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Prefrontal cortex development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730182/tracking-deceased-related-thinking-with-neural-pattern-decoding-of-a-cortical-basal-ganglia-circuit
#1
Noam Schneck, Stefan Haufe, Tao Tu, George A Bonanno, Kevin Ochsner, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Deceased-related thinking is central to grieving and potentially critical to processing of the loss. Self-report measurements might fail to capture important elements of deceased-related thinking and processing. Here, we used a machine learning approach applied to fMRI - known as neural decoding - to develop a measure of ongoing deceased-related processing. METHODS: 23 subjects grieving the loss of a first-degree relative, spouse or partner within 14 months underwent two fMRI tasks...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729940/propofol-induced-downregulation-of-nr2b-membrane-translocation-in-hippocampus-and-spatial-memory-deficits-of-neonatal-mice
#2
Yuzhu Wang, Song Han, Ruquan Han, Yue Su, Junfa Li
BACKGROUND: Thousands of infants and children are undergoing anesthesia around the world every day. But impacts of anesthetics on the developing neural system remain unclear yet. Previous evidence showed that anesthesia might affect the developing neural system. Thus, early-life anesthesia becomes a critical issue in clinical pediatric practice. Hence, propofol, a short-acting and widely applied intravenous anesthetic, has been gaining focus upon neonatal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into following three groups: group D6 intraperitoneally (i...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#3
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729037/increased-gyrification-in-schizophrenia-and-non-affective-first-episode-of-psychosis
#4
Riccardo Zuliani, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carolina Bonivento, Giulia Cattarinussi, Cinzia Perlini, Marcella Bellani, Veronica Marinelli, Maria Gloria Rossetti, Antonio Lasalvia, Andrew McIntosh, Stephen M Lawrie, Matteo Balestrieri, Mirella Ruggeri, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal cortex gyrification has been suggested to be altered in patients with schizophrenia and first episode psychosis. Therefore, it may represent a possible trait marker for these illnesses and an indirect evidence of a disrupted underlying connectivity. The aim of this study was to add further evidence to the existing literature on the role of prefrontal gyrification in psychosis by carrying out a study on a sizeable sample of chronic patients with schizophrenia and non-affective first-episode psychosis (FEP-NA) patients...
July 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728097/nonlinear-modulation-of-interacting-between-comt-and-depression-on-brain-function
#5
L Gong, C He, Y Yin, Q Ye, F Bai, Y Yuan, H Zhang, L Lv, H Zhang, Z Zhang, C Xie
BACKGROUND: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear. METHODS: Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function...
June 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725548/age-dependent-lasting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-gabaergic-system-of-adhd-patients
#6
Michelle M Solleveld, Anouk Schrantee, Nicolaas A J Puts, Liesbeth Reneman, Paul J Lucassen
Stimulants are the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Their current prescription rates are rising, both in children, adolescents and adults. Related to the impulse control phenotype, both preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated lower γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in prefrontal brain regions in ADHD. Whereas stimulant treatment increases GABA levels, preclinical studies have suggested that stimulant treatment effects may be age-dependent...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#7
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724976/gene-expression-reversal-toward-pre-adult-levels-in-the-aging-human-brain-and-age-related-loss-of-cellular-identity
#8
Handan Melike Dönertaş, Hamit İzgi, Altuğ Kamacıoğlu, Zhisong He, Philipp Khaitovich, Mehmet Somel
It was previously reported that mRNA expression levels in the prefrontal cortex at old age start to resemble pre-adult levels. Such expression reversals could imply loss of cellular identity in the aging brain, and provide a link between aging-related molecular changes and functional decline. Here we analyzed 19 brain transcriptome age-series datasets, comprising 17 diverse brain regions, to investigate the ubiquity and functional properties of expression reversal in the human brain. Across all 19 datasets, 25 genes were consistently up-regulated during postnatal development and down-regulated in aging, displaying an "up-down" pattern that was significant as determined by random permutations...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#9
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720317/dcc-receptors-drive-prefrontal-cortex-maturation-by-determining-dopamine-axon%C3%A2-targeting-in-adolescence
#10
Lauren M Reynolds, Matthew Pokinko, Angélica Torres-Berrío, Santiago Cuesta, Laura C Lambert, Esther Del Cid Pellitero, Michael Wodzinski, Colleen Manitt, Paul Krimpenfort, Bryan Kolb, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic input to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increases throughout adolescence and, by establishing precisely localized synapses, calibrates cognitive function. However, why and how mesocortical dopamine axon density increases across adolescence remains unknown. METHODS: We used a developmental application of axon-initiated recombination to label and track the growth of dopamine axons across adolescence in mice. We then paired this recombination with cell-specific knockdown of the netrin-1 receptor DCC to determine its role in adolescent dopamine axon growth...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719141/neonatal-infection-produces-significant-changes-in-immune-function-with-no-associated-learning-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#11
Brittany F Osborne, Jasmine I Caulfield, Samantha A Solomotis, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714806/loss-of-control-over-the-ethanol-consumption-differential-transcriptional-regulation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Carolina de Paiva Lima, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Samara Damasceno, Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Cristiane S Rocha, Alexandre H Berenguer de Matos, Diego Correia, Roseli Boerngen-Lacerda, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex multifactorial disease with heritability of ∼50% and corresponds to the state in which the body triggers a reinforcement or reward compulsive behavior due to ethanol consumption, even when faced with negative consequences. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with relapsing...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714715/the-development-of-perineuronal-nets-around-parvalbumin-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basolateral-amygdala-of-rats
#13
Kathryn D Baker, Arielle R Gray, Rick Richardson
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures that preferentially surround mature GABAergic neurons that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). It has been suggested that aberrant PNN formation in humans may contribute to psychological disorders, many of which emerge during childhood and adolescence. The present experiment investigated the normative developmental trajectory of PNN formation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in juvenile (P24), adolescent (P35-36), and adult (∼P70) rats...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714693/stochastic-simulation-of-dopamine-neuromodulation-for-implementation-of-fluorescent-neurochemical-probes-in-the-striatal-extracellular-space
#14
Abraham Beyene, Ian McFarlane, Rebecca Pinals, Markita P Landry
Imaging the dynamic behavior of neuromodulatory neurotransmitters in the extracelluar space arising from individual quantal releases would constitute a major advance in neurochemical imaging. Spatial and temporal resolution of these highly stochastic neuromodulatory events requires concurrent advances in the chemical development of optical nanosensors selective for neuromodulators in concert with advances in imaging methodologies to capture millisecond neurotransmitter release. Herein, we develop and implement a stochastic model to describe dopamine dynamics in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain dorsal striatum to guide the design and implementation of fluorescent neurochemical probes that record neurotransmitter dynamics in the ECS...
July 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711765/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-response-as-an-early-biomarker-of-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Nadia Shigaeff, Edson Amaro, Fabio G M Franco, Alessandro F Jacinto, Gabriela Chiochetta, Maysa S Cendoroglo, Vanessa A Citero
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether potential changes in brain activation patterns of elderly individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were cognitively healthy (without mild cognitive impairment or dementia) were associated with cognitive decline in executive function in the short-term. METHOD: We analyzed 43 individuals (23 MetS, 20 controls) using a global geriatric evaluation, a neuropsychological battery, and task-related (attention) fMRI exam. Correlation analysis between the fMRI signal at baseline and cognitive impairment after 1year was based on the voxel-based Pearson coefficient, corrected for multiple comparisons...
July 8, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711562/early-executive-function-differences-in-infants-born-moderate-to-late-preterm
#17
Amanda S Hodel, Kate L Senich, Claire Jokinen, Oren Sasson, Alyssa R Morris, Kathleen M Thomas
Individuals who are born very preterm (<32weeks gestation) show differential development of prefrontal cortex structure, function, and dependent behaviors, including executive function (EF) skills, beginning during late infancy and extending into adulthood. Preschool-aged children born moderate-to-late preterm (PT; 32-36weeks gestation) show smaller discrepancies in EF development, but it is unclear whether these differences first emerge during the early childhood years, when EF is rapidly developing, or if they arise from alterations in complex cognitive skills measurable in late infancy...
July 13, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710465/effects-of-the-mode-of-re-socialization-after-juvenile-social-isolation-on-medial-prefrontal-cortex-myelination-and-function
#18
Manabu Makinodan, Daisuke Ikawa, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Yasunori Yamashita, Michihiro Toritsuka, Sohei Kimoto, Takahira Yamauchi, Kazuki Okumura, Takashi Komori, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Shigenobu Kanba, Akio Wanaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Social isolation is an important factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to develop an effective psychological treatment, such as cognitive rehabilitation, for children who have already suffered from social isolation, such as neglect and social rejection. We used socially isolated mice to validate whether elaborate re-socialization after juvenile social isolation can restore hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the attendant functions manifested in socially isolated mice...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708877/median-raphe-region-stimulation-alone-generates-remote-but-not-recent-fear-memory-traces
#19
Diána G Balázsfi, Dóra Zelena, Lívia Farkas, Kornél Demeter, István Barna, Csaba Cserép, Virág T Takács, Gábor Nyíri, Flóra Gölöncsér, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás F Freund, József Haller
The median raphe region (MRR) is believed to control the fear circuitry indirectly, by influencing the encoding and retrieval of fear memories by amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we show that in addition to this established role, MRR stimulation may alone elicit the emergence of remote but not recent fear memories. We substituted electric shocks with optic stimulation of MRR in C57BL/6N male mice in an optogenetic conditioning paradigm and found that stimulations produced agitation, but not fear, during the conditioning trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706449/effects-of-tianeptine-on-symptoms-of-fibromyalgia-via-bdnf-signaling-in-a-fibromyalgia-animal-model
#20
Hwayoung Lee, Jiyun Im, Hansol Won, Wooyoung Nam, Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyung-Ki Kim, Jun-Tack Kwon, Hak-Jae Kim
Previous reports have suggested that physical and psychological stresses may trigger fibromyalgia (FM). Stress is an important risk factor in the development of depression and memory impairments. Antidepressants have been used to prevent stress-induced abnormal pain sensation. Among various antidepressants, tianeptine has been reported to be able to prevent neurodegeneration due to chronic stress and reverse decreases in hippocampal volume. To assess the possible effect of tianeptine on FM symptoms, we constructed a FM animal model induced by restraint stress with intermittent cold stress...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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