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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642068/chloramphenicol-decreases-cb1-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-prefrontal-cortex-and-prevents-amphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#2
Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Diego Pérez-Vázquez, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, Pavel E Rueda-Orozco, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Oscar E Prospero-Garcia
Drug dependence seems to involve a learning and memory process. Since learning and memory depend on protein synthesis, drug dependence may depend on protein synthesis, too. Drug-induced reward is a crucial effect for the development of drug-dependence. We used chloramphenicol (CAP, a protein synthesis inhibitor), to evaluate its effects on amphetamine (amph)-seeking behavior, on CB1R expression and on protein synthesis in general, in specific areas of the brain. Two groups of Wistar adult male rats were subjected to amph-induced conditioned place preference (CPP)...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641223/paternal-bisphenol-a-diet-changes-prefrontal-cortex-proteome-and-provokes-behavioral-dysfunction-in-male-offspring
#3
Guangying Luo, Ruifen Wei, Shaolin Wang, Jundong Wang
Relatively little attention has been given paternal effects on next generation. Given that Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous compound in maternal diet, may disrupt brain development and behavior, we hypothesized that paternal BPA diet (PBD) could affect offspring development. Prefrontal cortex (PFC), a vital brain region, is involved in emotion and social behavior. To test whether PBD could alter developing PFC, we carried out a proteomics approach for PFC in male juvenile offspring that responded to PBD (50 mg BPA/kg diet)...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640150/evaluation-of-research-topic-evolution-in-psychiatry-using-co-word-analysis
#4
Ying Wu, Xing Jin, Yunzhen Xue
With the rapid increase in the incidence of mental disorders and mental issues, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. Development priorities and research foci in this field have evolved over different periods.All the articles in 10 psychiatric journals with the highest impact factors were selected from the Science Citation Index (SCI) in Web of Science from 2001 to 2015. The information visualization software Sci was used to conduct co-word and clustering analyses on these articles...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638351/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-considerations-for-research-in-adolescent-depression
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan C Lee, Charles P Lewis, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul E Croarkin
Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637289/the-importance-of-knowing-when-you-don-t-remember-neural-signaling-of-retrieval-failure-predicts-memory-improvement-over-time
#6
Yana Fandakova, Silvia A Bunge, Carter Wendelken, Peter Desautels, Lauren Hunter, Joshua K Lee, Simona Ghetti
Just as the ability to remember prior events is critical for guiding our decision-making, so too is the ability to recognize the limitations of our memory. Indeed, we hypothesize that neural signaling of retrieval failure promotes more accurate memory judgments over time. To test this hypothesis, we collected longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 8 to 9 years olds, 10 to 12 years olds, and adults, with two time points spaced approximately 1.4 years apart (198 scan sessions in total)...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632103/developmental-characteristics-of-disparate-bimanual-movement-skills-in-typically-developing-children
#7
Julian Rudisch, Jenny Butler, Hooshang Izadi, Deirdre Birtles, Dido Green
Mastery of many tasks in daily life requires role differentiated bimanual hand use with high spatiotemporal cooperation and minimal interference. The authors investigated developmental changes in the performance of a disparate bimanual movement task requiring sequenced movements. Age groups were attributed to changes in CNS structures critical for bimanual control such as the corpus callosum (CC) and the prefrontal cortex; young children (5-6 years old), older children (7-9 years old), and adolescents (10-16 years old)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#8
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630250/amplification-of-mglu5-endocannabinoid-signaling-rescues-behavioral-and-synaptic-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-adolescent-and-adult-dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-imbalance
#9
Antonia Manduca, Anissa Bara, Thomas Larrieu, Olivier Lassalle, Corinne Joffre, Sophie Layé, Olivier J Manzoni
Energy-dense, yet nutritionally-poor food is a high-risk factor for mental health disorders. This is of particular concern during adolescence, a period often associated with increased consumption of low nutritional content food and higher prevalence of mental health disorders. Indeed, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms linking unhealthy diet and mental disorders. Deficiency in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) is a hallmark of poor nutrition and mood disorders. Here, we developed a mouse model of n-3 PUFAs deficiency lasting from adolescence into adulthood...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628557/excessive-hemodynamic-activity-in-the-superior-frontal-cortex-during-the-flanker-task-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Yushiro Yamashita, Takaaki Goto, Masumi Inagaki
Near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown excessive prefrontal activity responsible for coping with interference. However, it is possible that the previous results were influenced by verbal, reading, and memory developments. The flanker task is an interference task that does not require a verbal response, reading, or memorization. We examined activity in the superior frontal cortex (SFC) during the flanker task in 12 children with ADHD and 14 children with typical development using near-infrared spectroscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628541/apathy-due-to-injury-of-the-prefrontocaudate-tract-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
In this study, we report on a patient who developed apathy resulting from injury to the prefrontocaudate tract following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was observed on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 46-year-old female patient was involved in a bus accident. Her history included intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left putamen 4 years ago before the head trauma, and her family reported that she had fully recovered. She developed apathy after the TBI, worsening over time. Decreased neural connectivity of the left caudate nucleus (CN) to the left upper medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) resulting from the ICH was observed on the pre-TBI-DTT, whereas on the post-TBI-DTT (28 months after TBI), the neural connectivity of the left CN to the left upper medial PFC was increased, whereas that to the left lower medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex was decreased...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#12
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627133/mesocorticolimbic-hemodynamic-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-compulsive-behaviors
#13
Daniel O Claassen, Adam J Stark, Charis A Spears, Kalen J Petersen, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Robert M Kessler, David H Zald, Manus J Donahue
BACKGROUND: PD patients treated with dopamine therapy can develop maladaptive impulsive and compulsive behaviors, manifesting as repetitive participation in reward-driven activities. This behavioral phenotype implicates aberrant mesocorticolimbic network function, a concept supported by past literature. However, no study has investigated the acute hemodynamic response to dopamine agonists in this subpopulation. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine agonists differentially alter mesocortical and mesolimbic network activity in patients with impulsive-compulsive behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626787/5-ht2a-receptor-deficiency-alters-the-metabolic-and-transcriptional-but-not-the-behavioral-consequences-of-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#14
Minal Jaggar, Noelia Weisstaub, Jay A Gingrich, Vidita A Vaidya
Chronic stress enhances risk for psychiatric disorders, and in animal models is known to evoke depression-like behavior accompanied by perturbed neurohormonal, metabolic, neuroarchitectural and transcriptional changes. Serotonergic neurotransmission, including serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors, have been implicated in mediating specific aspects of stress-induced responses. Here we investigated the influence of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on depression-like behavior, serum metabolic measures, and gene expression in stress-associated neurocircuitry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus in 5-HT2A receptor knockout (5-[Formula: see text]) and wild-type mice of both sexes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625859/harmine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-via-restoration-of-astrocytic-functions
#15
Fengguo Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lei Zhu, Li-Juan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Yong Ling, Chao Huang
Depression is a world-wide disease with no effective therapeutic methods. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytic pathology contributes to the formation of depression. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid and potent hallucinogen, known to modulate astrocytic glutamate transporters, on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and astrocytic dysfunctions. Results showed that harmine treatment (10, 20mg/kg) protected the mice against the CUS-induced increases in the immobile time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and also reversed the reduction in sucrose intake in the sucrose preference experiment...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625674/regional-cerebral-cortical-thickness-correlates-with-autonomic-outflow
#16
REVIEW
Katelyn N Wood, Mark B Badrov, Mark R Speechley, J Kevin Shoemaker
Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in autonomic outflow across the adult age-span are related to cerebral cortex thickness. A total of 55 healthy, active individuals participated in this study (21-73years; 18 female). Physical fitness was treated as a possible covariate (VO2peak: 26-81mL/kg/min)...
June 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622028/prefrontal-activation-during-executive-tasks-emerges-over-early-childhood-evidence-from-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Elizabeth Smith, Afrouz Anderson, Audrey Thurm, Philip Shaw, Mika Maeda, Fatima Chowdhry, Victor Chernomordik, Amir Gandjbakhche
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a brain imaging technique that is well-suited for use in young children, making it particularly useful for investigating the neural bases of the development of executive functions. In the present study, children (ages 4-10) underwent fNIRS while completing response inhibition and working memory tasks. While both tasks were associated with increases in oxyhemoglobin and decreases in deoxyhemoglobin, we found that strength of activation increased with age and with improvements in task performance...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620843/the-coevolution-of-play-and-the-cortico-cerebellar-system-in-primates
#18
Max Kerney, Jeroen B Smaers, P Thomas Schoenemann, Jacob C Dunn
Primates are some of the most playful animals in the natural world, yet the reason for this remains unclear. One hypothesis posits that primates are so playful because playful activity functions to help develop the sophisticated cognitive and behavioural abilities that they are also renowned for. If this hypothesis were true, then play might be expected to have coevolved with the neural substrates underlying these abilities in primates. Here, we tested this prediction by conducting phylogenetic comparative analyses to determine whether play has coevolved with the cortico-cerebellar system, a neural system known to be involved in complex cognition and the production of complex behaviour...
June 15, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619530/neural-networks-underlying-language-and-social-cognition-during-self-other-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Rajesh K Kana, Emma B Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614398/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-alcohol-related-behavior-and-ntf3-trkc-expression-in-rats
#20
Xiaomeng Qiao, Fangyuan Yin, Yuanyuan Ji, Yunxiao Li, Peng Yan, Jianghua Lai
Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test...
2017: PloS One
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