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Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Alicia A DeColli, Natasha S Nemeria, Ananya Majumdar, Gary J Gerfen, Frank Jordan, Caren L Freel Meyers
The underexploited antibacterial target 1-deoxy-D-xyluose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase, catalyzes the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent formation of DXP from pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (D-GAP). DXP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthesis of ThDP, pyridoxal phosphate, and isoprenoids in many pathogenic bacteria. DXP synthase catalyzes a distinct mechanism in ThDP decarboxylative enzymology in which the first enzyme-bound pre-decarboxylation intermediate, C2α-lactylThDP (LThDP), is stabilized by DXP synthase in the absence of D-GAP, and D-GAP then induces efficient LThDP decarboxylation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Verónica Rocha-Villarreal, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Nathan Levien Vanier, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Silverio García-Lara
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of a traditional parboiling treatment on physical, chemical and functional properties of yellow maize kernels. For this, maize kernels were subjected to the three main stages of a traditional parboiling process (soaking, steaming, and drying) at different moisture contents (15%, 25%, or 35%), and different pressure steaming times (0, 15, or 30 min). Kernels were evaluated for physical and chemical changes, while manually generated endosperm fractions were further evaluated for nutritional and functional changes...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Donogh Maguire, Dinesh Talwar, Paul G Shiels, Donald McMillan
The WHO 2016 report indicates that worldwide obesity is rising, with over 600 million people in the obese range (BMI>30). The recommended daily calorie intake for adults is 2000 kcal and 2500 kcal for women and men respectively. The average American consumes 3770 kcal/day and the average person in the UK consumes 3400 kcal/day. With such increased caloric intake, there is an increased load on metabolic pathways, in particular glucose metabolism. Such metabolism requires micronutrients as enzyme co-factors...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Muammer Üçal, Andrea Müllebner, Sergiu Dumitrescu, Martina Kames, Rudolf Moldzio, Marek Molcanyi, Samuel Schaefer, Adelheid Weidinger, Ute Schaefer, Juergen Hescheler, Johanna Catharina Duvigneau, Heinz Redl, Victoria I Bunik, Andrey V Kozlov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction we aimed at localization of mitochondrial defect and attempted to correct it by thiamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Interventional controlled experimental animal study was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury. Thiamine was administered 1 h prior to trauma; cortex was extracted for analysis 4 h and 3 d after trauma...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Muneera A Alabdulqader, Sumayah Al Hajjaj
Background: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) is a rare treatable autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized by progressive encephalopathy that eventually leads to severe disability and death if not treated with biotin and thiamine supplements. Objectives: We aimed to determine the optimal management of BTBGD presenting in acute encephalopathic episodes. Method: Case report. Results: An 8-year-old girl born to consanguineous parents was diagnosed with BTBGD at the age of 3 years after presenting with acute encephalopathy and ataxia...
2018: Child Neurology Open
Fuguang Xue, Xiaohua Pan, Linshu Jiang, Yuming Guo, Benhai Xiong
Introduction: Thiamine is known to attenuate high-concentrate diet induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The major objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of thiamine supplementation on high-concentrate diet induced SARA. Methods: Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Justin M Johnson, Valerie Fox
BACKGROUND: Wernicke's encephalopathy is a condition whose treatment many consultation-liaison psychiatrists know quite well. Less clear, however, is the treatment of its dementia disorder descendent, the Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to review treatment options and provide recommendations for consultation-liaison psychiatrists treating cognitive impairment in KS. METHODS: In this nonsystematic review, we reviewed PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Google Scholar for published reports and studies regarding treatment of KS...
March 27, 2018: Psychosomatics
John V Nahas, Christine L Iosue, Noor F Shaik, Kathleen Selhorst, Bin Z He, Dennis D Wykoff
Convergent evolution is often due to selective pressures generating a similar phenotype. We observe relatively recent duplications in a spectrum of Saccharomycetaceae yeast species resulting in multiple phosphatases that are regulated by different nutrient conditions - thiamine and phosphate starvation. This specialization is both transcriptional and at the level of phosphatase substrate specificity. In Candida glabrata , loss of the ancestral phosphatase family was compensated by the co-option of a different histidine phosphatase family with three paralogs...
May 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Hideki Onishi, Mayumi Ishida, Takao Takahashi, Yoshitada Taji, Kenji Ikebuchi, Daisuke Furuya, Nozomu Uchida, Tatsuo Akechi
OBJECTIVE: Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, and is sometimes overlooked because of the diversity of clinical symptoms. METHOD: From a series of WE patients with cancer, we report a lung cancer patient who developed WE, the main symptom of which was agitation.ResultA 50-year-old woman with lung cancer was referred to our psycho-oncology clinic because of agitation lasting for three days. No laboratory findings or drugs explaining her agitation were identified...
May 11, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Fiona T Nhari, Narcisious B T Dzvanga
We report two cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Oral thiamine was administered (intravenous unavailable locally). However, both the patient's condition improved in the first 48 h and progressively over a month. Initially, WKS is missed due to rare feature of full classical triad of symptoms, especially in nonalcoholics.
May 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Leslie A Hamilton, Sarah H Darby, Allan J Hamilton, Matthew H Wilkerson, Kabel A Morgan
BACKGROUND: We report a case of a patient who was 3 months post-sleeve gastrectomy and presented with acute stroke symptoms ultimately due to Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) after bariatric surgery. A 20-year-old white female presented to an outside hospital 3 months after sleeve gastrectomy complaining of nausea and vomiting. She initially underwent a cholecystectomy and later became less responsive and required intubation. Magnetic resonance imaging changes, presumed to be an acute stroke, prompted her transfer to our facility...
December 14, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Zhihong Guo, Mingming Qin, Haigang Song, Xin Dai, Chi-Kong Chan, Wan Chan
MenD, or (1R, 2S, 5S, 6S)-2-succinyl -5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate (SEPHCHC) synthase, uses a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent tetrahedral Breslow intermediate rather than the canonical enamine for catalysis in vitamin K biosynthesis. By real-time monitoring of the cofactor chemical state with circular dichroism spectroscopy, we found that a new post-decarboxylation intermediate is formed from a multiple-step process rate-limited by binding of the α-ketoglutarate substrate before quickly relaxing to the characterized tetrahedral Breslow intermediate...
May 3, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
R Aparicio-Ugarriza, R Luzardo-Socorro, G Palacios, M M Bibiloni, E Argelich, J A Tur, Marcela González-Gross
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between physical fitness (PF) and energy and nutrient intake in Spanish older adults. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-four participants (59.9% females, aged over 55 years) performed a battery of four validated PF tests and participants were divided into three: low, medium, and high PF. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated using the ALIMENTA software...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Iman Badr Ibrahim, Alia Arif Hussain, Jan Magnus Sjögren
The refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a potentially fatal condition involving fluid and electrolyte imbalances after refeeding in patients with anorexia nervosa. Low-calorie diet added thiamine and minerals is the standard approach to prevent RFS. In a recent systematic review starting with a higher calorie amount than earlier has been recommended, and in another review, it is proposed that a restriction in the amount of carbohydrates may allow for a higher calorie intake early on to enable a safe and faster weight gain...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Changpeng Wang, Guoqiang Fei, Xiaoli Pan, Shaoming Sang, Lijun Wang, Chunjiu Zhong, Lirong Jin
Objectives Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) is an indispensable coenzyme for three key enzymes in glucose metabolism. Reduced TDP levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been widely demonstrated and is a diagnostic biomarker for the disease. In this study, we further explored the correlation between altered TDP metabolism and AD along with other risk factors. Methods A 1:1 case-control study was employed with 90 AD patients and 90 control subjects with normal-range cognitive abilities as assayed by the Mini Mental Status Evaluation...
May 2, 2018: Neurological Research
Mónica Flores
Meat product aroma is affected by various meat processing factors. In this review the main biochemical reactions involved in the development of meat product aroma (wet, dry cured and fermented) are fully described. Moreover, the different techniques used for key aroma elucidation in meat products are defined. The aroma compounds present in wet, dry cured and fermented meat products (sausage and whole piece) have been summarized. The mechanisms of aroma formation during the manufacture of cooked and dry/fermented meat products are described...
April 20, 2018: Meat Science
Xuewu Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Jiao Liang, Luojun Wang, Na Qin, Ya Zhao, Gang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the most virulent malaria parasite capable of parasitizing human erythrocytes. The identification of genes related to this capability can enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human malaria and lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for malaria control. With the availability of several malaria parasite genome sequences, performing computational analysis is now a practical strategy to identify genes contributing to this disease...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hulya Ozdemir, Hulya Bilgen, Zeynep Alp Unkar, Ertugrul Kiykim, Asli Memisoglu, Eren Ozek
BACKGROUND: In this case report, we present a preterm newborn with persistent lactic acidosis who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that lacked thiamine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-week-old, 750 g female infant was born with an Apgar score of 8 at the 5th minute. Umbilical cord blood gas levels, including lactate level, were normal, and she was admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Achieving full enteral feeding was not possible due to gastric residues and abdominal distention, making the patient dependent on TPN during the first 2 weeks of life...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Matteo Dal Ben, Silvia Gazzin, Claudio Tiribelli
Drinking more than the recommended limits is a worldwide emerging problem, difficult to circumscribe, and alcohol related brain damages are an under-recognized health problem. Alcohol-cognitive disruption can be considered as transient and recoverable if the alcohol consumption is limited and occasional; if not, it can progress to the so-called alcohol-related dementia (ARD), or to the Wernicke encephalopathy, or it can even induce the Korsakoff syndrome, an irreversible and long-lasting medical condition. ARD still remains poorly diagnosed and addressed, even if it had recently raised increased research interest...
April 2, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
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