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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348485/motor-signatures-of-emotional-reactivity-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
Charles R Marshall, Chris J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Cath J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Automatic motor mimicry is essential to the normal processing of perceived emotion, and disrupted automatic imitation might underpin socio-emotional deficits in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the frontotemporal dementias. However, the pathophysiology of emotional reactivity in these diseases has not been elucidated. We studied facial electromyographic responses during emotion identification on viewing videos of dynamic facial expressions in 37 patients representing canonical frontotemporal dementia syndromes versus 21 healthy older individuals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348191/multi-modal-encoding-of-novelty-reward-and-learning-in-the-primate-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#2
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of non-human primates (NHPs; N=2 males; Macaca mulatta) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. Yet, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344304/atherosclerosis-is-exacerbated-by-chitinase-3-like-1-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#3
Yu Yeon Jung, Ki Cheon Kim, Mi Hee Park, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park, Min Hee Park, Jun Chang, Dae Youn Hwang, Sang Bae Han, Sanghyeon Kim, Dong Ju Son, Jin Tae Hong
Although the important role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vascular diseases associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences are unclear. We aimed to evaluate vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in Swedish mutant of human APP transgenic (APPsw-Tg) and ApoE-/-/APPsw-Tg mice. We also aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying any changes observed in these mice compared with non-Tg controls. Methods: The transgenic and non-Tg mouse strains were subjected to partial ligation of the left carotid artery to induce atherosclerotic changes, which were measured using histological approaches, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and gene expression microarrays...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339482/global-spectral-clustering-in-dynamic-networks
#4
Fuchen Liu, David Choi, Lu Xie, Kathryn Roeder
Community detection is challenging when the network structure is estimated with uncertainty. Dynamic networks present additional challenges but also add information across time periods. We propose a global community detection method, persistent communities by eigenvector smoothing (PisCES), that combines information across a series of networks, longitudinally, to strengthen the inference for each period. Our method is derived from evolutionary spectral clustering and degree correction methods. Data-driven solutions to the problem of tuning parameter selection are provided...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339309/late-chronotype-is-associated-with-enhanced-amygdala-reactivity-and-reduced-fronto-limbic-functional-connectivity-to-fearful-versus-happy-facial-expressions
#5
Charlotte Mary Horne, Ray Norbury
Increasing evidence suggests late chronotype individuals are at increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that confer risk are not fully understood. Here, fifty healthy, right-handed individuals without a current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Participants completed an implicit emotion processing task (gender discrimination) including happy and fearful facial expressions...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337278/effects-of-hunger-state-on-the-brain-responses-to-food-cues-across-the-life-span
#6
L Charbonnier, F van Meer, A M Johnstone, D Crabtree, W Buosi, Y Manios, O Androutsos, A Giannopoulou, M A Viergever, P A M Smeets
The abundant exposure to food cues in our environment is one of the main drivers of overconsumption. Food evaluation is important for the regulation of food intake by the brain and it's interaction with hunger state. Children are especially susceptible to food cues. Understanding the mechanisms behind this regulation in healthy individuals across the life span can help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying overconsumption and aid the development of future obesity prevention strategies. Few functional neuroimaging studies have been done in children and elderly...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337235/frequency-specific-effective-connectivity-in-subjects-with-cerebral-infarction-as-revealed-by-nirs-method
#7
Qianying Liu, Bitian Wang, Ying Liu, Zeping Lv, Wenhao Li, Zengyong Li, Yubo Fan
A connectivity-based approach can highlight the network reorganization in the chronic phases after stroke and contributes to the development of therapeutic interventions. Using dynamic Bayesian inference, this study aimed to assess the effective connectivity(EC)in various frequency bands through the near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) method in subjects with cerebral infarction(CI). A phase-coupling model was established based on phase information extracted using the wavelet transform of NIRS signals. Coupling strength and the main coupling direction were estimated using dynamic Bayesian inference...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336026/youth-s-conceptions-of-adolescence-predict-longitudinal-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-activation-and-risk-taking-during-adolescence
#8
Yang Qu, Eva M Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H Telzer
The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage  = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334035/neural-correlates-of-ostracism-in-transgender-persons-living-according-to-their-gender-identity-a-potential-risk-marker-for-psychopathology
#9
Sven C Mueller, Katrien Wierckx, Sara Boccadoro, Guy T'Sjoen
BACKGROUND: Stigmatization in society carries a high risk for development of psychopathology. Transgender persons are at particularly high risk for such stigmatization and social rejection by others. However, the neural correlates of ostracism in this group have not been captured. METHOD: Twenty transgender men (TM, female-to-male) and 19 transgender women (TW, male-to-female) already living in their gender identity and 20 cisgender men (CM) and 20 cisgender women (CW) completed a cyberball task assessing both exclusion and re-inclusion during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#10
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#11
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322238/development-of-inhibitory-synaptic-inputs-on-layer-2-3-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Mari A Virtanen, Claudia Marvine Lacoh, Hubert Fiumelli, Markus Kosel, Shiva Tyagarajan, Mathias de Roo, Laszlo Vutskits
Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317519/%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-promotes-extinction-learning-of-cocaine-reward-memory
#13
Bing Huang, Youxing Li, Deqin Cheng, Guanhong He, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
Extinction learning of cocaine-associated contextual cues can help prevent cocaine addicts from relapsing. Pharmacological manipulation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) during extinction learning is being developed as a potential strategy to treat drug addiction. We demonstrated that the extinction learning of cocaine-associated memory was mediated by β-arrestin2-biased but not heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-dependent β-adrenergic signaling. We found that administration of the nonbiased β-AR antagonist propranolol, but not the G protein-biased β-AR antagonist carvedilol, blocked extinction learning of cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated ERK activation in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex...
January 9, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310578/a-to-i-rna-editing-in-the-rat-brain-is-age-dependent-region-specific-and-sensitive-to-environmental-stress-across-generations
#14
Hiba Zaidan, Gokul Ramaswami, Yaela N Golumbic, Noa Sher, Assaf Malik, Michal Barak, Dalia Galiani, Nava Dekel, Jin B Li, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an epigenetic modification catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), and is especially prevalent in the brain. We used the highly accurate microfluidics-based multiplex PCR sequencing (mmPCR-seq) technique to assess the effects of development and environmental stress on A-to-I editing at 146 pre-selected, conserved sites in the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we asked whether changes in editing can be observed in offspring of stress-exposed rats...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309585/role-of-5-ht1a-receptor-stimulation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-sustained-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine
#15
Kenichi Fukumoto, Michihiko Iijima, Takeo Funakoshi, Shigeyuki Chaki
Background: We previously reported that serotonergic transmission plays an important role in antidepressant effects of ketamine. However, detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. Among the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has an important role in depression. Here, we investigated the role of the mPFC 5-HT1A receptor and its signaling mechanism in the antidepressant effects of ketamine. Methods: The role of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated signaling mechanism (phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt) in the mPFC was examined in the mouse forced swimming test and western blotting...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302202/aav-mediated-astrocyte-specific-gene-expression-under-human-aldh1l1-promoter-in-mouse-thalamus
#16
Wuhyun Koh, Yongmin Mason Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery has been proposed to be an essential tool of gene therapy for various brain diseases. Among several cell types in the brain, astrocyte has become a promising therapeutic target for brain diseases, as more and more contribution of astrocytes in pathophysiology has been revealed. Until now, genetically targeting astrocytes has been possible by utilizing the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. In some brain areas including thalamus, however, the GFAP expression in astrocytes is reported to be low, making it difficult to genetically target astrocytes using GFAP promoter...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301347/the-relationship-between-self-reported-executive-functioning-and-risk-taking-behavior-in-urban-homeless-youth
#17
Joshua Piche, Jaeson Kaylegian, Dale Smith, Scott J Hunter
Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood...
January 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300916/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-phthalates-and-a-high-fat-diet-on-maternal-behavior-and-pup-development-and-social-play
#18
Daniel G Kougias, Laura R Cortes, Laura Moody, Steven Rhoads, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Janice M Juraska
Humans are ubiquitously exposed to many phthalates, a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals commonly used in many consumer goods, and diet, especially fatty foods, is presumed to be a major source of exposure. Here, we use a rat model of human prenatal exposure to investigate the potential interactive effects of an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates and a maternal high-fat diet (HFD). From gestation through postnatal day (P)10, dams consumed the mixture of phthalates (0, 200, or 1000 μg/kg/day) and were fed a control or HFD...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300304/behavioral-and-brain-activity-indices-of-cognitive-control-deficits-in-binge-drinkers
#19
Sean M Molnar, Lauren E Beaton, Joseph P Happer, Lee A Holcomb, Siyuan Huang, Donatello Arienzo, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED) reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED) who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism...
January 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282673/the-microbiome-gut-behavior-axis-crosstalk-between-the-gut-microbiome-and-oligodendrocytes-modulates-behavioral-responses
#20
REVIEW
Achilles Ntranos, Patrizia Casaccia
Environmental and dietary stimuli have always been implicated in brain development and behavioral responses. The gut, being the major portal of communication with the external environment, has recently been brought to the forefront of this interaction with the establishment of a gut-brain axis in health and disease. Moreover, recent breakthroughs in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice have demonstrated the significant impact of the microbiome in modulating behavioral responses in mice and have established a more specific microbiome-gut-behavior axis...
December 27, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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