaru Narabayashi, Narikazu Boku
Purpose This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study aimed to determine the dose of naldemedine, a peripherally-acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, for future trials by comparing the efficacy and safety of three doses of naldemedine versus placebo in patients with cancer and opioid-induced constipation. Methods Patients ≥ 18 years old with cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤ 2, who had been receiving a stable regimen of opioid analgesics for ≥ 2 weeks, had at least one constipation symptom despite laxative use, and no more than five spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) during the past 14 days, were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to oral, once-daily naldemedine 0...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444174/catheter-ablation-for-ventricular-tachycardia-in-patients-with-cardiac-sarcoidosis-a-systematic-review
#2
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Rui Providência, Konstantinos Bronis, Dirk G Dechering, Neil Srinivasan, Lars Eckardt, Pier D Lambiase
Aims: Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is associated with a poor prognosis. Important features of CS include heart failure, conduction abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is often refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and immunosuppression. Catheter ablation has emerged as a treatment option for recurrent VT. However, data on the efficacy and outcomes of VT ablation in this context are sparse. Methods and results: A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database (from inception to September 2016) with included studies providing a minimum of information on CS patients undergoing VT ablation: age, gender, VT cycle length, CS diagnosis criteria, and baseline medications...
April 21, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442950/effect-of-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-on-emergence-agitation-after-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-children-undergoing-tonsillectomy-and-or-adenoidectomy
#3
Ahmed Mostafa Abd El-Hamid, Hany Mahmoud Yassin
BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation (EA) after sevoflurane anesthesia is common in children during recovery from general anesthesia and may result in postoperative complications. This study investigated safety and effectiveness of intranasal dexmedetomidine in reducing the incidence and severity of EA. METHODS: This prospective, randomized double-blinded controlled trial included 86 patients scheduled for the tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy under general anesthesia with sevoflurane...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442225/hypoglycaemia-and-brief-interventions-in-the-emergency-department-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Anita Keller-Senn, Geraldine Lee, Lorenz Imhof, Jackie Sturt
OBJECTIVE: For people with diabetes, severe hypoglycaemia is the most common reason for emergency service usage and emergency department (ED) presentations. Brief interventions (BI) are a recognised intervention strategy in the ED for other conditions but to date, they have not been applied to those with hypoglycemia. This review aims to identify components and outcomes of BI for people with diabetes mellitus to inform the development of BI in the ED. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and EMBASE...
April 22, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441401/ancient-genes-establish-stress-induced-mutation-as-a-hallmark-of-cancer
#5
Luis Cisneros, Kimberly J Bussey, Adam J Orr, Milica Miočević, Charles H Lineweaver, Paul Davies
Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1) Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]); and 2) genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438162/targeting-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-enzymatic-activity-ameliorates-lung-damage-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#6
Geng-Chin Wu, Wen-I Liao, Shu-Yu Wu, Hsin-Ping Pao, Shih-En Tang, Min-Hui Li, Kun-Lun Huang, Shi-Jye Chu
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence reveals that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) has a significant role in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory process. NAMPT inhibition has a beneficial effect in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases. However, it remains unclear whether NAMPT inhibition has an impact on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute lung injury. In this study, we examined whether NAMPT inhibition provided protection against I/R lung injury in rats...
April 24, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435487/randomized-trial-of-adding-parenteral-acetaminophen-to-prochlorperazine-and-diphenhydramine-to-treat-headache-in-the-emergency-department
#7
Stefan H Meyering, Ryan W Stringer, Matthew K Hysell
INTRODUCTION: Headaches represent over three million emergency department (ED) visits per year, comprising 2.4% of all ED visits. There are many proposed methods and clinical guidelines of treating acute headache presentations. However, data on intravenous acetaminophen usage in these settings are lacking. In this study, we sought to determine the efficacy of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen as an adjunct to a standard therapy for the treatment of patients who present to the ED with a chief complaint of "headache...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435483/cross-sectional-study-of-risky-substance-use-by-injured-emergency-department-patients
#8
Valerie Strezsak, Janette Baird, Christina S Lee, Michael J Mello
INTRODUCTION: Survey data regarding the prevalence of risky substance use in the emergency department (ED) is not consistent. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of risky substance use among injured ED patients based on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST v3.0). A secondary objective was to report on the feasibility of administering the ASSIST to this population, based on the time to conduct screening. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used screening data from a randomized controlled trial...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435240/risk-of-pneumonia-with-budesonide-containing-treatments-in-copd-an-individual-patient-level-pooled-analysis-of-interventional-studies
#9
Sally Hollis, Carin Jorup, Dan Lythgoe, Gunnar Martensson, Pontus Regnell, Göran Eckerwall
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised that treatment of COPD with inhaled corticosteroids may increase pneumonia risk. Responding to a request from the European Medicines Agency Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee, a pooled analysis of interventional studies compared pneumonia risk with inhaled budesonide-containing versus non-budesonide-containing treatments and the impact of other clinically relevant factors. METHODS: AstraZeneca-sponsored, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trials meeting the following criteria were included: >8 weeks' duration; ≥60 patients with COPD; inhaled budesonide treatment arm (budesonide/formoterol or budesonide); and non-budesonide-containing comparator arm (formoterol or placebo)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435218/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-olopatadine-hydrochloride-0-77-in-healthy-subjects-with-asymptomatic-eyes-data-from-2-independent-clinical-studies
#10
Edward Meier, Abhijit Narvekar, Ganesh R Iyer, Harvey B DuBiner, Apinya Vutikullird, David Wirta, Kenneth Sall
PURPOSE: To assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.77% olopatadine from 2 independent (Phase I and Phase III, respectively) clinical studies in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Phase I, multicenter, randomized (2:1), vehicle-controlled study was conducted in subjects ≥18 years old (N=36) to assess the systemic pharmacokinetics of olopatadine 0.77% following single- and multiple-dose exposures. The Phase III, multicenter, randomized (2:1), vehicle-controlled study was conducted in subjects ≥2 years old (N=499) to evaluate long-term ocular safety of olopatadine 0...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434466/cost-effectiveness-of-acupuncture-in-an-employee-population-a-retrospective-analysis
#11
Bijan J Borah, James M Naessens, Amy E Glasgow, Brent A Bauer, Tony Y Chon
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether acupuncture is a cost-effective adjunct to usual care for Mayo Clinic employees and their dependents experiencing pain symptoms. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the medical and billing records of 466 employee-patients and their dependents who had received acupuncture as part of their care and 466 propensity score-matched control patients. INTERVENTIONS: Usual care in combination with acupuncture compared with usual care alone...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434271/minimizing-atelectasis-formation-during-general-anaesthesia-oxygen-washout-is-a-non-essential-supplement-to-peep
#12
Erland Östberg, Udo Auner, Mats Enlund, Henrik Zetterström, Lennart Edmark
BACKGROUND: Following preoxygenation and induction of anaesthesia, most patients develop atelectasis. We hypothesized that an immediate restoration to a low oxygen level in the alveoli would prevent atelectasis formation and improve oxygenation during the ensuing anaesthesia. METHODS: We randomly assigned 24 patients to either a control group (n = 12) or an intervention group (n = 12) receiving an oxygen washout procedure directly after intubation. Both groups were, depending on body mass index, ventilated with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6-8 cmH2O during surgery...
April 24, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434269/electronic-adherence-monitoring-device-performance-and-patient-acceptability-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Amy Hai Yan Chan, Alistair William Stewart, Jeff Harrison, Peter Nigel Black, Edwin Arthur Mitchell, Juliet Michelle Foster
BACKGROUND: To investigate the performance and patient acceptability of an inhaler electronic monitoring device in a real-world childhood asthma population. METHODS: Children 6 to 15 years presenting with asthma to the hospital emergency department and prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were included. Participants were randomized to receive a device with reminder features enabled or disabled for use with their preventer. Device quality control tests were conducted...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433211/adverse-events-during-a-randomized-trial-of-ketamine-versus-co-administration-of-ketamine-and-propofol-for-procedural-sedation-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#14
Keith Weisz, Lalit Bajaj, Sara J Deakyne, Lina Brou, Alison Brent, Joseph Wathen, Genie E Roosevelt
BACKGROUND: The co-administration of ketamine and propofol (CoKP) is thought to maximize the beneficial profile of each medication, while minimizing the respective adverse effects of each medication. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare adverse events between ketamine monotherapy (KM) and CoKP for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial of KM vs...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431345/insights-into-targeting-young-male-drivers-with-anti-speeding-advertising-an-application-of-the-step-approach-to-message-design-and-testing-satmdt
#15
I Lewis, K M White, B Ho, B Elliott, B Watson
In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429816/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-test-the-effect-of-promoting-caregiver-contingent-talk-on-language-development-in-infants-from-diverse-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#16
Michelle McGillion, Julian M Pine, Jane S Herbert, Danielle Matthews
BACKGROUND: Early language skills are critical for later academic success. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) children tend to start school with limited language skills compared to advantaged peers. We test the hypothesis that this is due in part to differences in caregiver contingent talk during infancy (how often the caregiver talks about what is in the focus of the infant's attention). METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial with high and low SES families, 142 11-month olds and their caregivers were randomly allocated to either a contingent talk intervention or a dental health control...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#17
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426355/income-levels-and-response-to-contingency-management-for-smoking-cessation
#18
Carla López-Núñez, Roberto Secades-Villa, Elsa Peña-Suárez, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi, Sara Weidberg
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425829/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-midazolam-for-premedication-in-paediatric-anaesthesia-with-sevoflurane-a-meta-analysis
#19
Ji-Feng Feng, Xiao-Xia Wang, Yan-Yan Lu, Deng-Ge Pang, Wei Peng, Jian-Lan Mo
Background Dexmedetomidine (DEX), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, produces ideal sedation and early postoperative recovery for premedication in paediatric surgery, reducing preoperative anxiety and facilitating smooth induction of anaesthesia. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of DEX and midazolam (MDZ) in paediatric anaesthesia with sevoflurane. Methods PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Public Health Management Corporation were searched through December 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared DEX and MDZ in children undergoing sevoflurane anaesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424045/a-modified-mediterranean-dietary-intervention-for-adults-with-major-depression-dietary-protocol-and-feasibility-data-from-the-smiles-trial
#20
Rachelle S Opie, Adrienne O'Neil, Felice N Jacka, Josephine Pizzinga, Catherine Itsiopoulos
BACKGROUND: The SMILES trial was the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) explicitly designed to evaluate a dietary intervention, conducted by qualified dietitians, for reducing depressive symptomatology in adults with clinical depression. OBJECTIVES: Here we detail the development of the prescribed diet (modified Mediterranean diet (ModiMedDiet)) for individuals with major depressive disorders (MDDs) that was designed specifically for the SMILES trial. We also present data demonstrating the extent to which this intervention achieved improvements in diet quality...
April 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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