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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236228/population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-ropivacaine-in-spinal-anesthesia
#1
Zoubir Djerada, Catherine Feliu, Yoann Cazaubon, Faouzi Smati, Philippe Gomis, Dominique Guerrot, Beny Charbit, Olivier Fernandes, Jean-Marc Malinovsky
BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine is frequently used in spinal anesthesia but the relationship between plasma concentrations and sensory block level remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between plasma ropivacaine concentrations and effects during spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty patients aged between 18 and 82 years were included in this study after providing written informed consent. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intrathecal administration of ropivacaine 15, 20 or 25 mg...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234688/superior-semicircular-canal-dehiscence-a-new-perspective
#2
Dinesh Sood, Lokesh Rana, Raman Chauhan, Roshni Shukla, Khanak Nandolia
Objective: To determine the use of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnostic interpretation of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) or thinning and its association with ear pathologies and to find whether it is an acquired condition and its association with increase in age. Materials and methods: study was performed in a tertiary care institute present in a village, following approval of the institutional ethical committee. Retrospective review of temporal bone CT examinations performed between September 2016 and March 2017 was done...
2017: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234302/home-based-virtual-reality-augmented-training-improves-lower-limb-muscle-strength-balance-and-functional-mobility-following-chronic-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Michael Villiger, Jasmin Liviero, Lea Awai, Rahel Stoop, Pawel Pyk, Ron Clijsen, Armin Curt, Kynan Eng, Marc Bolliger
Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230696/an-exploration-of-the-protective-effects-of-investigators-ethical-awareness-upon-subjects-of-drug-clinical-trials-in-china
#4
L Zhang, X X Huang, H F Chen
Up till now, China has not enacted any legal mechanisms governing certification or supervision for ethics committees. This article analyses deficiencies in the protection of subjects in clinical drug trials under China's current laws and regulations; it emphasizes that investigators, as practitioners who have direct contact with subjects, play significant roles in protecting and safeguarding subjects' rights and interests. The paper compares the status quo in China in this area to that of other countries and discusses ways China might enhance the protection of rights and interests of trial subjects, such as enhancing the ethical awareness of investigators through training, improving laws and regulations, and strengthening the communication between investigators and ethics committees...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229659/a-smoking-prevention-photoageing-intervention-for-secondary-schools-in-brazil-delivered-by-medical-students-protocol-for-a-randomised-trial
#5
Bianca Lisa Faria, Christian M Brieske, Ioana Cosgarea, Albert J Omlor, Fabian N Fries, Christian Olber Moreira de Faria, Henrique Augusto Lino, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Joachim Klode, Dirk Schadendorf, Breno Bernardes-Souza, Titus J Brinker
INTRODUCTION: Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous; the dramatic health consequences are too far in the future to fathom. We recently designed and tested an intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance. A free photoageing mobile app (Smokerface) was implemented by medical students in secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#6
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226746/what-can-irbs-learn-from-cabs-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-experiences-of-recruitment-and-training-of-nonscientist-members-on-research-review-boards
#7
Stephanie Solomon Cargill
Governments, funders, and institutional policies increasingly encourage and even mandate the involvement of nonscientists in the ethical review of research, most famously in institutional review boards (IRBs), but also on community advisory boards (CABs) and other committees that contribute to research governance. In spite of these requirements, few have examined how different factors such as recruitment strategies, training, and different qualifications shape the contributions of nonscientists to the research enterprise...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225934/health-policy-and-systems-research-towards-a-better-understanding-and-review-of-ethical-issues
#8
REVIEW
Valerie Ann Luyckx, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Abha Saxena, Nhan T Tran
Given the focus on health systems in the post-millennium development goal era and moving towards the sustainable development goals, there is a compelling need for a common framework for health policy and systems research ethics to guide researchers and facilitate review by research ethics committees. A consultation of global health policy and systems research and ethics experts was convened to identify ethical considerations relevant to health policy and systems research based on existing knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps through a scoping review and further expert deliberation...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225889/efficacy-of-sonographic-and-biological-pleurodesis-indicators-of-malignant-pleural-effusion-simple-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Ioannis Psallidas, Hania E G Piotrowska, Ahmed Yousuf, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Gayathri Kagithala, Seid Mohammed, Lei Clifton, John P Corcoran, Nicky Russell, Melissa Dobson, Robert F Miller, Najib M Rahman
Introduction: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and currently in UK there are an estimated 50 000 new cases of MPE per year. Talc pleurodesis remains one of the most popular methods for fluid control. The value of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) imaging, before and after pleurodesis, in improving the quality and efficacy of care for patients with MPE remains unknown. Additionally, biomarkers of successful pleurodesis including measurement of pleural fluid proteins have not been validated in prospective studies...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224380/ethics-and-practice-of-trials-within-cohorts-an-emerging-pragmatic-trial-design
#10
Scott Yh Kim, James Flory, Clare Relton
BACKGROUND: With increasing emphasis on pragmatic trials, new randomized clinical trial designs are being proposed to enhance the "real world" nature of the data generated. We describe one such design, appropriate for unmasked pragmatic clinical trials in which the control arm receives usual care, called "Trials within Cohorts" that is increasingly used in various countries because of its efficiency in recruitment, advantages in reducing subject burden, and ability to better mimic real-world consent processes...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223940/-when-to-consult-the-institutional-bioethics-committee-the-deliberative-method-for-resolving-possible-dilemmas
#11
Alejandra T Rabadán, Vilma A Tripodoro
In healthcare, an ethical concern that arises during the decision making process is considered to be a bioethical dilemma. It is often the case that in the absence of proper deliberation, the problem is transferred to a bioethics committee, not even representing precisely a dilemma. Bioethics emerged as a discipline in the mid-20th century. It is defined as a support to decision-making in ethical dilemmas centered on two aspects: ethics of clinical investigation, focused on protecting the rights of research subjects, and bioethics in medical practice, of an advisory nature...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223665/guidelines-and-checklists-for-short-term-missions-in-global-pediatric-surgery-recommendations-from-the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-delivery-of-surgical-care-global-health-subcommittee-american-pediatric-surgical-association-global-pediatric-surgery-committee
#12
REVIEW
Marilyn Butler, Elizabeth Drum, Faye M Evans, Tamara Fitzgerald, Jason Fraser, Ai-Xuan Holterman, Howard Jen, J Matthew Kynes, Jenny Kreiss, Craig D McClain, Mark Newton, Benedict Nwomeh, James O'Neill, Doruk Ozgediz, George Politis, Henry Rice, David Rothstein, Julie Sanchez, Mark Singleton, Francine S Yudkowitz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses from North America and other high-income countries (HICs) are increasingly engaged in resource-limited areas, with short-term missions (STMs) as the most common form of involvement. However, consensus recommendations currently do not exist for STMs in pediatric general surgery and associated perioperative care. METHODS: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Delivery of Surgical Care Subcommittee and American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) Global Pediatric Surgery Committee, with the American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, Inc...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223401/palliative-care-need-and-availability-in-four-referral-hospitals-in-senegal-results-from-a-multi-component-assessment
#13
Hana Hamdi, Oumar Ba, Serigne Niang, Christian Ntizimira, Mouhadou Mbengue, Aminata Sophie Coulbary, Rokhaya Niang, Matthew Parsons, Joseph J Amon, Diederik Lohman
CONTEXT: With prevalence of non-communicable diseases and life expectancy rising in Senegal, the need for palliative care is likely growing. No national palliative care needs assessments have been carried out. OBJECTIVES: To assess the capacity and need for palliative care in Senegal. METHODS: A multi-component assessment of availability and demand for palliative care was conducted in two tertiary and two regional hospitals in Senegal in 2015 with approval from Senegal's National Ethics Committee for Health Research...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222884/development-and-evaluation-of-nutritional-sensory-and-glycemic-properties-of-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-based-food-products
#14
Shanmugam Shobana, Ravi Poovizhi Selvi, Vasudevan Kavitha, Nagamuthu Gayathri, Gunasekaran Geetha, Rajagopal Gayathri, Parthasarthy Vijayalakshmi, K Kandappa Gounder Balasubramaniam, Vaidya Ruchi, Vasudevan Sudha, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Nagappa Gurusiddappa Malleshi, C Jk Henry, Kamala Krishnaswamy, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) (FM) is rich in dietary fibre and is therefore expected to elicit a lower glycemic response compared to other grains. However, there is little data on the glycemic properties of FM-based products. We evaluated the nutritional, sensory and glycemic properties of decorticated millet with lower polish (DFM-LDP), flakes (FMF), vermicelli (FMV) and extruded snack (FMES) (both FMV and FMES with 7-8% added soluble fibre). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The nutrient contents of the FM products were evaluated by standard AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) methods...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222742/protecting-participants-in-thought-experiments-the-role-of-the-research-ethics-committee
#15
EDITORIAL
David Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221974/criteria-for-postoperative-mechanical-ventilation-after-thymectomy-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-a-retrospective-analysis
#16
Keerthi Chigurupati, Shrinivas Gadhinglajkar, Rupa Sreedhar, Muraleedharan Nair, Madathipat Unnikrishnan, Manjusha Pillai
OBJECTIVE: To determine the criteria for postoperative mechanical ventilation after thymectomy in patients with Myasthenia Gravis. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Teritiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: 77 Myasthenia gravis patients operated for thymectomy were studied. INTERVENTIONS: After obtaining clearance from Institutional ethics committee, medical records of 77 patients with MG, who were operated for thymectomy between January 2005 and December 2015 were reviewed in a retrospective manner...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217244/intraoperative-transesophageal-and-postoperative-transthoracic-echocardiographic-evaluation-of-a-mechanical-heart-valve-prosthesis-implanted-at-aortic-position
#17
Saravana Babu, Rupa Sreedhar, Shrinivas V Gadhinglajkar, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Subin Sukesan, Vivek Pillai, Varghese T Panicker, Lovhale Pravin Shriram, Neelam Aggarwal
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic (iTEE) characteristics and Doppler flow profile of aortic Chitra heart valve prosthesis (CHVP) under stable hemodynamic and loading conditions, and to compare and correlate the iTEE data with the postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) data obtained at 48 hours (TTE1) and 3 months (TTE2) after the surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University-level tertiary referral hospital...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217164/the-protective-role-of-crocin-in-tartrazine-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-wistar-rats
#18
Mehmet Erman Erdemli, Mehmet Gul, Eyup Altinoz, Emrah Zayman, Zeynep Aksungur, Harika Gozukara Bag
The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in rat kidney tissues after administration of tartrazine (T) and crocine (Cr). The latter was applied for its protective properties. The present study was conducted with the approval of Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine, Experimental Animals Ethics Committee. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups (Control, T, Cr, T + Cr). At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Biochemical and histopathological studies were conducted on excised rat kidney tissues...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214581/newborn-screening-beyond-the-spot
#19
Tiina K Urv, Melissa A Parisi
The newborn screening paradigm of testing all newborns in the United States for treatable conditions within the first few hours of birth has proven to be a remarkable success story in the realm of public health by reducing neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality. The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007 and its successor, the Reauthorization Act of 2014, legislated the establishment of a Department of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee to make recommendations around newborn screening and a methodology to establish and add new conditions to a Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) which currently includes 34 core conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212477/nurse-health-and-lifestyle-modification-versus-standard-care-in-40-to-70-year-old-regional-adults-study-protocol-of-the-management-to-optimise-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-reduction-via-nurse-led-intervention-modern-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Melinda J Carrington, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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