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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637532/estimating-the-economic-impact-of-subclinical-ketosis-in-dairy-cattle-using-a-dynamic-stochastic-simulation-model
#1
P F Mostert, E A M Bokkers, C E van Middelaar, H Hogeveen, I J M de Boer
The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability. Estimating the economic impact of SCK may make farmers more aware of this problem, and can improve their decision-making regarding interventions to reduce SCK. We developed a dynamic stochastic simulation model that enables estimating the economic impact of SCK and related diseases (i...
June 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635647/virulence-genes-of-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-mastitis-and-contagiousness-risk
#2
Giada Magro, Stefano Biffani, Giulietta Minozzi, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Mario Luini, Renata Piccinini
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S...
June 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629368/identification-and-characterization-of-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-in-bovine-mammary-glands
#3
Chao Tong, Qiaoling Chen, Lili Zhao, Junfei Ma, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu, Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mammary glands of dairy cattle produce milk for the newborn offspring and for human consumption. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play various functions in eukaryotic cells. However, types and roles of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands are still poorly understood. RESULTS: Using computational methods, 886 unknown intergenic transcripts (UITs) were identified from five RNA-seq datasets from bovine mammary glands. Their non-coding potentials were predicted by using the combination of four software programs (CPAT, CNCI, CPC and hmmscan), with 184 lincRNAs identified...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626750/quantifying-preferences-of-farmers-and-veterinarians-for-national-animal-health-programs-the-example-of-bovine-mastitis-and-antimicrobial-usage-in-switzerland
#4
Bart H P van den Borne, Felix J S van Soest, Martin Reist, Henk Hogeveen
Bovine udder health in Switzerland is of a relatively high level. However, antimicrobial usage (AMU) seems high in comparison to other European countries also. A new udder health and AMU improvement program could improve this situation but it is uncertain whether there is support from the field. This study aimed to quantify preferences of dairy farmers and veterinarians for the start and design characteristics of a new national udder health and AMU improvement program in Switzerland. A total of 478 dairy farmers and 98 veterinarians completed an online questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#5
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625182/bovine-intra-mammary-challenge-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-spp-dysgalactiae-to-explore-the-effect-on-the-response-of-complement-activity
#6
Susan Maye, James Flynn, Catherine Stanton, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Philip M Kelly
Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624285/short-communication-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-and-vancomycin-heteroresistance-in-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis
#7
Priscila Luiza Mello, Luiza Pinheiro, Lisiane de Almeida Martins, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
The use of antimicrobial agents has led to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains over a relatively short period. Furthermore, Staphylococcus spp. can produce β-lactamase, which explains the survival of these strains in a focus of infection despite the use of a β-lactam antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis to oxacillin and vancomycin (by minimum inhibitory concentration) and to detect vancomycin heteroresistance by a screening method...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624278/estimation-of-prevalence-and-incidence-of-subclinical-mastitis-in-a-large-population-of-brazilian-dairy-herds
#8
Marcos Busanello, Rodolfo S Rossi, Laerte D Cassoli, José C F Pantoja, Paulo F Machado
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis (SM) in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds and to describe how these indices changed over time. A data set comprising individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from 18,316 test days (TD) of 1,809 herds that participated in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program between January 2011 and May 2015 was available for analysis. Only tests that had ≥10 lactating cows and that were performed at 30 ± 10-d intervals were used for analysis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#9
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624010/lupus-mastitis-as-a-first-manifestation-of-systemic-disease-about-two-cases-with-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Béatrice Voizard, Lucie Lalonde, Lilia Maria Sanchez, Johanne Richard-Chesnay, Julie David, Maude Labelle, Mona El Khoury, Isabelle Trop
Lupus mastitis is an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that affects the subcutaneous fat in the breast, much like lupus panniculitis, but additionally involves the mammary gland. We report on two women for whom lupus mastitis was the initial manifestation of SLE and provide a literature review of 34 additional cases reported in the Anglo-Saxon and French literature since 1971, making this the largest review to date. Lupus mastitis (LM) can manifest clinically as subcutaneous masses that may be painful, or may present cutaneous involvement such as thickening and discolouration...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622861/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-collected-between-1986-and-2015-from-ovine-mastitis
#11
Elisa Azara, Maria Giovanna Piras, Antonio Parisi, Sebastiana Tola
In this research, 330 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, collected in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 1986-2015 from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines, were analyzed. Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion, according to CLSI recommendations. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. The most of isolates (85.2%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, suggesting that did not exist change of resistance over time. Two isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), one of them (isolate 1496) showed resistance to seven antibiotics including oxacillin and erythromycin...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#12
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620255/detection-of-emerging-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-isolated-from-subclinical-mastitis-in-cattle-in-west-bengal
#13
Arnab Das, Chanchal Guha, Ujjwal Biswas, Partha Sarathi Jana, Amaresh Chatterjee, Indranil Samanta
AIM: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620250/influence-of-clinical-mastitis-and-its-treatment-outcome-on-reproductive-performance-in-crossbred-cows-a-retrospective-study
#14
Narender Kumar, A Manimaran, M Sivaram, A Kumaresan, S Jeyakumar, L Sreela, P Mooventhan, D Rajendran
AIM: Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM) and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012) were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH), days to first insemination (DTFI), days open (DO), and number of services per conception (SC) were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619154/an-unusual-culprit-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-septicaemia-outbreaks-in-neonatal-pigs
#15
Bethany G Bowring, V Anthony Fahy, Andrew Morris, Alison M Collins
This study investigated the cause of recent outbreaks of septicaemia in neonatal pigs in Australia (Victoria and Queensland). Septicaemia in neonatal pigs is commonly caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and beta-haemolytic streptococci. Infrequent causes of septicaemia are Actinobacillus suis and Citrobacter freundii. Therefore, it was quite unexpected when Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in predominant growth from multiple organs of pigs dying of septicaemia from six days of age...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619151/effects-of-vitamin-d-and-its-metabolites-on-cell-viability-and-staphylococcus-aureus-invasion-into-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#16
Yuan Yue, Lone Hymøller, Søren K Jensen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Stig Purup
Vitamin D has been found have various biological effects that may be potent in preventing bovine mastitis. Two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D2 (D2) and vitamin D3 (D3), can be hydroxylated to functional metabolites in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of vitamin D compounds for controlling bovine mastitis using in vitro cell models, and to compare the differences between D2 and D3 compounds. Results showed that D2 compounds have comparable effects to their D3 analogues on inhibiting MAC-T cell viability in vitro...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615128/17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-progesterone-decrease-mdp-induced-nod2-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
Dan-Dan Xu, Gang Wang, Xian-Jing He, Jian-Fa Wang, Bin Yang, Zhi-Peng Sun, Dong-Bo Sun, Qian-Yu He, Xu Zhang, Rui Wu
During the periparturient period, many neuroendocrine changes develop in cows. Periparturient hormone fluxes may adversely affect mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. 17β-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have been reported to function on immune regulation, and their concentration fluctuates dramatically during the perinatal period. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) mediate numerous aspects of innate immunity in humans and experimental animals. This study aimed to explore the effects of E2 and P4 on NOD2 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs)...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615125/effect-of-mycoplasma-bovis-on-bovine-neutrophils
#18
Steve Jimbo, Muhammad Suleman, Teresia Maina, Tracy Prysliak, Musa Mulongo, Jose Perez-Casal
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a small bacterium that lacks a cell wall. M. bovis infection results in chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome (CPPS), otitis media, conjunctivitis, and meningitis in feedlot cattle and mastitis in dairy cattle. Numerous studies of peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) indicate that M. bovis evades host immunity through targeted effects on immune cell activity, including inhibition of effector function and simultaneous aberrant activation of immune cell activity that has no effect on protection against the bacterium...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615028/experimentally-induced-subclinical-mastitis-are-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-eliciting-similar-pain-responses
#19
Annalisa Elena Jolanda Giovannini, Bart Henricus Philippus van den Borne, Samantha Kay Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert Max Bruckmaier, Claudia Spadavecchia
BACKGROUND: Pain accompanying mastitis has gained attention recently as a relevant welfare compromising aspect of disease. Adequate pain recognition and therapy are necessary in the context of a modern and ethically acceptable dairy care. For research purposes mastitis is often induced by intramammary infusion of immunogenic bacterial cell wall components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus are commonly administered to this end...
June 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611405/local-immunization-impacts-the-response-of-dairy-cows-to-escherichia-coli-mastitis
#20
Vincent Herry, Christophe Gitton, Guillaume Tabouret, Maryline Répérant, Laurine Forge, Christian Tasca, Florence B Gilbert, Edouard Guitton, Céline Barc, Christophe Staub, David G E Smith, Pierre Germon, Gilles Foucras, Pascal Rainard
Current vaccines to Escherichia coli mastitis have shown some albeit limited efficacy. Their mode of action has not been documented, and immune responses protecting the mammary gland against E. coli are not completely understood. To improve our knowledge of mammary gland immune protection, cows immunized either intramuscularly or intramammarily with the E. coli P4 were submitted to a homologous mastitis challenge. A third group of mock-immunized cows serve as challenge controls. Local immunization modified favorably the course of infection, by improving bacterial clearance while limiting inflammation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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