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Svetlana Ferreira Lima, Marcela Lucas de Souza Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
Amplicon sequencing technique has been increasingly applied to the clinical setting as a sensitive diagnostic tool. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a DNA extraction method that accurate isolates DNA from complex host-associated microbiota. Given the multifactorial etiology of clinical mastitis and the diversified lifestyle of bacterial species harboring in milk, here four distinct milk sample fractions: raw whole milk, milk fat, casein-pellet, and casein-pellet + fat from healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis, were subjected to bead-beating DNA extraction, followed by high-throughput sequencing...
2018: PloS One
Firas Mahmoud Hayajneh
The present study aims to evaluate the amount of immunoglobulins A, G, and M in she-camel blood serum in relation with the presence of pathogens in the udder, and to compare the antioxidative capacity and the concentration of zinc, iron, total proteins, and calcium. Milk and blood samples from she-camels from south Jordan were taken; according to milk bacteriological examination, the animals were divided into two groups: (Gm) which contained samples of milk contaminated with bacteria and (Gh) which contained uncontaminated milk samples...
March 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Samantha K Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Daniel Schwarz
Intramammary infections induce the initiation of the inflammatory response, resulting in an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. The SCC includes several different types of cells but does not differentiate between them. On the contrary, the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) parameter allows for the differentiation between 2 groups of cells: polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and lymphocytes versus macrophages. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe the changes of both DSCC and SCC during mastitis induced by cell wall components from typical mastitis-causing pathogens [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Escherichia coli; lipoteichoic acid (LTA), Staphylococcus aureus] known to trigger different severities of mastitis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M M McCarthy, M W Overton
The objective of this research was to determine the effect of disease misclassification on the estimated effect of metritis on milk production. Misclassification introduces bias that usually results in an underestimation of the association between exposure (disease) and the outcome of interest (milk production). This distorted measure of association results from the comparison of an affected population (some of which may not truly be affected) to a nonaffected population (which often includes affected subjects that are unidentified)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jair C Ferreira, Marilia S Gomes, Erika C R Bonsaglia, Igor F Canisso, Edgar F Garrett, Jamie L Stewart, Ziyao Zhou, Fabio S Lima
Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows...
2018: PloS One
Mauro Zaninelli, Veronica Redaelli, Fabio Luzi, Valerio Bronzo, Malcolm Mitchell, Vittorio Dell'Orto, Valentino Bontempo, Donata Cattaneo, Giovanni Savoini
The aim of the present study was to test infrared thermography (IRT), under field conditions, as a possible tool for the evaluation of cow udder health status. Thermographic images (n. 310) from different farms (n. 3) were collected and evaluated using a dedicated software application to calculate automatically and in a standardized way, thermographic indices of each udder. Results obtained have confirmed a significant relationship between udder surface skin temperature (USST) and classes of somatic cell count in collected milk samples...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
Massimiliano Magro, Mattia Zaccarin, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Da Dalt, Davide Baratella, Piero Fariselli, Gianfranco Gabai, Fabio Vianello
Surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) are able to recognize and bind selected proteins in complex biological systems, forming a hard protein corona. Upon a 5-min incubation in bovine whey from mastitis-affected cows, a significant enrichment of a single peptide characterized by a molecular weight at 4338 Da originated from the proteolysis of aS1 -casein was observed. Notably, among the large number of macromolecules in bovine milk, the detection of this specific peptide can hardly be accomplished by conventional analytical techniques...
March 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ming-Qing Gao, Ruiqi Zhang, Yange Yang, Yuru Luo, Ming Jiang, Yingli Zhang, Yong Zhang, Suzhu Qing
Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Cedric W Pluguez-Turull, Jennifer E Nanyes, Cristina J Quintero, Hamza Alizai, Daniel D Mais, Kenneth A Kist, Nella C Dornbluth
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast entity characterized by lobulocentric granulomas. IGM has a persistent or recurrent disease course and affects parous premenopausal women with a history of lactation. It has also been associated with hyperprolactinemia. The most common clinical sign is a palpable tender mass. However, the nonspecific manifestations and varied demographic features of this condition, as well as the other similar-appearing and superimposed breast entities, pose substantial diagnostic challenges...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Hossein Jamali, Herman W Barkema, Mario Jacques, Eve-Marie Lavallée-Bourget, François Malouin, Vineet Saini, Henrik Stryhn, Simon Dufour
Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the most frequent and costly diseases in dairy cows. A frustrating aspect of CM is its recurrent nature. This review was conducted to synthesize knowledge on risk of repeated cases of CM, effects of recurrent CM cases, and risk factors for CM recurrence. A systematic review methodology was used to identify articles for this narrative review. Searches were performed to identify relevant scientific literature published after 1989 in English or French from 2 databases (PubMed and CAB Abstracts) and 1 search platform (Web of Science)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ali Naqvi, Diego B Nobrega, Paul E Ronksley, Herman W Barkema
Clinical mastitis affects 3% of primiparous dairy cattle (heifers) in the first month after calving. Additionally, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the months before first calving is high, resulting in a high prevalence of heifers calving with IMI. Precalving therapy is an accepted recommendation for reducing mastitis in multiparous cows, but prophylactic treatment for heifers is uncommon in North America. Objectives of this study were to (1) quantify changes in postcalving udder health in heifers following application of a precalving treatment; (2) compare effectiveness among various types of treatments; and (3) compare effectiveness of various types of treatments against specific pathogens...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gilly Regev, James Martins, Michael P Sheridan, Jonathan Leemhuis, James Thompson, Christopher Miller
Nitric oxide-releasing solution (NORS) is a liquid formulation that releases nitric oxide, a broad spectrum antimicrobial, single electron nitroxide radical. This solution was investigated as a potential antimicrobial treatment for bovine mastitis (BM). Three experiments were performed: a) NORS' effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro model; b) NORS' effect on milk obtained from dairy cows showing symptoms of clinical mastitis; and c) the consequences of administering NORS to healthy milking cattle using a dose-escalating in vivo study...
February 22, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions in the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers and is an important public health issue. Severe VACV-induced lesions in the teats and udder of cows and buffaloes could lead to mastitis and other secondary infections, thereby reducing productivity and resulting in economic losses to the dairy industry. In Brazil, BV re-emerged in the late 1990s and is now endemic in most of the Brazilian territory...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Yujie Qiao, Jessica H Hayward, Ronald Balassanian, Kimberly M Ray, Bonnie N Joe, Amie Y Lee
Tuberculosis mastitis can be a challenging diagnosis, often presenting with clinical and imaging findings that are suspicious for malignancy. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a breast mass initially diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Failure to respond to standard treatments, development of new breast masses, and discovery of a concurrent ulcerating thigh rash with similar histologic findings as the breast masses prompted further investigation, which ultimately lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis mastitis...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Amjad Islam Aqib, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Ijaz, Riaz Hussain, Rais Ahmed, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Hassan Bin Aslam, Kashif Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
The predominant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), an etiological agent of camel mastitis is becoming drug resistant that invites prevention and control strategies. Vaccine production would have a valuable impact on public health. Therefore, in present study inactivated vaccine with different adjuvants was prepared and evaluated against S. aureus. The vaccinal isolate recovered from camel subclinical mastitis was coagulase positive (PCR based), having expressed pseudocapsule, holding alpha-beta hemolysin characteristics, and multiple drug resistant...
March 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
M G Wagener, S Leonhard-Marek, J-D Häger, C Pfarrer
Mastitis is a common economically relevant problem in dairy farming. As the major entry for pathogens is the papillary duct, one of the first defence mechanisms is the teat sphincter. This sphincter shows a rhythmic contractility of yet unknown origin. Searching for possible modulatory pacemaker cells, teat sphincters of eight cows were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against CD117 and vimentin and evaluated microscopically for the presence of telocytes. CD117- and vimentin-positive telocytes with telopodes were found in close contact with smooth muscle cells...
March 5, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Jane Heller, Franklyn B Garry
Background: There is an increasing push for dairy production to be scientifically grounded and ethically responsible in the oversight of animal health and well-being. Addressing underlying challenges affecting the quality and length of productive life necessitates novel assessment and accountability metrics. Human medical epidemiologists developed the Disability-Adjusted Life Year metric as a summary measure of health addressing the complementary nature of disease and death. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a dairy Disease-Adjusted Lactation (DALact) summary measure of health, as a comparison against cumulative disease frequency...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
C Fischer-Tenhagen, V Theby, V Krömker, W Heuwieser
Fast and accurate identification of disease-causing pathogens is essential for specific antimicrobial therapy in human and veterinary medicine. In these experiments, dogs were trained to identify Staphylococcus aureus and differentiate it from other common mastitis-causing pathogens by smell. Headspaces from agar plates, inoculated raw milk samples, or field samples collected from cows with Staphylococcus aureus and other mastitis-causing pathogens were used for training and testing. The ability to learn the specific odor of Staphylococcus aureus in milk depended on the concentration of the pathogens in the training samples...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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