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organizational ethics

Patricia Fronek, Melissa B Kendall
PURPOSE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of Professional Boundaries for Health Professionals (PBHP) training program on the knowledge, comfort, experience, and ethical decision-making of multidisciplinary practitioners facing client-practitioner boundary dilemmas. METHODS: In all, 36 rehabilitation practitioners from an Australian state-wide spinal cord injuries service were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Boundaries in Practice (BIP) Scale measured outcomes at four points: pre, post, 3 months, and 1 year...
October 14, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Qin Zhu, Brent K Jesiek
This paper begins by reviewing dominant themes in current teaching of professional ethics in engineering education. In contrast to more traditional approaches that simulate ethical practice by using ethical theories to reason through micro-level ethical dilemmas, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to ethics that places more emphasis on the practical plausibility of ethical decision-making. In addition to the quality of ethical justification, the value of a moral action also depends on its effectiveness in solving an ethical dilemma, cultivating healthy working relationships, negotiating existing organizational cultures, and achieving contextual plausibility in everyday professional practice...
October 10, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Martin Hua, Tristan Boonstra, Patrick J Kelly, Andrew Wilson, Jonathan C Craig, Angela C Webster
OBJECTIVES: The Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) makes recommendations to the Australian Government for funding health technologies under the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS). Differences in public, clinical, commercial, and political opinions on health expenditure emphasize the importance of defensible funding decisions. We aimed to evaluate the quality of health technology assessment (HTA) reports over time and among health technologies assessed for MSAC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A cohort study was performed of HTA reports prepared for MSAC between 1998 and 2013...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Pei-Pei Chen, Hsiao-Lu Lee, Shu-He Huang, Ching-Ling Wang, Chiu-Mieh Huang
BACKGROUND: Moral distress occurs when nurses experience ethical dilemmas. Issues related to these dilemmas are addressed in some nursing education courses. Nurses' reaction to dilemma such as moral distress is relatively less noticed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and describe the various types of perceptions of moral distress exhibited by nurses. RESEARCH DESIGN: This study applied Q methodology to explore the perspectives of nurses regarding moral distress...
September 28, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Nancy Berlinger, Elizabeth Dietz
Participation in patient safety is one concrete expression of a foundational principle of medical ethics: do no harm. Being an ethical professional requires taking action to prevent harm to patients in health care environments. Checklists and time-outs have become common patient safety tools in the US and other nations. While their use can support ethical practice, recent research has revealed their limitations and has underscored the importance of interpersonal collaboration in developing and using these patient safety tools...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Melissa J Kurtz, Laura E Starbird
A review of Lin et al.'s pilot study exploring the effects of an interprofessional, problem-based learning clinical ethics curriculum on Taiwanese medical and nursing students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration highlights the benefits of interprofessional collaboration and offers insight into how problem-based learning might be universally applied in ethics education. Interprofessional collaboration is an ideal approach for exploring ethical dilemmas because it involves all relevant professionals in discussions about ethical values that arise in patient care...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Mary Naylor, Nancy Berlinger
Numerous studies have revealed that health care transitions for chronically ill older adults are frequently poorly managed, often with devastating human and economic consequences. And poorly managed transitions and their consequences also occur among younger, relatively healthy individuals who have adequate resources and are prepared to advocate on their own behalf. Despite the rich base of research confirming that evidence-based transitional care enhances patients' experiences, improves health and quality of life, and reduces costs, organizational, regulatory, financial, and cultural barriers have, until recently, prevented widespread adoption of these proven approaches...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Clareen Wiencek, Ramón Lavandero, Nancy Berlinger
Health care work is interprofessional work. Nurses and physicians, members of the professions whose close collaboration is foundational to health care delivery, continue to be educated separately in most academic institutions. Their work also is organized in ways that challenge interprofessional collaboration. Understanding workplace realities faced by nurses and physicians, separately and jointly, is a starting place for exploring how to support ethically sound interprofessional work. In this essay, we look most closely at the work of nurses and physicians who care for seriously ill hospitalized patients, a patient population closely associated with ethical challenges...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Per Koren Solvang, Halvor Hanisch, Jan D Reinhardt
PURPOSE: EU policy documents and health scholars point out that in order to understand the complexity of modern health systems, as well as to devise appropriate policy responses, considering micro, meso, and macro levels is indispensable. This article aims to develop an analytical framework for how rehabilitation as an interdisciplinary field can be framed in such a three-level framework. METHODS: This is a conceptual paper based on recent contributions to the development of a theory of rehabilitation...
September 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Sandra Martins Pereira, Carla Margarida Teixeira, Ana Sofia Carvalho, Pablo Hernández-Marrero
INTRODUCTION: Professionals working in intensive and palliative care units, hence caring for patients at the end-of-life, are at risk of developing burnout. Workplace conditions are determinant factors to develop this syndrome among professionals providing end-of-life care. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare burnout levels between professionals working in intensive and palliative care units; and to assess which workplace experiences are associated with burnout...
2016: PloS One
Silvia Pignata, Anthony H Winefield, Chris Provis, Carolyn M Boyd
PURPOSE: This study examined the factors that predict employees' perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Donna Lemmenes, Pamela Valentine, Patricia Gwizdalski, Catherine Vincent, Chuanhong Liao
BACKGROUND: Nurses are confronted daily with ethical issues while providing patient care. Hospital ethical climates can affect nurses' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, retention, and physician collaboration. PURPOSE: At a metropolitan academic medical center, we examined nurses' perceptions of the ethical climate and relationships among ethical climate factors and nurse characteristics. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: We used a descriptive correlational design and nurses (N = 475) completed Olson's Hospital Ethical Climate Survey...
September 7, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Wu Xiaoyan, Zhan Yufang, Ci Lifeng, Sun Congcong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the current situation of moral distress and to explore its influencing factors among Chinese nurses. METHODS: This is an exploratory, descriptive design study. A total of 465 clinical nurses from different departments in three Grade-III, Level-A hospitals in Jinan, Shandong Province, completed the questionnaires, including demographics questionnaire, Chinese version of Moral Distress Scale-Revised, and Job Diagnostic Survey...
September 1, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Louise Terry, Graham Carr, Joan Curzio
This study explored with expert nurses in the UK how nursing wisdom can be developed in new and junior nurses. Carper's patterns of knowing and Benner's novice-to-expert continuum formed the theoretical framework. Employing a constructionist research methodology with participant engagement in co-construction of findings, data were collected via 2 separate cycles comprising 4 consecutive sessions followed by a nationally advertised miniconference. Empirical, ethical, personal, and esthetic knowing was considered evident in junior nurses...
August 11, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Jens Dingemann, Rüdiger Szczepanski, Gundula Ernst, Ute Thyen, Benno Ure, Melanie Goll, Ingo Menrath
Aim of the Study A history of esophageal atresia (EA) may result in chronic morbidity. The transition of patients from pediatric to adult care has been recognized as an important factor to maintain disease-specific follow-up and prevent exacerbation of chronic disease. Patient education is recognized as a necessary part of transition programs for children with chronic diseases. Structured education programs for patients with EA have not yet been developed. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a transition-specific educational program in adolescents with a history of EA...
August 14, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Richard G Wunderink, Rahul Nanchal, Jean Yves Lefrant, Farhad Kapadia, Yasser Sakr, Jean-Louis Vincent
PURPOSE: To investigate which factors influence time to death in hospital in critically ill patients worldwide, including the possible impact of gross national income (GNI). METHODS: This was a pre-defined post hoc analysis of the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) database, which included 10,069 patients. For this sub-analysis, we included only the 2062 60-day in-hospital non-survivors (22.3 %) among the 9258 patients with available hospital mortality and length-of-stay data...
September 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Leila Valizadeh, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Belinda Dewar, Azad Rahmani, Mansour Ghafourifard
BACKGROUND: Compassionate care is an international priority of healthcare professionals. There is little understanding about how workplace issues impact provision of compassionate care in nursing practice. Therefore, it is important to address the workplace issues and organizational factors which may hinder compassionate care delivery within nursing practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore workplace and organizational barriers to compassionate care from the nurses' perspective...
August 11, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Gabrielle Bertier, Martin Hétu, Yann Joly
BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) consists in the capture, sequencing and analysis of all exons in the human genome. Originally developed in the research context, this technology is now increasingly used clinically to inform patient care. The implementation of WES into healthcare poses significant organizational, regulatory, and ethical hurdles, which are widely discussed in the literature. METHODS: In order to inform future policy decisions on the integration of WES into standard clinical practice, we performed a systematic literature review to identify the most important challenges directly reported by technology users...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Kaifeng Jiang, Jia Hu, Ying Hong, Hui Liao, Songbo Liu
Prior research has demonstrated that service climate can enhance unit performance by guiding employees' service behavior to satisfy customers. Extending this literature, we identified ethical climate toward customers as another indispensable organizational climate in service contexts and examined how and when service climate operates in conjunction with ethical climate to enhance business performance of service units. Based on data collected in 2 phases over 6 months from multiple sources of 196 movie theaters, we found that service climate and ethical climate had disparate impacts on business performance, operationalized as an index of customer attendance rate and operating income per labor hour, by enhancing service behavior and reducing unethical behavior, respectively...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Omid Barati, Ahmad Sadeghi, Mohammad Khammarnia, Elham Siavashi, Gholamreza Oskrochi
INTRODUCTION: Hospital managers aim to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their institutions through leadership and guidance of medical personnel. Fulfilling these objectives requires a holistic approach to both the management of people and institutional prioritization. The aim of this study was to identify the skills and competencies that hospital managers must demonstrate in order to achieve their objectives. METHODS: In 2015, a regional, multi-center qualitative study was undertaken in Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Electronic Physician
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