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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937310/remotely-supervised-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#2
Leigh E Charvet, Bryan Dobbs, Michael T Shaw, Marom Bikson, Abhishek Datta, Lauren B Krupp
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) that remains without reliably effective treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising option for fatigue reduction. We developed a telerehabilitation protocol that delivers tDCS to participants at home using specially designed equipment and real-time supervision (remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (RS-tDCS)). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether tDCS can reduce fatigue in individuals with MS...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#4
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928633/glutaminase-and-mmp-9-downregulation-in-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-lpa1-receptor-null-mice-correlate-with-altered-dendritic-spine-plasticity
#5
Ana Peñalver, José A Campos-Sandoval, Eduardo Blanco, Carolina Cardona, Laura Castilla, Mercedes Martín-Rufián, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Raquel Sánchez-Varo, Francisco J Alonso, Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María I Colado, Antonia Gutiérrez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Javier Márquez
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator that regulates nervous system development and functions acting through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we explore the crosstalk between LPA1 receptor and glutamatergic transmission by examining expression of glutaminase (GA) isoforms in different brain areas isolated from wild-type (WT) and KOLPA1 mice. Silencing of LPA1 receptor induced a severe down-regulation of Gls-encoded long glutaminase protein variant (KGA) (glutaminase gene encoding the kidney-type isoforms, GLS) protein expression in several brain regions, particularly in brain cortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923931/endothelial-insulin-receptors-differentially-control-insulin-signaling-kinetics-in-peripheral-tissues-and-brain-of-mice
#6
Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Samuel M Lockhart, Weikang Cai, Mengyao Ella Li, Erica P Homan, Christian Rask-Madsen, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin receptors (IRs) on endothelial cells may have a role in the regulation of transport of circulating insulin to its target tissues; however, how this impacts on insulin action in vivo is unclear. Using mice with endothelial-specific inactivation of the IR gene (EndoIRKO), we find that in response to systemic insulin stimulation, loss of endothelial IRs caused delayed onset of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, brown fat, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex but not in liver or olfactory bulb...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914230/prefrontal-cortical-responses-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-related-neurodevelopmental-impairment-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles
OBJECTIVE: Disruption in the neural activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in modulating arousal was explored in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), who have known neurobehavioral impairment. METHODS: During a task that elicits frustration, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure PFC activation, specifically levels of oxygenated (HBO) and deoxygenated (HBR) hemoglobin, in children with PAE (n=18) relative to typically developing Controls (n=12) and a Clinical Contrast group with other neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems (n=14)...
September 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#9
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900727/uhrf2-deletion-impairs-the-formation-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-by-changing-the-structure-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#10
Xiao-Rong Chen, Shi-Cheng Sun, Shuai-Wen Teng, Liang Li, Yi-Fan Bie, Hui Yu, Da-Li Li, Zhe-Yu Chen, Yue Wang
Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2 (Uhrf2) is distributed in many brain regions, including the cortex and hippocampus. Decreased Uhrf2 expression is involved in neurodegenerative disease. A recent study showed Uhrf2 deletion impaired spatial memory; however, the mechanism remains elusive. In our study, we determined that Uhrf2(+/-) and Uhrf2(-/-) mice had significant learning and memory deficiencies in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and the novel place recognition test but not in the novel object recognition test...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900286/adolescent-thc-exposure-causes-enduring-prefrontal-cortical-disruption-of-gabaergic-inhibition-and-dysregulation-of-sub-cortical-dopamine-function
#11
Justine Renard, Hanna J Szkudlarek, Cecilia P Kramar, Christina E L Jobson, Kyra Moura, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic adolescent marijuana use has been linked to the later development of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. GABAergic hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a cardinal pathological feature of schizophrenia and may be a mechanism by which the PFC loses its ability to regulate sub-cortical dopamine (DA) resulting in schizophrenia-like neuropsychopathology. In the present study, we exposed adolescent rats to Δ-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component in marijuana. At adulthood, we characterized the functionality of PFC GABAergic neurotransmission and its regulation of sub-cortical DA function using molecular, behavioral and in-vivo electrophysiological analyses...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894248/chronic-treatment-with-tempol-during-acquisition-or-withdrawal-from-cpp-abolishes-the-expression-of-cocaine-reward-and-diminishes-oxidative-damage
#12
Tehila Beiser, Ran Numa, Ron Kohen, Rami Yaka
In previous studies, we reported that pretreatment with the antioxidant Tempol attenuated the development and expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization in rats and diminished cocaine-induced oxidative stress (OS) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), suggesting a potential role for Tempol in interfering with cocaine-related psychomotor sensitization. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of Tempol in reward and reinforcement using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893650/adversity-in-early-adolescence-promotes-an-enduring-anxious-phenotype-and-increases-serotonergic-innervation-of-the-infralimbic-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Cindy S Tao, Prateek Dhamija, Linda Booij, Janet L Menard
Stress during early development produces lasting effects on psychopathological outcomes. We analyzed the impact of prior intermittent, physical stress (IPS) during early adolescence (PD 22-33) on anxiety-like behaviour of female rats in adulthood. After behavioural testing, we used immunohistochemistry for the 5-HT transporter (SERT) to evaluate 5-HT innervation profiles in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral hippocampus (VH). Administration of IPS (i.e., water immersion, elevated platform, foot shock) in early adolescence increased rats' anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus-maze but had no effects in the shock-probe burying test...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893594/nitric-oxide-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-place-preference-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus
#14
Hironori Kamii, Naofumi Taoka, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous neurotransmitter, is involved in a variety of brain functions, including drug addiction. Although previous studies have suggested that NO plays an important role in the development of cocaine addiction, the brain region(s) in which NO acts and how it contributes to cocaine addiction remain unclear. In this study, we examined these issues using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings in rats. Specifically, we focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), brain regions associated with cocaine CPP development and cocaine-induced plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884950/abnormal-gray-matter-volume-and-impulsivity-in-young-adults-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#15
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Thirty-one young male adults whose excessive Internet gaming began in early adolescence, and 30 age-matched male healthy controls were examined...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881851/the-involvement-of-darpp-32-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Mohd Farhan, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia based on neurochemical evidences of elevated brain striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release in response to stress. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in the medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum, considered as the most important integrator between the cortical input and the basal ganglia, and associated with motor control...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879198/complement-c3-expression-is-decreased-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-subjects-and-contributes-to-behavioral-deficits-in-rodents
#17
Kiley Fagan, Amanda Crider, Anthony O Ahmed, Anilkumar Pillai
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with hallmark symptoms including social deficits, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of ASD. The complement system represents one of the major effector mechanisms of the innate immune system, and regulates inflammation, and orchestrates defense against pathogens. However, the role of CNS complement system in ASD is not well understood. In the present study, we found a significant increase in C2, C5, and MASP1, but a decrease in C1q, C3, and C4 mRNA levels in the middle frontal gyrus of ASD subjects compared to controls...
July 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872674/the-methylazoxymethanol-acetate-rat-model-molecular-and-epigenetic-effect-in-the-developing-prefrontal-cortex-an-editorial-highlight-for-epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model
#18
EDITORIAL
Xiyu Zhu, Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
This Editorial highlights an article by Gulchina and colleagues in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors describe molecular and epigenetic changes in the developing prefrontal cortex of the rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM). They found an NMDAR hypofunction present in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile MAM rats which was associated with abnormal epigenetic regulation of the Grin2b gene. These changes may be related to early cognitive impairments observed in MAM rats and schizophrenia patients...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872667/cognitive-and-neuroimaging-findings-in-developmental-coordination-disorder-new-insights-from-a-systematic-review-of-recent-research
#19
REVIEW
Peter H Wilson, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Karen Caeyenberghs, Bert Steenbergen, David Sugden, Jane Clark, Nick Mumford, Rainer Blank
AIM: To better understand the neural and performance factors that may underlie developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and implications for a multi-component account. METHOD: A systematic review of the experimental literature published between June 2011 and September 2016 was conducted using a modified PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study type) framework. A total of 106 studies were included. RESULTS: Behavioural data from 91 studies showed a broad cluster of deficits in the anticipatory control of movement, basic processes of motor learning, and cognitive control...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867339/multimodal-neural-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-the-human-connectome-project
#20
Dov B Lerman-Sinkoff, Jing Sui, Srinivas Rachakonda, Sridhar Kandala, Vince D Calhoun, Deanna M Barch
Cognitive control is a construct that refers to the set of functions that enable decision-making and task performance through the representation of task states, goals, and rules. The neural correlates of cognitive control have been studied in humans using a wide variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural MRI, resting-state fMRI, and task-based fMRI. The results from each of these modalities independently have implicated the involvement of a number of brain regions in cognitive control, including dorsal prefrontal cortex, and frontal parietal and cingulo-opercular brain networks...
September 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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