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# Relaxation

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#1
Selvinaz Dalaklioglu, Arda Tasatargil, Nilay Kuscu, Soner Celik, Ciler Celik-Ozenci, Sebahat Ozdem, Ayse Barutcigil, Ikbal Kucukcetin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exendin-4 (Ex-4) treatment on corpus cavernosum (CC) dysfunction in methylglyoxal (MGO) administered rats. METHODS: Male rats were divided into four groups as control, MGO (75 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 12 weeks), MGO + low-dose Ex-4 (0.1 μg/kg twice daily subcutaneously for 12 weeks concomitant with MGO), and MGO + high-dose Ex-4 (1 μg/kg twice daily subcutaneously for 12 weeks concomitant with MGO)...
May 21, 2018: Peptides
#2
Eric R Kennehan, Grayson S Doucette, Ashley R Marshall, Christopher Grieco, Kyle T Munson, Matthew C Beard, John B Asbury
Observations of the hot-phonon bottleneck, which is predicted to slow the rate of hot carrier cooling in quantum confined nanocrystals, have been limited to date for reasons that are not fully understood. We used time-resolved infrared spectroscopy to directly measure higher energy intraband transitions in PbS colloidal quantum dots. Direct measurements of these intraband states permitted detailed analysis of the electronic overlap of the quantum confined states that may influence their relaxation processes...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
#3
M S da Silva, D M Junqueira, L F Baumbach, S P Cibulski, A C S Mósena, M N Weber, S Silveira, G M de Moraes, R D Maia, V C S Coimbra, C W Canal
Hepaciviruses (HVs) have been detected in several domestic and wild animals and present high genetic diversity. The actual classification divides the genus Hepacivirus into 14 species (A-N), according to their phylogenetic relationships, including the bovine hepacivirus [Hepacivirus N (HNV)]. In this study, we confirmed HNV circulation in Brazil and sequenced the whole genome of two strains. Based on the current classification of HCV, which is divided into genotypes and subtypes, we analysed all available bovine hepacivirus sequences in the GenBank database and proposed an HNV classification...
May 24, 2018: Journal of General Virology
#4
Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Rongde Wu
Transplanting enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach for replacing enteric neurons in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). However, posttransplantation cell survival and differentiation limit efficacy. We aimed to investigate whether transplantation of ENSCs engineered with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve survival and differentiation of the engrafted cells and promote functional recovery of the aganglionic colon. ENSCs were isolated from the intestine of neonatal mice and genetically modified to express IGF-1...
May 24, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
#5
Pedro J S B Caridade, Jing Li, Vinícius C Mota, António J C Varandas
We have carried out a quasi-classical trajectory study of the $\mathrm{O}+\mathrm{NO}(v)$ energy transfer process using DMBE potential energy surfaces for the ground-states of the $^2A'$ and $^2A''$ manifolds. State-to-state vibrational relaxation rate constants have been computed over the temperature range $298\rm \,K$ and $3000\,\rm K$ and initial vibrational states between $v=1$ and 9. The momentum-Gaussian binning approach has been employed to calculate the probability of the vibrational transitions. A comparison of the calculated state-to-state rate coefficients with the results from experimental studies and previous theoretical calculations shows the relevance of the $1\,^2A''$ potential energy surface to the title vibrational relaxation process...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
#6
Lazaro M Mwandigha, Paul A Tiffin, Lewis W Paton, Adetayo S Kasim, Jan R Böhnke
OBJECTIVES: University academic achievement may be inversely related to the performance of the secondary (high) school an entrant attended. Indeed, some medical schools already offer 'grade discounts' to applicants from less well-performing schools. However, evidence to guide such policies is lacking. In this study, we analyse a national dataset in order to understand the relationship between the two main predictors of medical school admission in the UK (prior educational attainment (PEA) and performance on the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)) and subsequent undergraduate knowledge and skills-related outcomes analysed separately...
May 23, 2018: BMJ Open
#7
Pieter Evenepoel, Rukshana Shroff
A post hoc analysis of data from the EVOLVE study demonstrates that cinacalcet-induced hypocalcemia is common, mostly asymptomatic, and resolves spontaneously. These findings are reassuring and may warrant therapeutic inertia. However, previous studies in parathyroidectomized patients suggest that calcium repletion may be beneficial and safe from bone and cardiovascular perspectives, respectively, and as such call into question the appropriateness of a "sit back and relax" attitude toward cinacalcet-induced hypocalcemia...
June 2018: Kidney International
#8
Jeffrey C Caruth
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal laxity and atrophy are caused mainly by aging and vaginal childbirth, which lead to a loss of strength and flexibility within the vaginal wall. As a result, women may experience vaginal, pelvic, sexual and urinary symptoms that significantly affect their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel radiofrequency (RF) device for internal and external vaginal treatment. METHODS: Thirty women who had been diagnosed with symptoms of vaginal laxity and pelvic relaxation received a single treatment that consisted of continuous RF in the internal genitalia and continuous RF followed by fractional RF in the external vulva...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
#9
Martijn Boon, Chris Martini, H Keri Yang, Shuvayu S Sen, Rob Bevers, Michiel Warlé, Leon Aarts, Marieke Niesters, Albert Dahan
Recent data shows that a neuromuscular block (NMB) induced by administration of high doses of rocuronium improves surgical conditions in certain procedures. However, there are limited data on the effect such practices on postoperative outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare unplanned 30-day readmissions in patients that received high-dose versus low-dose rocuronium administration during general anesthesia for laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery. This retrospective cohort study was performed in the Netherlands in an academic hospital where routine high-dose rocuronium NMB has been practiced since July 2015...
2018: PloS One
#10
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Neil J Naples, Allen Y Yi
Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as alternative materials for low-cost and high-volume glass molding processes for infrared optics. In precision glass molding, it is well documented that the refractive index variation in the molded elements can lead to substantial amounts of aberrations. The variation has such a significant effect that the optical designs with molded lenses need to be carefully considered and compensated for index variation to achieve targeted optical performance. This research is aimed to evaluate the refractive index change of a chalcogenide glass during the molding process by both finite element method-based simulation and optical experiment...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
#11
Lowell Davis, James Musso, Divya Soman, Samantha Louey, Jonathan William Nelson, Sonnet S Jonker
Fetal anemia causes rapid and profound changes in cardiac structure and function, stimulating proliferation of the cardiac myocytes, expansion of the coronary vascular tree, and impairing early contraction and relaxation. While HIF-1α is sure to play a role, adenosine, a metabolic byproduct that increases coronary flow and growth, is implicated as a major stimulus for these adaptations. We hypothesized that genes involved in myocardial adenosine signaling would be up-regulated in chronically anemic fetuses, and that calcium handling genes would be down-regulated...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
#12
Ali Charkhesht, Chola Regmi, Katie R Mitchell-Koch, Shengfeng Cheng, Nguyen Q Vinh
The low-frequency collective vibrational modes in proteins as well as the protein-water interface have been suggested as dominant factors controlling the efficiency of biochemical reactions and biological energy transport. It is thus crucial to uncover the mystery of hydration structure and dynamics as well as their coupling to collective motions of proteins in aqueous solutions. Here we report dielectric properties of aqueous BSA protein solutions as a model system using an extremely sensitive dielectric spectrometer with frequencies spanning from megahertz to terahertz...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
#13
Łukasz Kłopotowski, Nikodem Czechowski, Anatolie Mitioglu, Claudia Backes, Duncan K Maude, Paulina Plochocka
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) constitute a family of materials, in which coupled spin-valley physics can be explored and which could find applications in novel optoelectronic devices. However, before applications can be designed, a scalable method of monolayer extraction is required. Liquid phase exfoliation is a technique providing large quantities of the monolayer material, but the spin-valley properties of thus obtained TMDs are unknown. In this work, we employ steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) to investigate the relaxation dynamics of localized excitons in liquid exfoliated WS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;...
May 23, 2018: Nanotechnology
#14
Bing Xu, Dongyu Li, Zhen Huang, Chunliang Tang, Wenhao Mo, Ying Ma
Luminescence concentration quenching, mainly due to a cross relaxation (CR) process between lanthanide ions (Ln3+), widely occurs in Ln3+ doped luminescent materials, setting a limit in the dopant content of Ln3+ emitters to withhold the brightness. Here, we introduced Na+ ions into the CaF2 host lattice codoped with Nd3+ emitters that alleviates concentration quenching greatly. And we show that the optimal dopant concentration of Nd3+ in colloidal CaF2:Nd nanoparticles increased from 10 to 30 mol%, resulting in an ∼32 times near-infrared (NIR) (1052 nm) brightness under 800 nm laser irradiation...
May 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
#15
Segun Goh, Andreas M Menzel, Hartmut Löwen
Ferrogels are smart soft materials, consisting of a polymeric network and embedded magnetic particles. Novel phenomena, such as the variation of the overall mechanical properties by external magnetic fields, emerge consequently. However, the dynamic behavior of ferrogels remains largely unveiled. In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional chain consisting of magnetic dipoles and elastic springs between them as a simple model for ferrogels. The model is evaluated by corresponding simulations. To probe the dynamics theoretically, we investigate a continuum limit of the energy governing the system and the corresponding equation of motion...
May 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
#16
Henry W Orton, Gottfried Otting
Measurements of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PRE) in 1H-NMR spectra are an important tool to obtain long-range distance information in proteins, but quantitative interpretation is easily compromised by non-specific intermolecular PREs. Here we show that PREs generated by lanthanides with anisotropic magnetic susceptibilities offer a route to accurate calibration-free distance measurements. As these lanthanides change 1H chemical shifts due to pseudocontact shifts, the relaxation rates in the paramagnetic and diamagnetic state can be measured with a single sample that simultaneously contains the protein labeled with a paramagnetic and a diamagnetic lanthanide ion...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
#17
José Sérgio Possomato-Vieira, Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, Regina Aparecida do Nascimento, Rodrigo Roldão Wandekin, Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Jessica Sabbatine Chimini, Maria Luiza Santos da Silva, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Lead- (Pb-) induced hypertension has been shown in humans and experimental animals and cardiovascular effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) have been reported previously. However, no studies examined involvement of H2 S in Pb-induced hypertension. We found increases in diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure in Pb-intoxicated humans followed by diminished H2 S plasmatic levels. In order to expand our findings, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Saline, Pb, NaHS, and Pb + NaHS. Pb-intoxicated animals received intraperitoneally (i...
2018: BioMed Research International
#18
J Mur-Petit, A Relaño, R A Molina, D Jaksch
The non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems is one of the most fascinating problems in physics. Open questions range from how they relax to equilibrium to how to extract useful work from them. A critical point lies in assessing whether a system has conserved quantities (or 'charges'), as these can drastically influence its dynamics. Here we propose a general protocol to reveal the existence of charges based on a set of exact relations between out-of-equilibrium fluctuations and equilibrium properties of a quantum system...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
#19
Victor Rusakov, Yuriy Raikher
With allowance for orientational Brownian motion, the magnetorelaxometry (MRX) signal, i.e., the decay of magnetization generated by an ensemble of ferromagnet nanoparticles, each of which bears a macromolecular corona (a loose layer of polymer gel) is studied. The rheology of corona is modelled by the Jeffreys scheme. The latter, although comprising only three phenomenological parameters, enables one to describe a wide spectrum of viscoelastic media: from linearly viscous liquids to weakly-fluent gels. The "transverse" configuration of MRX is considered where the system is subjected to a DC (constant bias) field, whereas the probing field is applied perpendicularly to the bias one...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
#20
EDITORIAL
Diana Jansen, Heder de Vries, Leo M A Heunks
Acetylcholine receptor antagonists have been shown to improve outcome in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, it is incompletely understood how these agents improve outcome. In the current editorial, we discuss the mechanisms of action of acetylcholine receptor antagonists beyond neuromuscular blockade.
May 22, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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