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Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Andre Roelke, Nicole Franke, Chris Biemann, Ralph Radach, Arthur M Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann
The theoretical "difficulty in separating association strength from [semantic] feature overlap" has resulted in inconsistent findings of either the presence or absence of "pure" associative priming in recent literature (Hutchison, 2003, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(4), p. 787). The present study used co-occurrence statistics of words in sentences to provide a full factorial manipulation of direct association (strong/no) and the number of common associates (many/no) of the prime and target words...
March 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Li Yin, Xueqiang Guo, Chunyan Zhang, Zhihui Cai, Cunshuan Xu
The priming stage is the first step of liver regeneration (LR). This stage is characterized by the transition from G0 to cell cycle for 4 hours in rat. In this study, individual gene level and gene set level (GSEA) was performed to identify the candidate genes and significantly changed biological processes at 2 h after partial hepatectomy (PH). The leading edge analysis is performed to identify the key genes and iRegulon was employed for transcription factor (TF) analysis. A total of 53 differentially expressed genes were identified using RMA package based on R language at 2 h after PH, including the transcription factor, enzyme and cytokine...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Waseem Akram, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, M Atif, Alvina Rafique Butt, Ali Asghar, Yasir Jamil, K S Alimgeer, Zhiming M Wang
MgO is an attractive choice for carcinogenic cell destruction in photodynamic therapy, as confirmed by manifold analysis. The prime focus of the presented research is to investigate the toxicity caused by morphologically different MgO nanostructures obtained by annealing at various annealing temperatures. Smart (stimuli-responsive) MgO nanomaterials are a very promising class of nanomaterials, and their properties can be controlled by altering their size, morphology, or other relevant characteristics. The samples investigated here were grown by the co-precipitation technique...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shiwei Zheng, Efthymia Papalexi, Andrew Butler, William Stephenson, Rahul Satija
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to diverse cell types in the blood system, yet our molecular understanding of the early trajectories that generate this enormous diversity in humans remains incomplete. Here, we leverage Drop-seq, a massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) approach, to individually profile 20,000 progenitor cells from human cord blood, without prior enrichment or depletion for individual lineages based on surface markers. Our data reveal a transcriptional compendium of progenitor states in human cord blood, representing four committed lineages downstream from HSC, alongside the transcriptional dynamics underlying fate commitment...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Development
Emily P Dawson, Denise G Lanza, Nicholas J Webster, Susan M Benton, Isao Suetake, Jason D Heaney
Testicular teratomas result from anomalies in embryonic germ cell development. In 129 inbred mice, teratoma initiation coincides with germ cell sex-specific differentiation and the mitotic-meiotic switch: XX and XY germ cells repress pluripotency, XX germ cells initiate meiosis, and XY germ cells activate male-specific differentiation and mitotic arrest. Here, we report that expression of Nanos2 , a gene that is crucial to male sex specification, is delayed in teratoma-susceptible germ cells. Decreased expression of Nanos2 was found to be due, in part, to the Nanos2 allele present in 129 mice...
March 15, 2018: Development
He Wang, Jianjia Li, Xiaoyi Zhang, Tingting Ning, Dandan Ma, Yihong Ge, Shuaimei Xu, Yilin Hao, Buling Wu
To seek a potential target for periodontal tissue regeneration, this study aimed to explore the role of Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Transwell assay, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8) assay, cell cycle assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and western blot were used to investigate the effects of ITGA5 on PDLSC migration, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo effect was investigated by nude mice subcutaneous transplantation with cell and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) complex...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Jeff Wong, Leo d'Espaux, Ishaan Dev, Cas van der Horst, Jay Keasling
Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) root extracts have been used by European and Asian cultures for millennia for their anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, the efficacy of these extracts suffers from variable yields and composition, making these extracts a prime candidate for microbial production. Recently, valerenic acid, a C15 sesquiterpenoid, was identified as the active compound that modulates the GABAA channel. Although the first committed step, valerena-4,7(11)-diene synthase, has been identified and described, the complete valerenic acid biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated...
March 12, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yimin Niu, Jianhua Zhu, Yang Li, Huihui Shi, Yaxiang Gong, Rui Li, Qiang Huo, Tao Ma, Yang Liu
The penetration of nanomedicine into solid tumor still constitutes a great challenge for cancer therapy, which lead to the failure of thorough clearance of tumor cells. Aiming at solving this issue, lots of encouraging progress has been made in the development of multistage nanoparticles triggered by various stimuli in the past few years. Besides, the therapeutical effects of nanoagents are also greatly impacted by the complex tumor microenvironment, and remodeling tumor microenvironment has become another important approach for promoting nanoparticles penetration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ruiting Li, Jing Wang, Ruifang Li, Fangfang Zhu, Wenjuan Xu, Gan Zha, Guangzhen He, Huan Cao, Yimin Wang, Jiong Yang
The ATP/P2X7 axis of dendritic cells (DCs) mediates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to induce T helper (Th) 2, Th17 differentiation in the pathogenesis of asthma. NLRP3 inflammasome also regulates high mobility protein 1 (HMGB1) release in DCs. Recent studies demonstrated the correlation between HMGB1 expression and airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in asthma. However, the relationship between the ATP/P2X7-NLRP3 axis and HMGB1 in DCs in asthma is still unclear...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Stefanie Amend, Roland Frankenberger, Susanne Lücker, Eugen Domann, Norbert Krämer
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to establish Lactobacillus casei in a completely automated Streptococcus mutans-based artificial mouth model and to investigate secondary caries inhibiting properties of glass ionomer cements / resin composite groups in vitro. METHODS: Sixty extracted, caries-free human third molars were used for preparation of standardized class-V-cavities. Specimens were restored with a resin-modified (Photac Fil; PF) as well as a conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac Molar; KM) and one resin composite bonded with and without conduction of etch-and-rinse technique (Prime&Bond NT, Ceram X mono; C+ERT, C)...
March 12, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Katherine B Carnelley, Mona-Maria Bejinaru, Lorna Otway, David S Baldwin, Angela C Rowe
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the potential effectiveness of secure attachment priming in outpatients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Forty-eight participants engaged in secure attachment priming or neutral priming in the laboratory (Time 1), after which they received three daily consecutive primes via text message (Times 2-4), aimed at maintaining the effects from Time 1. A follow-up one day later (Time 5) was also included. Dependent measures were assessed at Times 1, 4 and 5...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ryan B Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley, Zoltan Dienes
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Leonardo Reyes Gonzalez, Claudia N González Brambila, Francisco Veloso
This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico...
2018: PloS One
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