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Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Clara Lopes Novo, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Pluripotent cells are characterized by a globally open and accessible chromatin organization that is thought to contribute to cellular plasticity and developmental decision-making. We recently identified the pluripotency factor Nanog as a key regulator of this form of chromatin architecture in mouse embryonic stem cells. In particular, we demonstrated that the transcription factors Nanog and Sall1 co-dependently mediate the epigenetic state of pericentromeric heterochromatin to reinforce a more open and accessible organization in pluripotent cells...
October 19, 2016: Nucleus
Ashley Galati, Alyson Hock, Ramesh S Bhatt
Configural information (spacing between features) contributes to face-processing expertise in adulthood. We examined whether infants can be "trained" to process this information. In Experiment 1, 3.5-month-olds failed to discriminate changes in the spacing between facial features. However, in Experiments 2 and 3, infants processed the same information after being primed with faces in which the spacing was repeatedly altered. Experiment 4 found that priming was not effective with inverted faces or with faces depicting changes in features but not relations among features, indicating that the priming exhibited in Experiments 2 and 3 was specific to upright faces depicting spacing changes...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maximilian Boesch, Sieghart Sopper, Alain G Zeimet, Daniel Reimer, Guenther Gastl, Burkhard Ludewig, Dominik Wolf
Malignancy is fuelled by distinct subsets of stem-like cells which persist under treatment and provoke drug-resistant recurrence. Eradication of these cancer stem cells has therefore become a prime objective for the development and design of novel classes of anti-cancer therapeutics with improved clinical efficacy. Here, we portray potentially clinically-relevant hallmarks of cancer stem cells and focus on their recently appreciated properties of cell variability and plasticity, both of which make them elusive targets for cancer therapies...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Christian Adam, Jonas Wohlfarth, Maike Haußmann, Helga Sennefelder, Annette Rodin, Mareike Maler, Stefan F Martin, Matthias Goebeler, Marc Schmidt
Chromium allergy is a common occupational skin disease mediated by chromium (VI)-specific T cells that induce delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized individuals. Additionally, chromium (VI) can act as irritant. Both responses critically require innate immune activation, but if and how chromium (VI) elicits this signal is currently unclear.Using human monocytes, primary human keratinocytes and murine dendritic cells we show that chromium (VI) compounds fail to trigger direct proinflammatory activation but potently induce processing and secretion of IL-1β...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jasmyn S Abrams, Savannah E Howe, Nathalie Becerra, Punit Kohli, Vjollca Konjufca
In this work we report a protocol for synthesizing nano-size ovalbumin-functionalized polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes (LP-Ova). We show that LP-Ova administered per-orally (p.o.) and subcutaneously (s.c.), without the use of adjuvants, induces high serum IgG1 titers. As reported previously using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs), p.o.-primed mice developed high titers of IgG2c and intestinal IgA following s.c. boosting immunization with LP-Ova. In contrast, mice that received a single s.c. immunization with LP-Ova did not develop serum IgG2c or intestinal IgA antibodies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Steven J Van Dyken, Jesse C Nussbaum, Jinwoo Lee, Ari B Molofsky, Hong-Erh Liang, Joshua L Pollack, Rachel E Gate, Genevieve E Haliburton, Chun J Ye, Alexander Marson, David J Erle, Richard M Locksley
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and CD4(+) type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) are defined by their similar effector cytokines, which together mediate the features of allergic immunity. We found that tissue ILC2s and TH2 cells differentiated independently but shared overlapping effector function programs that were mediated by exposure to the tissue-derived cytokines interleukin 25 (IL-25), IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Loss of these three tissue signals did not affect lymph node priming, but abrogated the terminal differentiation of effector TH2 cells and adaptive lung inflammation in a T cell-intrinsic manner...
October 17, 2016: Nature Immunology
Janette W Boughman, Richard Svanbäck
The ecological niche and mate preferences have independently been shown to be important for the process of speciation. Here we articulate a novel mechanism by which ecological niche use and mate preference can be linked to promote speciation. The degree to which individual niches are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent natural selection and population splitting. Similarly, the degree to which individual mate preferences are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent sexual selection and assortative mating between diverging forms...
October 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Young Ha Ahn, Sunyoung Park, Jeong June Choi, Bo-Kyung Park, Kyung Hee Rhee, Eunjoo Kang, Soyeon Ahn, Chul-Ho Lee, Jong Soo Lee, Kyung-Soo Inn, Mi-La Cho, Sung-Hwan Park, Kyunghee Park, Hae Jung Park, Jae Hyun Lee, Jung Won Park, Nam Hoon Kwon, Hyunbo Shim, Byung Woo Han, Pilhan Kim, Joo-Youn Lee, Youngho Jeon, Jin Won Huh, Mirim Jin, Sunghoon Kim
The N-terminal truncated form of a protein synthesis enzyme, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (mini-WRS), is secreted as an angiostatic ligand. However, the secretion and function of the full-length WRS (FL-WRS) remain unknown. Here, we report that the FL-WRS, but not mini-WRS, is rapidly secreted upon pathogen infection to prime innate immunity. Blood levels of FL-WRS were increased in sepsis patients, but not in those with sterile inflammation. FL-WRS was secreted from monocytes and directly bound to macrophages via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex to induce phagocytosis and chemokine production...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Gordon D Logan, Jana E Ulrich, Dakota R B Lindsey
Fine motor skills like typing involve a mapping problem that trades Fitts' law against Hick's law. Eight fingers have to be mapped onto 26 keys. Movement time increases with distance, so Fitts' law is optimized by recruiting more fingers. Choice difficulty increases with the number of alternatives, so Hick's law is optimized by recruiting fewer fingers. The effect of the number of alternatives decreases with consistent practice, so skilled typists achieve a balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law through learning...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
A Rosén, J Yi, I Kirsch, T J Kaptchuk, M Ingvar, K B Jensen
BACKGROUND: Expectancy is widely accepted as a key contributor to placebo effects. However, it is not known whether non-conscious expectancies achieved through semantic priming may contribute to placebo analgesia. In this study, we investigated if an implicit priming procedure, where participants were unaware of the intended priming influence, affected placebo analgesia. METHODS: In a double-blind experiment, healthy participants (n = 36) were randomized to different implicit priming types; one aimed at increasing positive expectations and one neutral control condition...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Akalabya Bissoyi, Arindam Bit, Bikesh Kumar Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Pradeep Kumar Patra
Cell-matrix systems can be stored for longer period of time by means of cryopreservation. Cell-matrix and cell-cell interaction has been found to be critical in a number of basic biological processes. Tissue structure maintenance, cell secretary activity, cellular migration, and cell-cell communication all exist because of the presence of cell interactions. This complex and co-ordinated interaction between cellular constituents, extracellular matrix and adjacent cells has been identified as a significant contributor in the overall co-ordination of tissue...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bing-Ying Xie, Ai-Wen Wu
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease; current research relies on cancer cell lines and animal cancer models, which may not precisely imitate inner human tumors and guide clinical medicine. The purpose of our study was to explore and further improve the process of producing three-dimensional (3D) organoid model and impel the development of personalized therapy. METHODS: We subcutaneously injected surgically resected CRC tissues from a patient into BALB/c-nu mice to build patient-derived xenografts (PDXs)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Madathipat Unnikrishnan, Sidharth Viswanathan, K Balasubramaniam, C V Muraleedharan, Arthur Vijayan Lal, P V Mohanan, Meera Mohanty, Tirur Raman Kapilamoorthy
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. METHODS: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) graft at its research wing...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Amitoj S Mehta, Carla A Evans, Grace Viana, Ana Bedran-Russo, Maria Therese S Galang-Boquiren
This study evaluates tensile bond strength (TBS) of metal orthodontic attachments to sandblasted feldspathic porcelain and zirconia with various bonding protocols. Thirty-six (36) feldspathic and 36 zirconia disc samples were prepared, glazed, embedded in acrylic blocks and sandblasted, and divided into three groups according to one or more of the following treatments: hydrofluoric acid 4% (HF), Porcelain Conditioner silane primer, Reliance Assure® primer, Reliance Assure plus® primer, and Z Prime™ plus zirconia primer...
2016: BioMed Research International
Claudia A Bustamante, Laura L Monti, Julieta Gabilondo, Federico Scossa, Gabriel Valentini, Claudio O Budde, María V Lara, Alisdair R Fernie, María F Drincovich
Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Even J Lanseng
This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Melissa Dullaers, Martijn J Schuijs, Monique Willart, Kaat Fierens, Justine Van Moorleghem, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a CD4 Th2-lymphocyte driven disease characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness and eosinophilia. B cells can present antigens to CD4 T cells and produce IgE immunoglobulins which arms effector cells, however mouse models are inconclusive whether B cells are necessary for asthma development. OBJECTIVES: To address the role of B cells in a house dust mite (HDM) driven Th2-high asthma mouse model. METHODS: WT and B cell deficient muMT Mice were sensitized and challenged via the airways with HDM extracts...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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