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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352997/microglia-and-neonatal-brain-injury
#1
Carina Mallard, Marie-Eve Tremblay, Zinaida S Vexler
Microglial cells are now recognized as the "gate-keepers" of healthy brain microenvironment with their disrupted functions adversely affecting neurovascular integrity, neuronal homeostasis, and network connectivity. The perception that these cells are purely toxic under neurodegenerative conditions has been challenged by a continuously-increasing understanding of their complexity, the existence of a broad array of microglial phenotypes, and their ability to rapidly change in a context-dependent manner to attenuate or exacerbate injuries of different nature...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352661/mechanistic-insights-into-the-genetics-of-affective-psychosis-from-prader-willi-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Lucie C S Aman, Katherine E Manning, Joyce E Whittington, Anthony J Holland
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, severe, and disabling psychotic disorders, which are difficult to research. We argue that the genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which is associated with a high risk of affective psychotic illness, can provide a window into genetic mechanisms and associated neural pathways. People with PWS can all show non-psychotic psychopathology and problem behaviours, but the prevalence of psychotic illness differs markedly by genetic subtype; people with PWS due to chromosome 15 maternal uniparental disomy have higher prevalence of psychotic illness compared with patients with PWS due to 15q11-13 deletions of paternal origin...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352035/using-mouse-transgenic-and-human-stem-cell-technologies-to-model-genetic-mutations-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-autism
#3
REVIEW
David St Clair, Mandy Johnstone
Solid progress has occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of neurodevelopmental disorders, and of schizophrenia and autism in particular. Although the genetic architecture of both disorders is far more complex than previously imagined, many key loci have at last been identified. This has allowed in vivo and in vitro technologies to be refined to model specific high-penetrant genetic loci involved in both disorders. Using the DISC1/NDE1 and CYFIP1/EIF4E loci as exemplars, we explore the opportunities and challenges of using animal models and human-induced pluripotent stem cell technologies to further understand/treat and potentially reverse the worst consequences of these debilitating disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351108/neuroimaging-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-focus-on-resting-state-fmri-analysis-of-intrinsic-functional-brain-connectivity
#4
Allison Jack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting-state fMRI assessment of instrinsic functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) allows assessment of participants with a wide range of functioning levels, and collection of multisite databases that facilitate large-scale analysis. These heterogeneous multisite data present both promise and methodological challenge. Herein, we provide an overview of recent (1 October 2016-1 November 2017) empirical research on ASD rs-fcMRI, focusing on work that helps clarify how best to leverage the power of these data...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349629/cerebellum-from-development-to-disease-the-8th-international-symposium-of-the-society-for-research-on-the-cerebellum-and-ataxias
#5
EDITORIAL
Hassan Marzban, Mario Manto, Jean Mariani
In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in research on cerebellar motor and non-motor functions. Cerebellum is particularly involved in the spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases. The 8th International Symposium of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxia (SRCA) was held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, (Canada) on May 24-26, 2017. The main theme of the 8th International Symposium was "Development of the Cerebellum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Advances in genetics, epigenetic, cerebellar neurogenesis, axonogenesis and gliogenesis, cerebellar developmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), neuroimaging, cerebellar ataxias, medulloblastoma, and clinical investigation of cerebellar diseases were presented...
January 18, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#6
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348039/face-processing-measures-of-social-cognition-a%C3%A2-dimensional-approach-to-developmental-psychopathology
#7
Raquel E Gur, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Social cognition impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders impact functioning. Face processing is the most extensively studied aspect of social cognition, commonly indexing this construct in neuropsychiatric disorders compared with typically developing youths. Applying social cognition measures as a Research Domain Criteria concept in the clinical arena requires establishing cutoffs for intervention and identifying vulnerability for psychopathology across disorders. This can be accomplished by comparing extreme performers across multiple clinical symptom features...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348036/increasing-traction-for-discovery-the-research%C3%A2-domain-criteria-framework-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#8
Marjorie Solomon, Adriana Di Martino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346342/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-prescription-claims-among-privately-insured-women-aged-15-44-years-united-states-2003-2015
#9
Kayla N Anderson, Elizabeth C Ailes, Melissa Danielson, Jennifer N Lind, Sherry L Farr, Cheryl S Broussard, Sarah C Tinker
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals across the lifespan. ADHD medication use among pregnant women is increasing (1), but consensus about the safety of ADHD medication use during pregnancy is lacking. Given that nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended (2), and early pregnancy is a critical period for fetal development, examining trends in ADHD medication prescriptions among reproductive-aged women is important to quantify the population at risk for potential exposure...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#10
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345619/mir-9-regulates-basal-ganglia-dependent-developmental-vocal-learning-and-adult-vocal-performance-in-songbirds
#11
Zhimin Shi, Zoe Piccus, Xiaofang Zhang, Huidi Yang, Hannah Jarrell, Yan Ding, Zhaoqian Teng, Ofer Tchernichovski, XiaoChing Li
miR-9 is an evolutionarily conserved miRNA that is abundantly expressed in Area X, a basal ganglia nucleus required for vocal learning in songbirds. Here, we report that overexpression of miR-9 in Area X of juvenile zebra finches impairs developmental vocal learning, resulting in a song with syllable omission, reduced similarity to the tutor song, and altered acoustic features. miR-9 overexpression in juveniles also leads to more variable song performance in adulthood, and abolishes social context-dependent modulation of song variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345153/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-use-in-pregnant-women-pharmacogenetics-drug-drug-interactions-and-adverse-effects
#12
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren
Possible negative effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in pregnancy relate to congenital anomalies, negative perinatal events and neurodevelopmental outcome. Many studies are confounded by the underlying maternal disease and by pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic differences of these drugs. Areas covered: The possible interactions of SSRIs and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with other drugs and the known effects of SSRIs on congenital anomalies, perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcome...
January 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343961/receiver-operating-characteristic-curve-analysis-of-the-child-behavior-checklist-and-teacher-s-report-form-for-assessing-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-preschool-aged-children
#13
Tiago S Bara, Antonio C Farias, Erico Pg Felden, Mara L Cordeiro
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social, behavioral, and communication impairments with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 68 school-aged children. There is a need for objective and easily applicable instruments for early identification of autistic children to enable initiation of early interventions during a very sensitive period of brain development and, consequently, optimize prognosis. Here, we tested the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Caregiver-Teacher's Report Form (C-TRF) scales for assessing ASD in Brazil, where ASD screening research is emergent...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343227/associations-among-maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-gestational-weight-gain-and-risk-of-autism-in-the-han-chinese-population
#14
Yidong Shen, Huixi Dong, Xiaozi Lu, Nan Lian, Guanglei Xun, Lijuan Shi, Lu Xiao, Jingping Zhao, Jianjun Ou
BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an unclear etiology. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of autism. The current study explores the associations among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and the risk of autism in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: Demographic information, a basic medical history and information regarding maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy conditions were collected from the parents of 705 Han Chinese children with autism and 2236 unrelated typically developing children...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341895/prenatal-paracetamol-exposure-and-child-neurodevelopment-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Ann Z Bauer, David Kriebel, Martha R Herbert, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: The non-prescription medication paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is currently recommended as a safe pain and fever treatment during pregnancy. However, recent studies suggest a possible association between APAP use in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a review of publications reporting associations between prenatal APAP use and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: Relevant sources were identified through a key word search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, OVID and TOXNET) in September 2016...
January 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341476/a-rare-male-patient-with-classic-rett-syndrome-caused-by-mecp2_e1-mutation
#16
Narumi Tokaji, Hiromichi Ito, Tomohiro Kohmoto, Takuya Naruto, Rizu Takahashi, Aya Goji, Tatsuo Mori, Yoshihiro Toda, Masako Saito, Shoichiro Tange, Kiyoshi Masuda, Shoji Kagami, Issei Imoto
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically affecting females. It is mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations that affect the coding sequence of exon 3 or 4 of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Severe neonatal encephalopathy resulting in death before the age of 2 years is the most common phenotype observed in males affected by a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Mutations in MECP2 exon 1 affecting the MeCP2_e1 isoform are relatively rare causes of RTT in females, and only one case of a male patient with MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy caused by a mutation in MECP2 exon 1 has been reported...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341240/a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-paediatric-chronic-pain
#17
Camilla Wiwe Lipsker, Margareta von Heijne, Sven Bölte, Rikard K Wicksell
Psychiatric disorders are common in paediatric patients with chronic pain, but the overall prevalence of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders is unclear. We report on a case of severe chronic pain in a child with undiagnosed comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where significant improvements in pain and function occurred following methylphenidate medication and parental behavioural training. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of behavioural assessment and screening for neurodevelopmental comorbidity may be essential in addressing complex paediatric chronic pain...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340040/identifying-the-dynamics-of-actin-and-tubulin-polymerization-in-ipscs-and-in-ipsc-derived-neurons
#18
Valentina Magliocca, Stefania Petrini, Tiziana Franchin, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Zeinab Abbaszadeh, Enrico Bertini, Claudia Compagnucci
The development of the nervous system requires cytoskeleton-mediated processes coordinating self-renewal, migration, and differentiation of neurons. It is not surprising that many neurodevelopmental problems and neurodegenerative disorders are caused by deficiencies in cytoskeleton-related genes. For this reason, we focus on the cytoskeletal dynamics in proliferating iPSCs and in iPSC-derived neurons to better characterize the underpinnings of cytoskeletal organization looking at actin and tubulin repolymerization studies using the cell permeable probes SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339533/learning-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-highlights-noncoding-regulatory-regions-linked-to-autism
#19
John N Koberstein, Shane G Poplawski, Mathieu E Wimmer, Giulia Porcari, Charlly Kao, Bruce Gomes, Davide Risso, Hakon Hakonarson, Nancy R Zhang, Robert T Schultz, Ted Abel, Lucia Peixoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with genetic risk factors. Most human disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not located in genes but rather are in regulatory regions that control gene expression. The function of regulatory regions is determined through epigenetic mechanisms. Parallels between the cellular basis of development and the formation of long-term memory have long been recognized, particularly the role of epigenetic mechanisms in both processes...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335879/current-approaches-and-new-developments-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-tourette-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Julio Quezada, Keith A Coffman
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by spontaneous, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Once thought to be rare, TS affects 0.3-1% of the population. Tics can cause physical discomfort, emotional distress, social difficulties, and can interfere with education and desired activities. The pharmacologic treatment of TS is particularly challenging, as currently the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of this disorder are still largely unknown...
January 15, 2018: CNS Drugs
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