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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#1
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143711/defining-the-breeding-goal-for-a-sheep-breed-including-production-and-functional-traits-using-market-data
#2
A Theodoridis, A Ragkos, G Rose, D Roustemis, G Arsenos
In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143705/rumination-time-and-monitoring-of-health-disorders-during-early-lactation
#3
S Paudyal, F P Maunsell, J T Richeson, C A Risco, D A Donovan, P J Pinedo
The objective was to evaluate the association between changes in daily rumination time (dRT) and early stages of disease during early lactation and to assess the performance of two proposed disease detection indices. This cohort study included 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit. Cows were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers providing rumination time. The occurrence of health disorders (mastitis, metritis, clinical hypocalcemia, depression/dehydration/fever (DDF), digestive conditions, lameness and clinical ketosis) was assessed until 60 days in milk...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138800/broadleaf-mahonia-attenuates-granulomatous-lobular-mastitis%C3%A2-associated-inflammation-by-inhibiting-ccl%C3%A2-5-expression-in-macrophages
#4
Zhiyu Wang, Neng Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Qi Wang, Biao Xu, Pengxi Liu, Huayu Zhu, Jianping Chen, Honglin Situ, Yi Lin
Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a type of chronic mammary inflammation with unclear etiology. Currently systematic corticosteroids and methitrexate are considered as the main drugs for GLM treatment, but a high toxicity and risk of recurrence greatly limit their application. It is therefore an urgent requirement that safe and efficient natural drugs are found to improve the GLM prognosis. Broadleaf Mahonia (BM) is a traditional Chinese herb that is believed to have anti‑inflammatory properties according to ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136922/immunosensing-system-for-rapid-multiplex-detection-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-in-milk
#5
Delia Juronen, Ave Kuusk, Kairi Kivirand, Ago Rinken, Toonika Rinken
Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue, is the major endemic disease of dairy cattle. In addition to causing health problems to the animals, mastitis leads to the reduction of milk production and quality, representing a significant economic burden for farmers. To enable timely treatment of infected animals with pathogen-specific antibiotics, the development of automated analytical methods for rapid on-site identification and quantification of mastitis-causing pathogens in milk is particularly important...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135348/development-of-a-surgical-infection-surveillance-program-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia-lessons-learned-from-two-surveillance-strategies
#6
Jared A Forrester, Luca Koritsanszky, Benjamin D Parsons, Menbere Hailu, Demisew Amenu, Seifu Alemu, Fekadu Jiru, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We developed Clean Cut, a surgical infection prevention program, with two goals: (1) Increase adherence to evidence-based peri-operative infection prevention standards and (2) establish sustainable surgical infection surveillance. Here we describe our infection surveillance strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clean Cut was piloted and evaluated at a 523 bed tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
November 14, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134942/intramammary-infusion-of-a-live-culture-of-lactococcus-lactis-in-ewes-to-treat-staphylococcal-mastitis
#7
Sebastian Alessandro Mignacca, Simone Dore, Liliana Spuria, Pietro Zanghì, Benedetta Amato, Ilaria Duprè, Federica Armas, Elena Biasibetti, Cristina Camperio, Stefano A Lollai, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Eugenia Agnese Cannas, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Cinzia Marianelli
PURPOSE: Alternatives to antibiotic therapy for mastitis in ruminants are needed. We present an evaluation, in two trials, of the efficacy of an intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis for the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in ewes. METHODOLOGY: In total, 67 animals were enrolled: 19 lactating ewes (study 1), including healthy (N=6) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-infected ewes (N=13); and 48 lactating ewes (study 2) with either CNS mastitis (N=32), or Staphylococcus aureus mastitis (N=16), for a total of 123 mammary glands...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129139/effect-of-using-an-internal-teat-sealant-at-drying-off-in-cows-wintered-on-forage-crops-in-new-zealand-on-culling-in-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#8
A J Bates, B Saldias
AIMS: To determine the impact of treatment with internal teat sealant (ITS) compared to no treatment at drying-off on culling during the dry period and 90 days after calving, for cows wintered on forage crops. METHODS: In four dairy herds in the South Island of New Zealand, cows with no history of clinical mastitis or somatic cell counts >100,000 cells/mL during the 2015-16 season were randomly assigned to treatment with ITS in each quarter (ITS group) or no treatment (Control group)...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119825/why-chinese-mothers-stop-breastfeeding-mothers-self-reported-reasons-for-stopping-during-the-first-six-months
#9
Ke Sun, Miaoxia Chen, Yuzhu Yin, Lingling Wu, Lingling Gao
The reasons why mothers in mainland China stop breastfeeding before their infants were six months old was investigated. Five hundred sixty-two mothers within two to three days after delivery in a hospital in Guangzhou, China, were followed up via telephone interview at one, four, and six months postpartum between January and August 2015 to assess their infant's feeding patterns and mother's reasons for breastfeeding cessation. Measures included the questionnaire about sociodemographic, psychosocial, and perinatal characteristics, the Breastfeeding Outcome Questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117479/effect-of-treatment-with-an-internal-teat-sealant-at-drying-off-in-cows-wintered-on-forage-crops-in-new-zealand-on-clinical-mastitis-and-somatic-cell-counts
#10
A J Bates, B Saldias
AIMS: To determine the impact of treatment with internal teat sealant (ITS) compared to no treatment at drying-off on the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) during the dry period and 84 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with somatic cell counts (SCC) ≥200,000 cells/mL at the first lactation herd test, for cows wintered on forage crops. METHODS: In four dairy herds in the South Island of New Zealand, cows with no history of CM or individual SCC >100,000 cells/mL during the 2015-16 season were randomly assigned to treatment with ITS in each quarter (ITS group) at drying-off or no treatment (Control group)...
November 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113806/cynatratoside-c-from-cynanchum-atratum-displays-anti-inflammatory-effect-via-suppressing-tlr4-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-lps-induced-mastitis-in-mice
#11
Ge Hu, Dong Hong, Tao Zhang, Huiqin Duan, Panying Wei, Xinxin Guo, Xiang Mu
The present study was conducted to isolate anti-inflammatory compound from Cynanchum atratum and investigate the molecular mechanisms of active compound against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice. Bioassay-guided fractionations and isolation (via ex vivo tests) of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity were performed on roots of C. atratum yielding a pure bioactive compound: Cynatratoside-C, identified by comparing spectral data (EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) with literature values. Ex vivo tests showed that Cynatratoside-C inhibited the expression of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells...
November 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104012/angptl3-is-part-of-the-machinery-causing-dyslipidemia-majorily-via-lpl-inhibition-in-mastitis-mice
#12
Hong-Bo Xiao, Ji-Ying Wang, Zhi-Liang Sun
Previous investigations have shown that inflammation induces changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and increased expression of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) contributes to the development of dyslipidemia. Here we investigated whether there is a correlation between increased ANGPTL3 expression and dyslipidemia in mastitis mice. Thirty mice were divided into two groups: control group and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced mastitis mice group. Changes in the levels of blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)]; activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO); concentrations of plasma inflammation biomarkers [interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1α (IL-1α)]; concentration of plasma ANGPTL3 protein; lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in postheparin plasma; expressions of hepatic N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), hepatic ANGPTL3 and adipose LPL were determined...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103728/short-communication-cold-atmospheric-plasma-inactivation-of-prototheca-zopfii-isolated-from-bovine-milk
#13
E Tyczkowska-Sieron, J Markiewicz, B Grzesiak, H Krukowski, A Glowacka, J Tyczkowski
Mastitis is a serious bovine diseases that can be caused by Prototheca zopfii, yeast-like algae belonging to the family Chlorellaceae. The substantial economic losses and health damage associated with bovine mastitis emphasize the need to develop effective strategies aimed at control of the infection. Unfortunately, P. zopfii is highly resistant to most common antibacterial and antifungal agents, as well as to heat treatment. We report here the first attempt to use cold atmospheric plasma to inactivate this pathogen...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103725/association-of-immediate-postpartum-plasma-calcium-concentration-with-early-lactation-clinical-diseases-culling-reproduction-and-milk-production-in-holstein-cows
#14
R C Neves, B M Leno, M D Curler, M J Thomas, T R Overton, J A A McArt
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of postpartum plasma Ca concentration with early-lactation disease outcomes, culling within 60 d in milk, pregnancy to first service, and milk production. A total of 1,453 cows from 5 commercial dairy farms in New York State were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from February to November 2015. Blood samples were collected within 12 h of parturition, and plasma was submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for total Ca measurement. Early-lactation disease, reproductive performance, and milk production from Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test-day data were compiled from each farm's management software...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103724/mild-and-severe-udder-cleft-dermatitis-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-swedish-dairy-herds
#15
L Ekman, A-K Nyman, H Landin, U Magnusson, K Persson Waller
Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is an inflammatory skin condition affecting the anterior parts of the udder of dairy cows. The lesions may present as mild or severe skin lesions and have been associated with mastitis and digital dermatitis. The full etiology and pathogenesis are not understood and no large-scale studies have investigated prevalence and risk factors. Therefore, the main objectives of the study were to investigate the prevalence of mild and severe UCD in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors associated with such lesions...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103687/reproduction-of-respiratory-mycoplasmosis-in-calves-by-exposure-to-an-aerosolised-culture-of-mycoplasma-bovis
#16
Anna Kanci, Nadeeka K Wawegama, Marc S Marenda, Peter D Mansell, Glenn F Browning, Philip F Markham
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle, causing pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media in young calves, and mastitis in lactating cows, resulting in increased morbidity and, in some instances, mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of a M. bovis isolate following nebulisation and to establish whether respiratory disease similar to that seen in the field could be induced in calves by exposing them to an aerosolised culture of M. bovis. A group of eight M. bovis-free calves 14-28days old were exposed to an aerosolised culture of a field isolate of M...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103679/testing-cathelicidin-susceptibility-of-bacterial-mastitis-isolates-technical-challenges-and-data-output-for-clinical-isolates
#17
Melissa N Langer, Stefanie Blodkamp, Martin Bayerbach, Andrea T Feßler, Nicole de Buhr, Thomas Gutsmann, Lothar Kreienbrock, Stefan Schwarz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli, is a major economic problem in dairy industry. In order to limit the presence of multi-resistant bacteria in bovine mastitis, alternatives for the treatment with antibiotics are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been discussed as a potential new strategy against bacterial infections. They are key players in the innate immune system, as they can directly act against microorganisms or modulate the immune system...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102148/short-communication-effect-of-freezer-storage-time-and-thawing-method-on-the-recovery-of-mycoplasma-bovis-from-bovine-colostrum
#18
L Gille, F Boyen, L Van Driessche, B Valgaeren, F Haesebrouck, P Deprez, B Pardon
Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, and pneumonia, arthritis, and otitis in calves. Milk and colostrum are considered important sources of infection for calves. Knowledge on the effect of on-farm freezing (-18°C) and thawing methods on the recovery of M. bovis from colostrum samples is missing. In this study, 2 separate experiments were performed. The first experiment consisted of a longitudinal study examining the survival [as measured by log(10) reduction] of 2 M. bovis strains in frozen colostrum over 14 wk...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102141/determinants-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-udder-health-in-danish-dairy-cattle-herds
#19
Maya Gussmann, Kaare Græsbøll, Nils Toft, Søren S Nielsen, Michael Farre, Carsten Kirkeby, Tariq Halasa
Societal pressure to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock production systems, including dairy cattle systems, is consistently increasing. To motivate farmers to reduce antibiotic usage, it is important to understand the factors that determine whether a cow will be treated with antibiotics or not. If farmers' usual practices regarding antibiotic treatments are taken into account, they may be motivated to adopt control measures that can facilitate prudent use of antibiotics and are at the same time cost-effective...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101196/genome-wide-identification-of-fitness-factors-in-mastitis-associated-escherichia-coli
#20
Michael A Olson, Timothy W Siebach, Joel S Griffitts, Eric Wilson, David L Erickson
Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) have not been identified, and it is not known how bacterial gene content influences severity of mastitis. Here, we report the first genome-wide identification of genes that contribute to fitness of MPEC in conditions relevant to the natural history of the disease. A highly virulent clinical isolate (M12) was identified that killed Galleria mellonella at low infectious doses and which replicated to high numbers in mouse mammary glands and spread to spleens...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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