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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731382/external-validation-and-clinical-utility-of-a-prediction-model-for-6-month-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-for-end-stage-kidney-disease
#1
Brian Forzley, Lee Er, Helen Hl Chiu, Ognjenka Djurdjev, Dan Martinusen, Rachel C Carson, Gaylene Hargrove, Adeera Levin, Mohamud Karim
BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease is associated with poor prognosis. Health care professionals must be prepared to address end-of-life issues and identify those at high risk for dying. A 6-month mortality prediction model for patients on dialysis derived in the United States is used but has not been externally validated. AIM: We aimed to assess the external validity and clinical utility in an independent cohort in Canada. DESIGN: We examined the performance of the published 6-month mortality prediction model, using discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analyses...
July 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722234/minocycline-reduces-microgliosis-and-improves-subcortical-white-matter-function-in-a-model-of-cerebral-vascular-disease
#2
Yasmina Manso, Philip R Holland, Akihiro Kitamura, Stefan Szymkowiak, Jessica Duncombe, Edel Hennessy, James L Searcy, Martina Marangoni, Andrew D Randall, Jon T Brown, Barry W McColl, Karen Horsburgh
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved...
July 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719891/serum-interleukin-10-levels-correlate-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#3
Lucio D'Anna, Samir Abu-Rumeileh, Martina Fabris, Cinzia Pistis, Antonio Baldi, Nova Sanvilli, Francesco Curcio, Gian Luigi Gigli, Sebastiano D'Anna, Mariarosaria Valente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer disease (AD) inflammation becomes evident throughout the course of the disease. However, the association between inflammation, cognitive impairment, and cerebrospinal biomarkers (Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42/p-tau181 ratio) is poorly understood. METHODS: A large panel of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor) was analyzed using a multiplex immunoassay in 27 patients with a diagnosis of AD dementia and in 18 control subjects...
July 19, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#4
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#5
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709820/sex-dependent-difference-in-the-relationship-between-adipose-tissue-cholesterol-efflux-and-estradiol-concentrations-in-young-healthy-humans
#6
REVIEW
Fatima Iqbal, William J Durham, Ayyash Melhem, Saleem Raslan, Tony T Tran, Traver J Wright, Rabia Asghar, Ken Fujise, Elena Volpi, Labros Sidossis, Nicola Abate, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Demidmaa Tuvdendorj
BACKGROUND: Impaired adipose tissue function and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been implicated in the development of vascular dementia, and metabolic diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, both the substrate fluxes in adipose tissue and HDL-C concentration differ between men and women. Moreover, adipose tissue cholesterol efflux has been implicated in modulation of HDL-C levels. Thus, we aimed to determine if the association between serum estradiol levels and adipose tissue cholesterol efflux is sex-dependent...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708131/a-clinicopathological-approach-to-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#7
REVIEW
Fanny M Elahi, Bruce L Miller
The most definitive classification systems for dementia are based on the underlying pathology which, in turn, is categorized largely according to the observed accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurons and glia. These aggregates perturb molecular processes, cellular functions and, ultimately, cell survival, with ensuing disruption of large-scale neural networks subserving cognitive, behavioural and sensorimotor functions. The functional domains affected and the evolution of deficits in these domains over time serve as footprints that the clinician can trace back with various levels of certainty to the underlying neuropathology...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704261/no-independent-association-between-pulse-wave-velocity-and-dementia-a-population-based-prospective-study
#8
Erik D Nilsson, Sölve Elmståhl, Lennart Minthon, Mats Pihlsgård, Peter M Nilsson, Oskar Hansson, Katarina Nägga
OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), a marker of aortic stiffness, has been associated with cognitive test results and markers of cerebral small vessel disease, but its association with dementia has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to assess the association of CFPWV with prevalent and incident dementia in a large population-based study. METHODS: In total, CFPWV was measured in 3056 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study 2007-2012 (age range 61-85 years)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700383/the-use-of-the-clinical-dementia-rating-scale-sum-of-boxes-scores-in-detecting-and-staging-cognitive-impairment-dementia-in-brazilian-patients-with-low-educational-attainment
#9
Andrea P V Lima, Raphael Castilhos, Marcia L F Chaves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of the boxes (CDR-SB) diagnostic validity in detecting and staging cognitive impairment/dementia in a sample of Brazilian patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VD), of low educational attainment. Data were obtained from the Dementia Clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre database and included 407 participants (115 healthy elderly, 41 aMCI, 165 AD, and 86 VD)...
July 11, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698285/therapeutic-antibody-targeting-of-notch3-signaling-prevents-mural-cell-loss-in-cadasil
#10
Arturo I Machuca-Parra, Alexander A Bigger-Allen, Angie V Sanchez, Anissa Boutabla, Jonathan Cardona-Vélez, Dhanesh Amarnani, Magali Saint-Geniez, Christian W Siebel, Leo A Kim, Patricia A D'Amore, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a neurological syndrome characterized by small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by mutations in NOTCH3 No therapies are available for this condition. Loss of mural cells, which encompass pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, is a hallmark of CADASIL and other SVDs, including diabetic retinopathy, resulting in vascular instability. Here, we showed that Notch3 signaling is both necessary and sufficient to support mural cell coverage in arteries using genetic rescue in Notch3 knockout mice...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697567/antibodies-to-signaling-molecules-and%C3%A2-receptors-in-alzheimer-s-disease-are%C3%A2-associated-with-psychomotor-slowing-depression-and-poor-visuospatial-function
#11
Lasse M Giil, Christian A Vedeler, Einar K Kristoffersen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Harald Heidecke, Ralf Dechend, Kai Schulze-Forster, Dominik N Muller, Victoria S von Goetze, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Gabriela Riemekasten, Petra Vogelsang, Staale Nygaard, Anders Lund, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with several antibodies as well as signaling molecules and receptors. These may be detrimental in the presence of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the levels of antibodies toward 33 signaling molecules involved in neurotransmitter, vascular, and immune functions were associated with AD and, within the AD group; cognitive function and mood. METHODS: Antibodies in sera from patients with mild AD [(n = 91) defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 20 or a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale≤1] and healthy controls (n = 102) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696548/brain-microvascular-injury-and-white-matter-disease-provoked-by-diabetes-associated-hyperamylinemia
#12
Han Ly, Nirmal Verma, Fengen Wu, Miao Liu, Kathryn E Saatman, Peter T Nelson, John T Slevin, Larry B Goldstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Florin Despa
OBJECTIVES: The brain blood vessels of patients with type-2 diabetes and dementia have deposition of amylin, an amyloidogenic hormone co-secreted with insulin. It is not known whether vascular amylin deposition is a consequence or a trigger of vascular injury. We tested the hypothesis that the vascular amylin deposits cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular injury and are modulated by the amylin transport in the brain via plasma apolipoproteins. METHODS: Rats overexpressing amyloidogenic (human) amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and amylin knockout (AKO) rats intravenously infused with aggregated amylin were used for in vivo phenotyping...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692821/dental-care-utilization-in-patients-with-different-types-of-dementia-a%C3%A2-longitudinal-nationwide-study-of-58-037-individuals
#13
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Dorota Religa, Jacob Holmer, Kåre Buhlin, Maria Eriksdotter, Gunilla Sandborgh Englund
INTRODUCTION: Dementia may be associated with discontinuation of regular dental checkups, which in turn results in poorer oral health. METHODS: We investigated the trend of change in dental care utilization and the number of teeth before and after being diagnosed with dementia. Longitudinal cognitive- and dental health-related information were merged using data on 58,037 newly diagnosed individuals from the Swedish Dementia Registry and Swedish Dental Health Register during 2007 to 2015...
July 7, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684187/subclinical-vascular-disease-and-the-risk-of-parkinsonism-the-rotterdam-study
#14
Vanja Vlasov, Sirwan K L Darweesh, Bruno H Stricker, Oscar H Franco, M Kamran Ikram, Maryam Kavousi, Daniel Bos, Caroline C W Klaver, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Parkinsonism is a common neurodegenerative syndrome in middle-aged and elderly persons. The etiology is multifactorial with a possible vascular contribution, but this has not been comprehensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selected markers of subclinical vascular pathology are associated with the risk of all-cause parkinsonism in the general population. METHODS: We assessed a range of markers of subclinical vascular pathology (ankle-brachial index, carotid plaques and intima media thickness, retinal arteriolar and venular calibers) in 6199 persons from the population-based Rotterdam Study, who were free of parkinsonism and dementia at baseline...
June 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681740/cognition-in-advanced-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-pilot-study-from-south-india
#15
Robert Mathew, Sauda Pavithran
BACKGROUND: Literature on cognition in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is sparse and more so on cognition in advanced NPH. OBJECTIVE: To study the cognitive profile in a hospital-based cohort of cognitively-advanced NPH. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. The patients included those availing dementia care service from three different tertiary care centres during a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014. Patients were considered to have cognitively-advanced NPH if the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination(ACE) score was 50 or less...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681457/pregnancy-improves-cognitive-deficit-and-neuronal-morphology-atrophy-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-aging-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Verónica R Cabrera-Pedraza, María de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Fidel de la Cruz, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Sergio Zamudio, Gonzalo Flores
It is well known that the survival is higher in women compared to men and women have a better survival prognosis than men in some pathologies such as vascular dementia (VD). Our previous reports showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, an animal model of VD, exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces dendritic atrophy and improves the memory process in aged rats...
July 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673480/association-of-descending-thoracic-aortic-plaque-with-brain-atrophy-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-the-framingham-heart-study
#17
Hugo J Aparicio, Rodica E Petrea, Joseph M Massaro, Warren J Manning, Noriko Oyama-Manabe, Alexa S Beiser, Carlos S Kase, Ralph B D'Agostino, Philip A Wolf, Ramachandran S Vasan, Charles DeCarli, Christopher J O'Donnell, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aortic atherosclerosis is an aggregate marker of vascular risk factor exposure and has been associated with intracranial atherosclerosis and stroke. We hypothesized that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta (DAo) could be a risk marker for brain aging and injury. METHODS: We evaluated 1527 participants (mean age 59.9 years, 53.5% women) in the Framingham Offspring cohort who underwent both aortic and brain MRI. Participants were free of clinical stroke, dementia, or other neurological illness at the time of axial MRI of the thoracic and abdominal DAo and subsequent brain MRI...
June 23, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672181/corpus-callosum-macro-and-microstructure-in-late-life-depression
#18
Louise Emsell, Christopher Adamson, François-Laurent De Winter, Thibo Billiet, Daan Christiaens, Filip Bouckaert, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Rik Vandenberghe, Marc L Seal, Pascal Sienaert, Stefan Sunaert, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
BACKGROUND: Differences in corpus callosum (CC) morphology and microstructure have been implicated in late-life depression and may distinguish between late and early-onset forms of the illness. However, a multimodal approach using complementary imaging techniques is required to disentangle microstructural alterations from macrostructural partial volume effects. METHODS: 107 older adults were assessed: 55 currently-depressed patients without dementia and 52 controls without cognitive impairment...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671120/neurovascular-specifications-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-alzheimer-like-brain-of-mice-affected-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-implications-for-future-therapies
#19
Dominik Michalski, Sarah Hofmann, Roman Pitsch, Jens Grosche, Wolfgang Härtig
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is a prototypical neurodegenerative disease, but shares with stroke certain common risk factors. Consequently, how vascular pathology may modulate AD pathogenesis has gained scientific attention. Therefore, aside from typical features of AD (e.g., amyloid-β, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cholinergic dysfunction), changes within the 'neurovascular unit' (NVU) are of particular interest. This study focused on cholinergic, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in association with the vasculature to explore the neurovascular complex of the AD brain affected by stroke...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671118/cerebral-hemodynamics-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#20
Lucy Beishon, Victoria J Haunton, Ronney B Panerai, Thompson G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The incidence of dementia is projected to rise over the coming decades, but with no sensitive diagnostic tests available. Vascular pathology precedes the deposition of amyloid and is an attractive early target. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to investigate the use of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation as a novel biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), focusing on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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