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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453935/evaluation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-phosphorylated-tau-231-as-a-biomarker-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#1
Spomenka Kiđemet-Piskač, Mirjana Babić Leko, Antonela Blažeković, Lea Langer Horvat, Nataša Klepac, Zdenko Sonicki, Danijela Kolenc, Patrick R Hof, Marina Boban, Ninoslav Mimica, Fran Borovečki, Goran Šimić
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) is still largely based on clinical guidelines and exclusion of other diseases that may lead to dementia. AIMS: In this study, we assessed whether the use of sensitive and specific biomarkers such as phosphorylated tau proteins could contribute to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD and VaD, as well as to their differentiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 198 patients, of which 152 had AD, 28 VaD, and 18 were healthy controls (HC), were included in the analyses...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451153/effects-of-plasma-lipids-and-statins-on-cognitive-function
#3
REVIEW
Rui Li, Tian-Jun Wang, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Wei-Hong Chen, Ming-Yue Fan, Jing Xu
Objective: Dementia is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. The relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function is complex and controversial. Due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, there is an urgent need to control vascular risk factors and to identify therapies to prevent and treat both cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we reviewed the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for research articles published through November 2017 with key words including "plasma lipids," "hyperlipidemia," "hypercholesterolemia," "statins," and "cognition function...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446769/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#4
REVIEW
Wiesje M van der Flier, Ingmar Skoog, Julie A Schneider, Leonardo Pantoni, Vincent Mok, Christopher L H Chen, Philip Scheltens
The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau)...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444850/neurovascular-dysfunction-in-dementia-human-cellular-models-and-molecular-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Isobel Parkes, Satyan Chintawar, M Zameel Cader
From the earliest stages of development, when cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis are entwined, to the end of life, the interplay between vascular and neural systems of the brain is critical in health and disease. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier and in concert with pericytes or smooth muscle cells, glia and neurons, integrate into a functional neurovascular unit (NVU). This multicellular NVU maintains homoeostasis of the brain's microenvironment by restricting the entry of systemic pathogens and neurotoxins as well as meeting the metabolic demands of neural activity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439353/evaluating-peripersonal-space-through-the-functional-transcranial-doppler-are-we-paving-the-way-for-early-detecting-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-conversion
#6
Angela Marra, Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppa Maresca, Rosaria De Luca, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Identifying the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may develop dementia (MDC) is challenging. The study of peripersonal space (PPS) by using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) could be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during motor tasks targeting PPS, which can predict MDC. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in CBF in 22 patients with MCI and 23 with dementia [Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD)] during a motor task (passive mobilization, motor imagery, and movement observation) in which the hand of the subject moved forward and backward the face...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439352/linking-atrial-fibrillation-with-alzheimer-s-disease-epidemiological-pathological-and-mechanistic-evidence
#7
Masafumi Ihara, Kazuo Washida
Many studies have shown a relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular dementia. AF is a major risk factor for stroke, and stroke is the greatest risk factor for vascular dementia. However, the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, and AF remains unclear. At least four epidemiological studies have reported AF significantly raises the risk of AD 1.5- to 2.5-fold. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, resulting from persistent AF, could explain the link as hypoperfusion may mechanistically exacerbate amyloid-β (Aβ) neuropathology, such as senile plaques and amyloid angiopathy, by upregulating Aβ-producing enzymes and lowering Aβ clearance efficiency...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439346/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-vascular-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-high-quality-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Qing-Qing Xu, Chun-Shuo Shan, Yong Wang, Yi-Hua Shi, Qi-Hao Zhang, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second common form of dementia and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for aging-related disorders for thousands of years. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence using CHM for VaD. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review to assess the current evidence available for the effectiveness and safety of CHM for VaD. METHODS: Six databases were searched for high-quality randomized-controlled clinical trials that met the requirements of at least 4 of the 7 domains of the Cochrane risk of bias tool from their inception to February 2017...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439338/multi-parametric-classification-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-the-impact-of-diverse-cerebrovascular-injury-biomarkers
#9
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435917/acupuncture-prevents-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-ltp-through-%C3%AE-1-ar-in-vascular-dementia-rats
#10
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yang Ye, Wen Zhu, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Cun-Zhi Liu
It is widely accepted that the synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss contribute to the cognitive deficits of vascular dementia (VD) patients. We have previously reported that acupuncture improved cognitive function in rats with VD. However, the mechanisms involved in acupuncture improving cognitive ability remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the pathways and molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture. We assessed the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), the most prominent cellular model of memory formation...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434658/healthy-living-and-cancer-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#11
Peter C Elwood, Alex Whitmarsh, John Gallacher, Anthony Bayer, Richard Adams, Luke Heslop, Janet Pickering, Gareth Morgan, Julieta Galante, Sunil Dolwani, Marcus Longley, Zoe E Roberts
Context: UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40-69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006-2010. Objective: A healthy lifestyle has been described as 'better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-smoking, healthy BMI, physical activity and a healthy diet, and the risk of all cancers, colon, breast and prostate cancers in a large dataset...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432519/the-role-of-biomarkers-and-imaging-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia
#12
Antony J Bayer
Recognition of dementia relies on a good clinical history, supported by formal cognitive testing, but identifying the subtype of dementia may be wrong in 20% or more of cases. Accuracy may be improved by use of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Structural neuroimaging is recommended for most patients, not just to identify potentially reversible surgical pathology, but also to detect vascular changes and patterns of cerebral atrophy. Functional imaging can help to confirm neurodegeneration and to distinguish dementia subtypes when structural imaging has been inconclusive...
February 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430652/the-many-faces-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Hélène Girouard, Lisa M Munter
This Preface introduces the articles of the special issue on "Vascular Dementia" in which several recognized experts provide an overview of this research field. The brain is a highly vascularized organ and consequently, vascular dysfunction and related pathways affect cognitive performance and memory. Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and both disorders often occur in parallel. With this special issue, we hope to provide insight and a stimulating discussion for the future development of this research field...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430248/decreased-muscle-strength-and-quality-in-diabetes-related-dementia
#14
Akito Tsugawa, Yusuke Ogawa, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Eriko Jaime, Raita Fukasawa, Haruo Hanyu
Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD), a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM)-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[-DM] group), 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group), and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group)...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425645/repeated-administration-of-sailuotong-a-fixed-combination-of-panax-ginseng-ginkgo-biloba-and-crocus-sativus-extracts-for-vascular-dementia-alters-cyp450-activities-in-rats
#15
Ying Zhang, Lan Miao, Li Lin, Chang-Ying Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yi-Min Cui
BACKGROUND: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standard Chinese preparation made from extracts of Panax ginseng (ginseng), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Crocus sativus (saffron). Preliminary clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that SLT could improve cognition of vascular dementia (VD). PURPOSE: To avoid incident drug-drug interaction which is easily encountered in patients of VD, the potential influence of SLT on main drug-metabolic cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425053/identified-palliative-care-approach-needs-with-spict-in-family-practice-a-preliminary-observational-study
#16
Jun Hamano, Ai Oishi, Yoshiyuki Kizawa
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients who require palliative care approach is challenging for family physicians, even though several identification tools have been developed for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence and characteristics of family practice patients who need palliative care approach as determined using Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool (SPICT™, April 2015) in Japan. DESIGN: Single-center cross-sectional study...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424096/low-education-and-lack-of-spousal-relationship-are-associated-with-dementia-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-nigeria
#17
Abdulkareem J Yusuf, Olusegun Baiyewu, Adamu G Bakari, Sani B Garko, Mohammed E-B Jibril, Aishatu M Suleiman, Haruna M Muktar, Micheal A Amedu
BACKGROUND: The relationship between dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults is well established in the literature. However, there have been few studies on this relationship in older adults living in low- and middle-income countries, and most demographic projections predict that older adult population will increase substantially in these regions by 2050. METHODS: In this study, older adults with T2DM attending a tertiary health facility were examined and compared with community-dwelling older adults without T2DM...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424027/relationship-of-type-2-diabetes-to-human-brain-pathology
#18
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422904/emerging-role-of-immunity-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Ying Fu, Yaping Yan
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the main causes of vascular dementia in older individuals. Apart from risk containment, efforts to prevent or treat CSVD are ineffective due to the unknown pathogenesis of the disease. CSVD, a subtype of stroke, is characterized by recurrent strokes and neurodegeneration. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, chronic inflammatory responses, and leukocyte infiltration are classical pathological features of CSVD. Understanding how BBB disruption instigates inflammatory and degenerative processes may be informative for CSVD therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417704/cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-vascular-dementia-the-role-of-the-clock-drawing-test
#20
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Rosanna Palmeri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Angela Marra, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
AIM: Cognitive impairment is present in several neurodegenerative disorders. The clock-drawing test (CDT) represents a useful screening instrument for assessing the evolution of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the CDT in monitoring and differentiating the evolution of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This study involved 139 patients, including 39 patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment, 16 demented PD patients, 21 VaD patients with mild cognitive impairment, 17 patients with VaD, 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and 13 patients with probable AD...
February 7, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
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