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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782956/attentional-engagement-increases-inferior-frontal-gyrus-activity-and-mutes-limbic-activity-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#1
Moon-Soo Lee, Purnima Anumagalla, Prasanth Talluri, Mani N Pavuluri
OBJECTIVES: Attentional deficit has been shown to exist in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder across the life span. Given that emotional dysregulation is central to bipolar disorder, this study hypothesizes that emotional circuitry regions are altered along with anomalies in the attentional systems during cognitive deployment in bipolar disorder. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of attentional activities using GingerALE software was completed for adult and pediatric bipolar disorder populations in all published studies till December 2017...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781581/brain-correlates-of-continuous-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-measured-by-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling
#2
Yvonne C Lee, Alexander Fine, Ekaterina Protsenko, Elena Massarotti, Robert R Edwards, Ishtiaq Mawla, Vitaly Napadow, Marco L Loggia
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system pathways involving pain modulation shape the pain experience in patients with chronic pain. Our objectives were to understand the mechanisms underlying pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identify brain signals that may serve as imaging markers for developing targeted treatments for RA pain. METHODS: Subjects with RA and matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, using pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777493/transgenic-mice-carrying-glud2-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-expressional-and-the-functional-adaptation-of-this-positive-selected-gene-in-human-brain-evolution
#3
Andreas Plaitakis, Dimitra Kotzamani, Zoe Petraki, Maria Delidaki, Vagelis Rinotas, Ioannis Zaganas, Eleni Douni, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Cleanthe Spanaki
Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement...
May 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774500/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-premenstrual-syndrome
#4
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Hai Liao, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Nana Feng, Gaoxiong Duan, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle-related disorder. Although the precise pathophysiology is not fully understood, it is increasingly believed that the central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of PMS. The aim of this study is to elucidate specific functional connectivity between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Seed-based functional connectivity between the thalamus and six cortical regions of interest, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), posterior parietal cortex, somatosensory cortex, motor cortex/supplementary motor area, temporal and occipital lobe, was adopted to identify specific thalamocortical connectivity in the two groups...
May 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#5
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765105/neural-predisposing-factors-of-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-with-femoral-neck-fracture
#6
Sunghyon Kyeong, Jung Eun Shin, Kyu Hyun Yang, Woo Suk Lee, Tae-Sub Chung, Jae-Jin Kim
Elderly adults are more likely to develop delirium after major surgery, but there is limited knowledge of the vulnerability for postoperative delirium. In this study, we aimed to identify neural predisposing factors for postoperative delirium and develop a prediction model for estimating an individual's probability of postoperative delirium. Among 57 elderly participants with femoral neck fracture, 25 patients developed postoperative delirium and 32 patients did not. We preoperatively obtained data for clinical assessments, anatomical MRI, and resting-state functional MRI...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761862/cellular-stress-and-apoptosis-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Daoyin Dong, Horst Ronald Zielke, David Yeh, Peixin Yang
The molecular pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is still elusive. In this study, we investigated the possible roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and apoptosis as molecular mechanisms underlying autism. This study compared the activation of ER stress signals (protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha [IRE1α]) in different brain regions (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum) in subjects with autism and in age-matched controls...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760060/corticoinsular-circuits-encode-subjective-value-expectation-and-violation-for-effortful-goal-directed-behavior
#8
Amanda R Arulpragasam, Jessica A Cooper, Makiah R Nuutinen, Michael T Treadway
We are presented with choices each day about how to invest our effort to achieve our goals. Critically, these decisions must frequently be made under conditions of incomplete information, where either the effort required or possible reward to be gained is uncertain. Such choices therefore require the development of potential value estimates to guide effortful goal-directed behavior. To date, however, the neural mechanisms for this expectation process are unknown. Here, we used computational fMRI during an effort-based decision-making task where trial-wise information about effort costs and reward magnitudes was presented separately over time, thereby allowing us to model distinct effort/reward computations as choice-relevant information unfolded...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754412/affective-neuroscience-of-self-generated-thought
#10
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Caitlin Mills, Matthew L Dixon, Jelena Markovic, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff
Despite increasing scientific interest in self-generated thought-mental content largely independent of the immediate environment-there has yet to be any comprehensive synthesis of the subjective experience and neural correlates of affect in these forms of thinking. Here, we aim to develop an integrated affective neuroscience encompassing many forms of self-generated thought-normal and pathological, moderate and excessive, in waking and in sleep. In synthesizing existing literature on this topic, we reveal consistent findings pertaining to the prevalence, valence, and variability of emotion in self-generated thought, and highlight how these factors might interact with self-generated thought to influence general well-being...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753887/peri-adolescent-drinking-of-ethanol-and-or-nicotine-modulates-astroglial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-in-female-alcohol-preferring-rats
#11
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicated that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753117/pharmacological-inhibition-of-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ptprz1-modulates-behavioral-responses-to-ethanol
#12
Rosalía Fernández-Calle, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Miryam Pastor, Esther Gramage, Bruno Di Geronimo, José María Zapico, Claire Coderch, Carmen Pérez-García, Amy W Lasek, Beatriz de Pascual-Teresa, Ana Ramos, Gonzalo Herradón
Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophic factors that are upregulated in the prefrontal cortex after alcohol administration and have been shown to reduce ethanol drinking and reward. PTN and MK are the endogenous inhibitors of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ (a.k.a. PTPRZ1, RPTPβ, PTPζ), suggesting a potential role for this phosphatase in the regulation of alcohol effects. To determine if RPTPβ/ζ regulates ethanol consumption, we treated mice with recently developed small-molecule inhibitors of RPTPβ/ζ (MY10, MY33-3) before testing them for binge-like drinking using the drinking in the dark protocol...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750977/high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-changes-older-adults-subjective-sleep-and-corresponding-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#13
Jing Sheng, Chao Xie, Dong-Qiong Fan, Xu Lei, Jing Yu
With advanced age, older adults show functional deterioration in sleep. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation, modulates individuals' behavioral performance in various cognitive domains. However, the modulation effect and neural mechanisms of tDCS on sleep, especially for the elderly population are not clear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) could modulate community-dwelling older adults' subjective sleep and whether these potential improvements are associated with the large-scale brain activity alterations recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748630/interaction-between-tspo-a-neuroimmune-marker-and-redox-status-in-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-pet-mrs-study
#14
Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Jeffrey H Meyer, Michael Kiang, Sylvain Houle, Gary Remington, Ivana Prce, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Napapon Sailasuta, Romina Mizrahi
Altered neuroimmune response and oxidative stress have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While preclinical studies have proposed several pathways regarding potential interactions between oxidative stress and neuroimmune imbalance in the development of psychosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction are not yet understood. To date, no study has investigated this link in vivo in the human brain. We conducted the first in vivo study linking translocator protein 18  kDa (TSPO) expression and glutathione (a major brain antioxidant and a marker for redox status) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of a relatively large sample of participants (N = 48) including 27 antipsychotic-naïve individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and 21 matched healthy volunteers using high-resolution PET with TSPO radioligand, [18 F]FEPPA, and 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748629/abnormal-reward-prediction-error-signalling-in-antipsychotic-naive-individuals-with-first-episode-psychosis-or-clinical-risk-for-psychosis
#15
Anna O Ermakova, Franziska Knolle, Azucena Justicia, Edward T Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Trevor W Robbins, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Ongoing research suggests preliminary, though not entirely consistent, evidence of neural abnormalities in signalling prediction errors in schizophrenia. Supporting theories suggest mechanistic links between the disruption of these processes and the generation of psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown at what stage in the pathogenesis of psychosis these impairments in prediction-error signalling develop. One major confound in prior studies is the use of medicated patients with strongly varying disease durations...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740308/cyclosporin-a-mediated-activation-of-endogenous-neural-precursor-cells-promotes-cognitive-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#16
Labeeba Nusrat, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Vaakiny Raguthevan, Kelsey Adams, Ilan Vonderwalde, Dale Corbett, Cindi M Morshead
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739134/effects-of-tianeptine-on-adult-rats-following-prenatal-stress
#17
Hwayoung Lee, Hyung-Ki Kim, Jun-Tack Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Jonghoon Seo, Sanghyun Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim
Objective: Exposing a pregnant female to stress during the critical period of embryonic fetal brain development increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant tianeptine on prenatally stressed (PNS) rats. Methods: In this study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the last week of gestation. To investigate the effects of antidepressant tianeptine on PNS rats, behavioral and protein expression analyses were performed...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737454/targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-in-glast-expressing-cells-impact-on-anxiety-and-depression-related-behavior-and-hippocampal-proliferation
#18
Rebeca Vidal, Emilio Garro-Martínez, Álvaro Díaz, Elena Castro, Eva Florensa-Zanuy, Makoto M Taketo, Ángel Pazos, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar
β-catenin (key mediator in the Wnt signaling pathway) contributes to the pathophysiology of mood disorders, associated to neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Decreased β-catenin protein levels have been observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressed subjects. Additionally, the antidepressants exert, at least in part, their neurogenic effects by increasing β-catenin levels in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. To further understand the role of β-catenin in depression and anxiety, we generated two conditional transgenic mice in which β-catenin was either inactivated or stabilized in cells expressing CreERT under the control of the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) promoter inducible by tamoxifen, which presents high expression levels on the subgranular zone of the hippocampus...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734343/combining-gray-matter-volume-in-the-cuneus-and-the-cuneus-prefrontal-connectivity-may-predict-early-relapse-in-abstinent-alcohol-dependent-patients
#19
Junkai Wang, Yunli Fan, Yue Dong, Mengying Ma, Yuru Dong, Yajuan Niu, Yin Jiang, Hong Wang, Zhiyan Wang, Liuzhen Wu, Hongqiang Sun, Cailian Cui
BACKGROUND: Developing more effective strategies to prevent relapse remains one of the major challenges of treating substance dependence. Previous studies have identified brain abnormalities in abstinent alcoholics. However, whether these persistent brain deficits in abstinence could predict early relapse to alcohol use has not been well established. This study aimed to identify biomarkers of relapse vulnerability by investigating persistent brain abnormalities in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731695/executive-attention-at-eight-years-concurrent-and-longitudinal-predictors-and-individual-differences
#20
Amanda W Joyce, Denise R Friedman, Christy D Wolfe, Martha Ann Bell
Executive attention, the attention necessary to reconcile conflict among simultaneous attentional demands, is vital to children's daily lives. This attention develops rapidly as the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal areas mature during early and middle childhood. However, the developmental course of executive attention is not uniform amongst children. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of individual differences in the development of executive attention by exploring the concurrent and longitudinal contributions to its development at 8 years of age...
March 2018: Infant and Child Development
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