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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722566/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#1
Alicia D Yeap, Kate Woods, David A B Dance, Bruno Pichon, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Viengmon Davong, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Nandini Shetty, Angela M Kearns
This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#2
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712949/role-of-early-second-trimester-uterine-artery-doppler-screening-to-predict-small-for-gestational-age-babies-in-nulliparous-women
#3
Samuel Parry, Anthony Sciscione, David M Haas, William A Grobman, Jay D Iams, Brian M Mercer, Robert M Silver, Hyagriv N Simhan, Ronald J Wapner, Deborah A Wing, Michal A Elovitz, Frank P Schubert, Alan Peaceman, M Sean Esplin, Steve Caritis, Michael P Nageotte, Benjamin A Carper, George R Saade, Uma M Reddy, Corette B Parker
BACKGROUND: Trophoblastic invasion of the uterine spiral arteries substantially increases compliance to accommodate increased blood flow to the placenta. Failure of this process impedes uterine artery blood flow, and this may be detected by uterine artery Doppler flow studies. However, the clinical utility of uterine artery Doppler flow studies in the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes in a general population remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of early second trimester uterine artery Doppler studies as a predictor of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711742/microcephaly-with-simplified-gyral-pattern-epilepsy-and-permanent-neonatal-diabetes-syndrome-meds-a-new-patient-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Irene Valenzuela, Susana Boronat, Elena Martínez-Sáez, María Clemente, Ángel Sánchez-Montañez, Francina Munell, Antonio Carrascosa, Alfons Macaya
Microcephaly with simplified gyration, epilepsy and permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome (MEDS) is a recently described, autosomal recessive-inherited syndrome. We report the case of an infant presenting with lethargy at age five weeks and clinical findings of persistent hyperglycaemia and microcephaly with simplified gyration, suggestive of MEDS. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of a known c.233 T > C mutation in the IER3IP1 gene. Only eight cases of MEDS have been reported in the literature...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711075/diabetic-nephropathy-and-pregnancy
#5
Kate Bramham
Women with diabetic nephropathy have challenging pregnancies, with pregnancy outcomes far worse than expected for the stage of chronic kidney disease. The underlying mechanisms that cause the adverse events remain poorly understood, but it is a widely held belief that substantial endothelial injury in these women likely contributes. Maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean section rates are high, and offspring are often preterm and of low birth weight, with additional neonatal complications associated with glycemic control...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711069/preterm-birth-and-its-impact-on-renal-health
#6
Valerie A Luyckx
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709520/strategies-to-reduce-disparities-in-maternal-morbidity-and-mortality-the-role-of-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#7
Christina Paidas Teefey, Celeste P Durnwald
Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and preexisting diabetes are known risk factors for increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. These conditions are more prevalent in certain racial and ethnic minorities. Identification and acknowledgement of racial and ethnic inequalities related to maternal metabolic disease is crucial for clinicians to provide the most comprehensive care in pregnancy. Research and clinical efforts should focus on implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions preconceptually and risk reduction efforts in disease complications during pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708105/resveratrol-improves-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetic-obese-mice-by-regulating-glucose-transporter-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-and-liver
#8
Caio Y Yonamine, Erika Pinheiro-Machado, Maria L Michalani, Ana B Alves-Wagner, João V Esteves, Helayne S Freitas, Ubiratan F Machado
Insulin resistance participates in the glycaemic control disruption in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by reducing muscle glucose influx and increasing liver glucose efflux. GLUT4 (Slc2a4 gene) and GLUT2 (Slc2a2 gene) proteins play a fundamental role in the muscle and liver glucose fluxes, respectively. Resveratrol is a polyphenol suggested to have an insulin sensitizer effect; however, this effect, and related mechanisms, have not been clearly demonstrated in T2DM. We hypothesized that resveratrol can improve glycaemic control by restoring GLUT4 and GLUT2 expression in muscle and liver...
July 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707511/maternal-fertility-problems-and-risk-for-transient-neonatal-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Marie Hargreave, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Allan Jensen
AIMS: The study of imprinting disorders in the context of infertility and its treatment is important, as studies have indicated an increased risk. In this study, we evaluated the risk of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM), defined here as diabetes mellitus presenting within the first six weeks of life, in children born to women with fertility problems. METHODS: This nationwide register-based cohort study comprised all 2,107,837 children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2010...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703801/lncrna-miat-functions-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-to-upregulate-dapk2-by-sponging-mir-22-3p-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Xiang Zhou, Wei Zhang, Mengchao Jin, Jianchang Chen, Weiting Xu, Xiangqing Kong
We previously established a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and found that the expression of long non-coding RNA myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) was significantly upregulated. The present study was aimed to determine the pathologic role of MIAT in the development of DCM. MIAT knockdown was found to reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve left ventricular function in diabetic rats. High glucose could increase MIAT expression and induce apoptosis in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699987/relation-between-fetal-anthropometric-parameters-and-cord-blood-adiponectin-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Mohammad Reza Aramesh, Masoud Dehdashtian, Arash Malekian, Shiva ShahAli, Kobra Shojaei
Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the relation between fetal anthropometric parameters and cord blood concentration of adiponectin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Subjects and methods: A total of 104 pregnant women (52 with gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM], 52 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participated. Venous cord blood samples were obtained at delivery, centrifuged and the plasma was stored at -20°C. The samples were assessed for adiponectin and hs-CRP using the ELISA method...
May 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697826/-risk-factors-for-congenital-heart-disease-in-chinese-neonates-a-meta-analysis
#12
Yi Liu, Bei Zhu, Lin Zhuo, Ming-Yu He, Yang Xu, Tong-Tong Wang, Qing-Qing Cai, Bin Hu, Ji-Cheng Xu, Wen-Hui Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the major risk factors for congenital heart disease (CHD) in Chinese neonates and to provide a reference for the prevention of CHD. METHODS: A literature search was performed to collect the case-control studies on the risk factors for CHD in Chinese neonates published in 2001-2016. The relevant data were extracted accordingly. The quality of included studies was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using different models to analyze the same data...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690281/women-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-are-at-low-risk-of-poor-pregnancy-outcome-in-japan
#13
Seishi Furukawa, Kazuko Miyakawa, Joichi Shibata, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, although not consistently across regions. Here, we sought to determine the effect of elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on pregnancy outcomes in Japanese women without known medical complications. TSH was determined by dried blood spots at 8-20 weeks of gestation, and 3.0-10.0 μU/mL of TSH was considered as elevated TSH (eTSH). A retrospective study involving 167 cases of eTSH was conducted. Five hundred and seventy eight of controls with normal TSH and without thyroid antibodies were selected...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679621/maternal-methyl-donor-and-cofactor-supplementation-in-late-pregnancy-increases-%C3%AE-cell-numbers-at-16-days-of-life-in-growth-restricted-twin-lambs
#14
Siti A Sulaiman, Miles J De Blasio, M Lyn Harland, Kathryn L Gatford, Julie A Owens
Restricted growth before birth (IUGR) increases adult risk of Type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin sensitivity and secretion. Altered fetal one-carbon metabolism is implicated in developmental programming of adult health and disease by IUGR. We therefore evaluated effects of maternal dietary supplementation with methyl donors and cofactors (MMDS), designed to increase fetal supply, on insulin action in the spontaneously IUGR twin lamb. In vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured at d 12-14 in singleton controls (CON, n=7 lambs from 7 ewes), twins (IUGR, n=8 lambs from 8 ewes), and twins from ewes that received MMDS (2 g rumen-protected methionine, 300 mg folic acid, 1...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678055/resveratrol-ameliorates-cardiac-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-foxo3a-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Zhiye Wu, Anqing Huang, Jianyun Yan, Bei Liu, Qicai Liu, Jianwu Zhang, Xiuli Zhang, Caiwen Ou, Minsheng Chen
The aim of this study is to explore the effect and mechanism of action of resveratrol (RSV) on cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis contributes to the pathogenic changes in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). RSV treatment inhibited high glucose-induced apoptosis of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Additionally, high glucose decreased cell viability, prevented Akt and FoxO3a phosphorylation, and suppressed cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a.While, these effects of apoptosis were reversed by 10μM of RSV...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676560/congenital-microcephaly-in-quebec-baseline-prevalence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-large-cohort-of-neonates
#16
Nathalie Auger, Caroline Quach, Jessica Healy-Profitós, Anne-Marie Lowe, Laura Arbour
OBJECTIVE: We assessed baseline prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of microcephaly in a large population of neonates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 794 microcephalic and 1 944 010 non-microcephalic infants born between 1989 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline prevalence of microcephaly and occurrence of other congenital anomalies...
July 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676430/insulin-regulates-titin-pre-mrna-splicing-through-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-kinase-axis-in-a-rbm20-dependent-manner
#17
Chaoqun Zhu, Zhiyong Yin, Bihua Tan, Wei Guo
Titin, a giant sarcomeric protein, is largely responsible for the diastolic properties of the heart. It has two major isoforms, N2B and N2BA due to pre-mRNA splicing regulated mainly by a splicing factor RNA binding motif 20 (RBM20). Mis-splicing of titin pre-mRNA in response to external stimuli may lead to altered ratio of N2B to N2BA, and thus, impaired cardiac contractile function. However, little is known about titin alternative splicing in response to external stimuli. Here, we reported the detailed mechanisms of titin alternative splicing in response to insulin...
July 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674636/diabetes-during-pregnancy-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-composite-morbidity
#18
Amy E O'Neil Dudley, Zachary B Jenner, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Viviana S Ellis, Suneet P Chauhan
Objective  This study aims to compare composite maternal and neonatal morbidities (MM, NM) among pregnant women with diabetes mellitus whose body mass index (BMI) at delivery was < 30 (group 1), 30.0 to 39.9 (group 2), and ≥ 40 kg/m (2) (group 3). We hypothesized that increased BMI class at delivery would be associated with worsening maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods  This is a retrospective cohort study. MM was defined as: chorioamnionitis, wound infection, eclampsia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia admission, third/fourth degree laceration, and/or death...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672769/reference-intervals-and-longitudinal-changes-in-copeptin-and-mr-proadm-concentrations-during-pregnancy
#19
Annemiek M C P Joosen, Ivon J M van der Linden, Lianne Schrauwen, Alisia Theeuwes, Monique J M de Groot, Antonius A M Ermens
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin and adrenomedullin and their stable by-products copeptin and midregional part of proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) are promising biomarkers for the development of preeclampsia. However, clinical use is hampered by the lack of trimester-specific reference intervals. We therefore estimated reference intervals for copeptin and MR-proADM in disease-free Dutch women throughout pregnancy. METHODS: Apparently healthy low risk pregnant women were recruited...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672292/association-between-pregnancy-and-perinatal-outcomes-among-women-with-epilepsy
#20
Neda Razaz, Torbjörn Tomson, Anna-Karin Wikström, Sven Cnattingius
Importance: To date, few attempts have been made to examine associations between exposure to maternal epilepsy with or without antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Objectives: To investigate associations between epilepsy in pregnancy and risks of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes as well as whether use of AEDs influenced risks. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted on all singleton births at 22 or more completed gestational weeks in Sweden from 1997 through 2011; of these, 1 424 279 were included in the sample...
July 3, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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