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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903639/automated-classification-of-pain-perception-using-high-density-electroencephalography-data
#1
Gaurav Misra, Wei-En Wang, Derek B Archer, Arnab Roy, Stephen A Coombes
Translating brief millisecond-long pain-eliciting stimuli to the subjective perception of pain is associated with changes in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. However, when a pain-eliciting stimulus continues for minutes, regions beyond the sensorimotor cortex such as the prefrontal cortex are also engaged. Abnormalities in prefrontal cortex have been associated with chronic pain states, but conventional millisecond-long EEG paradigms do not engage prefrontal regions. In the current study we collected high-density EEG data during an experimental paradigm in which subjects experienced a 4 second low or high intensity pain-eliciting stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899884/the-inverse-relationship-between-the-microstructural-variability-of-amygdala-prefrontal-pathways-and-trait-anxiety-is-moderated-by-sex
#2
M Justin Kim, Annemarie C Brown, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, James M Taylor, Amy L Palmer, Yu-Chien Wu, Paul J Whalen
Anxiety impacts the quality of everyday life and may facilitate the development of affective disorders, possibly through concurrent alterations in neural circuitry. Findings from multimodal neuroimaging studies suggest that trait-anxious individuals may have a reduced capacity for efficient communication between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC). A diffusion-weighted imaging protocol with 61 directions was used to identify lateral and medial amygdala-vPFC white matter pathways. The structural integrity of both pathways was inversely correlated with self-reported levels of trait anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898075/maternal-high-fat-diet-prevents-developmental-programming-by-early-life-stress
#3
M Rincel, A L Lépinay, P Delage, J Fioramonti, V S Théodorou, S Layé, M Darnaudéry
Anxiety disorders and depression are well-documented in subjects exposed to adverse childhood events. Recently, maternal obesity and/or maternal consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) have been also proposed as risk factors for offspring mental health. Here using an animal model in rats, we explored the combinatorial effects of a maternal HFD (40% of energy from fat without impact on maternal weight; during gestation and lactation) and maternal separation (MS) in offspring. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of pups, MS led to changes in the expression of several genes such as Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), 5HT-r1a (serotonin receptor 1a) and Rest4 (neuron-restrictive silencer element, repressor element 1, silencing transcription factor (Rest), splicing variant 4)...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#4
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894920/effects-of-repeated-dizocilpine-treatment-on-glutamatergic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-9-4t
#5
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Kyu-Ho Song, Song-I Lim, Do-Wan Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Repeated exposure to dizocilpine (MK-801) can be used as a model of schizophrenia that incorporates disease progression. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) has been widely used to investigate schizophrenia-related alterations in glutamate (Glu). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an animal model of schizophrenia by using in vivo (1)H MRS. Because of the spectral overlap of Glu and glutamine (Gln), high-field (1)H MRS with short echo time (TE) was used...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894368/effects-of-behavioural-activation-on-the-neural-basis-of-other-perspective-self-referential-processing-in-subthreshold-depression-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#6
S Shiota, Y Okamoto, G Okada, K Takagaki, M Takamura, A Mori, S Yokoyama, Y Nishiyama, R Jinnin, R I Hashimoto, S Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#7
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#8
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886206/the-antidepressant-like-activity-of-ac-5216-a-ligand-for-18kda-translocator-protein-tspo-in-an-animal-model-of-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Zhi-Kun Qiu, Jia-Li He, Xu Liu, Guan-Hua Zhang, Jia Zeng, Hong Nie, Yong-Gang Shen, Ji-Sheng Chen
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is associated with depression. Also, depression is common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Translocator protein (18kDa) (TSPO) and allopregnanolone play an important role in the depression treatment. However, few studies have evaluated TSPO and allopregnanolone in the treatment of depression in T2DM. AC-5216, a ligand for TSPO, produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in animal models. The present study aimed to explore antidepressant-like effects of AC-5216 on diabetic rats...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883060/environmental-intervention-as-a-therapy-for-adverse-programming-by-ancestral-stress
#10
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, YongXin Hao, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Ancestral stress can program stress sensitivity and health trajectories across multiple generations. While ancestral stress is uncontrollable to the filial generations, it is critical to identify therapies that overcome transgenerational programming. Here we report that prenatal stress in rats generates a transgenerationally heritable endocrine and epigenetic footprint and elevated stress sensitivity which can be alleviated by beneficial experiences in later life. Ancestral stress led to downregulated glucocorticoid receptor and prefrontal cortex neuronal densities along with precocious development of anxiety-like behaviours...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881393/food-portion-size-and-energy-density-evoke-different-patterns-of-brain-activation-in-children
#11
Laural K English, S Nicole Fearnbach, Stephen J Wilson, Jennifer O Fisher, Jennifer S Savage, Barbara J Rolls, Kathleen L Keller
BACKGROUND: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). OBJECTIVE: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low)...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880801/ampa-receptor-antagonist-nbqx-decreased-seizures-by-normalization-of-perineuronal-nets
#12
Wen Chen, Yan-Shuang Li, Jing Gao, Xiao-Ying Lin, Xiao-Hong Li
Epilepsy is a serious brain disorder with diverse seizure types and epileptic syndromes. AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzoquinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures in rats. However, the anti-epileptic effect of NBQX in chronic epilepsy model is poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs), specialized extracellular matrix structures, surround parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons, and play a critical role in neuronal cell development and synaptic plasticity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#13
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876866/developmental-disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-after-maternal-immune-activation
#14
John W Paylor, Brittney R Lins, Quentin Greba, Nicholas Moen, Reiner Silveira de Moraes, John G Howland, Ian R Winship
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of offspring developing schizophrenia later in life. Similarly, animal models of maternal immune activation (MIA) induce behavioural and anatomical disturbances consistent with a schizophrenia-like phenotype in offspring. Notably, cognitive impairments in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are observed in humans with schizophrenia and in offspring after MIA during pregnancy. Recent studies of post-mortem tissue from individuals with schizophrenia revealed deficits in extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs), particularly in PFC...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872489/experience-driven-differences-in-childhood-cortisol-predict-affect-relevant-brain-function-and-coping-in-adolescent-monozygotic-twins
#15
Cory A Burghy, Michelle E Fox, M Daniela Cornejo, Diane E Stodola, Sasha L Sommerfeldt, Cecilia A Westbrook, Carol Van Hulle, Nicole L Schmidt, H Hill Goldsmith, Richard J Davidson, Rasmus M Birn
Stress and emotion involve diverse developmental and individual differences. Partially attributed to the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the precise genetic and experiential contributions remain unknown. In previous work, childhood basal cortisol function predicted adolescent resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and psychopathology. To parse experience-driven (non-genetic) contributions, we investigated these relations with a monozygotic (MZ) twin design...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871902/the-effects-of-long-term-estradiol-treatment-on-social-behavior-and-gene-expression-in-adult-female-rats
#16
Alexandra N Garcia, Kelsey Bezner, Christina Depena, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore
This study tested the effects of long-term estradiol (E2) replacement on social behavior and gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the regulation of these social behaviors in adult female rats. We developed an ultrasonic vocalization (USV) test and a sociability test to examine communications, social interactions, and social preference, using young adult female cagemates. All rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with a Silastic capsule containing E2 or vehicle, and housed in same-treatment pairs for a 3-month period...
November 19, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870417/gender-differences-in-neural-correlates-of-stress-induced-anxiety
#17
Dongju Seo, Aneesha Ahluwalia, Marc N Potenza, Rajita Sinha
Although gender differences have been identified as a crucial factor for understanding stress-related anxiety and associated clinical disorders, the neural mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. To explore gender differences in the neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses in 96 healthy men and women with commensurable levels of trait anxiety as they engaged in a personalized guided imagery paradigm to provoke stress and neutral-relaxing experiences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868393/atypical-effective-connectivity-of-thalamo-cortical-circuits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Youxue Zhang, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by atypical connectivity within and across multiple brain systems. We aimed to explore information transmission from the sensory periphery to information processing centers of the brain across thalamo-cortical circuits in ASD. A large multicenter dataset from the autism brain imaging data exchange was utilized. A thalamus template derived from the Automatic Anatomic Labeling atlas was subdivided into six subregions corresponding to six cortical regions using a "winner-takes-all" strategy...
November 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865789/anoxia-ameliorates-the-dexamethasone-induced-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-the-neonatal-male-rat-pups
#19
Petr N Menshanov, Anita V Bannova, Nikolay N Dygalo
Glucocorticoids and hypoxia are two essential factors affecting the brain development during labor and delivery. In addition to the neurobehavioral alterations induced separately by these factors, glucocorticoids can attenuate the deleterious consequences of severe hypoxia-ischemia on the brain development, acting as a neuroprotective agent in combination with hypoxia. The role of hypoxia in the combined action with corticosteroids is less clear. Severe hypoxia-ischemia results in the massive activation of caspase-3, masking any other effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain exposed to glucocorticoids...
November 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#20
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 11, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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