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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229929/intramammary-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-treatment-increases-expression-of-host-defense-genes-in-mammary-immune-cells-of-lactating-dairy-cattle
#1
Kathryn E Merriman, Michael B Poindexter, Mercedes F Kweh, Jose E P Santos, Corwin D Nelson
Bacterial infection of the mammary gland activates an intracrine vitamin D pathway in macrophages of dairy cows. The active hormone of the vitamin D pathway, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), stimulates nitric oxide and β-defensin responses in bovine monocyte cultures, but the effect of 1,25D on innate immune genes in the mammary gland remained unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects intramammary 1,25D treatment on expression of vitamin D associated host-defenses of the bovine mammary gland...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223977/staphylococcal-aureus-enterotoxin-c-and-enterotoxin-like-l-associated-with-post-partum-mastitis
#2
Kristina T Franck, Heidi Gumpert, Bente Olesen, Anders R Larsen, Andreas Petersen, Jette Bangsborg, Per Albertsen, Henrik Westh, Mette D Bartels
Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222802/counts-of-bovine-monocyte-subsets-prior-to-calving-are-predictive-for-postpartum-occurrence-of-mastitis-and-metritis
#3
Brianna Pomeroy, Anja Sipka, Jamal Hussen, Melanie Eger, Ynte Schukken, Hans-Joachim Schuberth
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14(+)/CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)/CD16(+)) and non-classical monocytes (CD14(-)/CD16(+)) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221858/genotypic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitic-milk-in-korea
#4
Jae Won Song, Soo Jin Yang, Sook Shin, Keun Seok Seo, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological pathogen for bovine mastitis, foodborne illness, and various clinical infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been isolated from bovine mastitic milk, and the presence of MRSA in milk is a major public health concern. We investigated the frequency of MRSA isolation from mastitic raw milk in Korea and characterized the patterns of antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genotypes of the MRSA isolates. A total of 1,222 raw milk samples were collected from 47 dairy farms in Gyeonggi province from 2011 to 2012...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220561/genetic-trends-for-fertility-udder-health-and-protein-yield-in-swedish-red-cattle-estimated-with-different-models
#5
S Eriksson, K Johansson, H Hansen Axelsson, W F Fikse
The aim of this study was to estimate and compare genetic trends in Swedish Red cattle using a full multiple-trait (MT) model and trait-group-wise models for female fertility, udder health and protein yield. Field data for maiden heifers from 1989 and cows with a first and second lactation between 1990 and 2007 were included. (Co)variance components were estimated prior to prediction of breeding values. The estimated genetic trends were clearly favourable for protein yield and udder conformation, and in most cases neutral to favourable for clinical mastitis and calving to first insemination...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219684/development-of-magnetic-nanoparticle-based-calorimetric-assay-for-the-detection-of-bovine-mastitis-in-cow-milk
#6
Raja Chinnappan, Sana Al Attas, Gerrit Koop, Tine van Werven, Wendy E Kaman, Floris J Bikker, Mohammed Zourob
Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217653/corticosteroid-and-azithromycin-in-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis
#7
Marzieh Salehi, Maryam Salehi, Nader Kalbasi, Atousa Hakamifard, Hassan Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi Salehi, Jalil Sharifian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215885/robotic-milking-feeding-strategies-and-economic-returns
#8
Alex Bach, Victor Cabrera
Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213532/susceptibility-and-pk-pd-relationships-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-from-ovine-and-caprine-with-clinical-mastitis-against-five-veterinary-fluoroquinolones
#9
J M Serrano-Rodríguez, C Cárceles-García, C M Cárceles-Rodríguez, M L Gabarda, J M Serrano-Caballero, E Fernández-Varón
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of veterinary fluoroquinolones as enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin and marbofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus strains (n=24) isolated from milk of sheep and goats affected by clinical mastitis were evaluated. The authors have used the MIC and MPC, as well as the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in plasma and milk. MIC values were significantly different between drugs, unlike MPC values...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210926/a-fatal-suppurative-pneumonia-in-piglets-caused-by-a-pathogenic-coagulase-positive-strain-of-staphylococcus-hyicus
#10
Mingyue Wang, Junying Hu, Lisai Zhu, Chunguang Guo, Haibing Lu, Changming Guo, Xin Li, Xinping Wang
Staphylococcus hyicus is one of the opportunistic pathogens that cause infections to animals. Early studies have demonstrated that S. hyicus is the causative agents of exudative epidermitis in pigs, arthritis in horses and chicken, mastitis in cow, and bacteremia, sepsis and multiple organ failure in humans. Here, we report the isolation and identification of a representative S. hyicus isolate, named JLHN15, from a pig farm with a disease characterized by bacteremia, suppurative pneumonia and fibrinous pericarditis...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208877/evaluation-of-antibiotic-residues-in-pasteurized-and-raw-milk-distributed-in-the-south-of-khorasan-e-razavi-province-iran
#11
Mortez Mohammadzadeh Moghadam, Mostafa Amiri, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal Riabi
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. AIM: This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205255/effect-of-postnatal-hiv-treatment-on-clinical-mastitis-and-breast-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-breast-feeding-women
#12
Sabrina Zadrozny, Daniel Westreich, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Chasela, Denise J Jamieson, Francis Martinson, Chifundo Zimba, Gerald Tegha, Irving Hoffman, William C Miller, Brian W Pence, Caroline C King, Athena P Kourtis, Wezi Msungama, Charles van der Horst
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. METHODS: In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning...
March 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196553/association-between-body-energy-content-in-the-dry-period-and-post-calving-production-disease-status-in-dairy-cattle
#13
G L Smith, N C Friggens, C J Ashworth, M G G Chagunda
The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse...
February 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188901/trueperella-pyogenes-isolated-from-dairy-cows-with-endometritis-in-inner-mongolia-china-tetracycline-susceptibility-and-tetracycline-resistance-gene-distribution
#14
Dexian Zhang, Jingcui Zhao, Qiuxia Wang, Yaochuan Liu, Chunlian Tian, Yujun Zhao, Lihui Yu, Mingchun Liu
Trueperella pyogenes plays a crucial role in endometritis pathogenesis and is also associated with many infections, including metritis, mastitis, arthritis and liver abscessation, in many domestic animals. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in T. pyogenes isolated from dairy cows with endometritis in Inner Mongolia, China, and we assessed tetracycline-resistance gene distribution among the isolates. Our results indicated that 68.7% and 62.5% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively, and the rate of resistance to metacycline was 18...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188314/firm-non-tender-mass-in-right-breast-%C3%A2-worsening-nonproductive-cough-%C3%A2-pleuritic-pain-%C3%A2-dx
#15
Trang D Lehman, Zubin Damania, Clifford N Tschetter, Norman L Lehman
Granulomatous lesions, such as foreign body granuloma, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), and sarcoidosis can mimic breast carcinoma. IGM is associated with elevated prolactin (eg, pregnancy or oral contraceptive use) and is usually subareolar. Infection, however, is also commonly subareolar.
January 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185209/meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-mastitis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#16
Abraham Mekibeb Getaneh, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin
Mastitis is among the most prevalent disease that contributes for the reduction of milk production in dairy herds. Although several published studies have estimated the prevalence of mastitis, variation among studies is great. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to provide a pooled estimate of the prevalence of overall, clinical, and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A pooled estimate was also conducted by potential risk factors. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2002 to June 2016...
February 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184027/baicalin-promotes-the-bacteriostatic-activity-of-lysozyme-on-s-aureus-in-mammary-glands-and-neutrophilic-granulocytes-in-mice
#17
Xuejiao Gao, Mengyao Guo, Zecai Zhang, Peng Shen, Zhengtao Yang, Naisheng Zhang
Staphylococcus aureus causes mastitis as a result of community-acquired or nosocomial infections. Lysozyme (LYSO) is an enzyme that is upregulated in many organisms during the innate immune response against infection by bacterial pathogens. Baicalin is a bioactive flavonoid that can bind to enzymes, often to potentiate their effect. Here we tested the effects of baicalin on the activity of LYSO using the S. aureus mastitis mouse model and neutrophilic granulocyte model of S. aureus infection. In our experiments, S...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183755/complete-genome-sequence-of-mycoplasma-bovigenitalium-strain-haz-596-from-a-bovine-vagina-in-japan
#18
Eiji Hata, Kazuya Nagai, Kenji Murakami
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183165/evaluation-of-microbiological-cellular-and-risk-factors-associated-with-subclinical-mastitis-in-female-buffaloes
#19
Emmanuella Oliveira Moura, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel, Maria Celeste Nunes de Melo, Luiz Henrique Fernandes Borba, Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior, Luciano Patto Novaes, Stela Antas Urbano, Júlio César de Andrade Neto
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and cellular milk profile for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in female buffaloes and to assess risk factors for predisposition of the disease. Methods: Analyses were carried out by standard plate count (SPC), identification of species and antibiotic resistance, somatic cell count (SCC), electrical conductivity of milk (ECM), and Lactoferrin content in milk (Lfe). Teat cups were swabbed to evaluate risk factors, observing hyperkeratosis, milking vacuum pressure and cleanliness of the site...
February 1, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182101/periductal-mastitis-an-inflammatory-disease-related-to-bacterial-infection-and-consequent-immune-responses
#20
Lu Liu, Fei Zhou, Pin Wang, Lixiang Yu, Zhongbing Ma, Yuyang Li, Dezong Gao, Qiang Zhang, Liang Li, Zhigang Yu
Periductal mastitis (PDM) is a prolonged inflammatory disease, but the cause of PDM is poorly understood. In the present case control study, 87 PDM and 87 healthy controls were enrolled and the results were evaluated to identify the significant risk factors for PDM. To investigate the roles of bacterial infection and critical cytokines expression, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial culturing were conducted. We also measured the levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-12A, and interleukin-17A by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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