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Executive functions development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545006/cognitive-control-and-reward-loss-processing-in-internet-gaming-disorder-results-from-a-comparison-with-recreational-internet-game-users
#1
G Dong, H Li, L Wang, M N Potenza
Although playing of Internet games may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most game-users do not develop problems and only a relatively small subset experiences IGD. Game playing may have positive health associations, whereas IGD has been repeatedly associated with negative health measures, and it is thus important to understand differences between individuals with IGD, recreational (non-problematic) game use (RGU) and non-/low-frequency game use (NLFGU). Individuals with IGD have shown differences in neural activations from non-gamers, yet few studies have examined neural differences between individuals with IGD, RGU and NLFGU...
March 30, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#2
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543662/inclusion-access-and-civility-in-public-bioethics
#3
Rebecca Dresser
I could tell many war stories about my experience serving on the President's Council on Bioethics-one of the most controversial national bioethics commissions so far-but I want to focus instead on how the experience influenced my views on bioethics, politics, and the potential contributions of national commissions. The executive order that established the Council directed it to consider policy questions, but it spoke primarily of providing a forum for national discussion, inquiry, and education. In this sense, the Council's mission departed from that of other national bioethics commissions, which have had more direct policy functions...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542314/toward-a-more-personalized-motor-function-rehabilitation-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-the-role-of-neuroplasticity
#4
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Luana Billeri, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Carmelo Rodolico, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most prevalent adult muscular dystrophy, often accompanied by impairments in attention, memory, visuospatial and executive functions. Given that DM1 is a multi-system disorder, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including effective rehabilitation programs, focusing on the central nervous system neuroplasticity, in order to develop patient-tailored rehabilitative procedures for motor function recovery. Herein, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study aimed at investigating central motor conduction time, sensory-motor plasticity, and cortical excitability in 7 genetically defined DM1 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542068/reduced-cortical-excitatory-synapse-number-in-apoe4-mice-is-associated-with-increased-calcineurin-activity
#5
Aidan L Neustadtl, Charisse N Winston, Maia Parsadanian, Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Mark P Burns
Synaptic loss is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is associated with the onset of cognitive decline and the loss of executive function. The strongest genetic risk factor for AD is the APOE4 allele, which results in both a greater risk of developing AD as well as an earlier age of onset of AD. Dendritic spines, the anatomical substrate of the excitatory synapse, are reduced in the cortex of humanized APOE4 mice but the reason for this synaptic decline is unknown. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphatase, is a mediator of dendritic spine retraction...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541754/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-and-depression-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#6
F C L Wilson, J D Gregory
OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a well-researched phenomenon in working age adults with depression. However, the relevance and importance of OGM in older adult depression is not well established. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing literature on OGM and depressive symptoms in older adults under the framework of the Capture and Rumination, Functional Avoidance and Impaired Executive Control (CaR-FA-X) model. Is there an alternative to this as I thought references in abstracts were permissable under APA? METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Knowledge...
May 25, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541578/disrupted-development-and-integrity-of-frontal-white-matter-in-patients-treated-for-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#7
John O Glass, Robert J Ogg, Jung W Hyun, Julie H Harreld, Jane E Schreiber, Yimei Li, Amar J Gajjar, Wilburn E Reddick
Background.: Treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma is associated with known neurocognitive deficits that we hypothesize are caused by microstructural damage to frontal white matter (WM). Methods.: Longitudinal MRI examinations were collected from baseline (after surgery but before therapy) to 36 months in 146 patients and at 3 time points in 72 controls. Regional analyses of frontal WM volume and diffusion tensor imaging metrics were performed and verified with tract-based spatial statistics...
May 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536846/time-on-task-effects-in-children-with-and-without-adhd-depletion-of-executive-resources-or-depletion-of-motivation
#8
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Alette Koole, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Arne Popma, Anika Bexkens, Reino Stoffelsen, Anouk Diekmann, Hilde M Huizenga
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation...
May 23, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535638/-application-of-long-term-video-electroencephalogram-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-detection-of-cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#9
X X Yan, Q Yu, Y T Gao, L T Li, D H Yu, Y Chen, X J Yao, W D Yang, Z J Chen, J Z Yin, Y An, K Tan
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534666/human-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#10
Jana Ognjenović, Miljan Simonović
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that ensure accurate translation of the genetic information into functional proteins. These enzymes also execute a variety of non-canonical functions that are significant for regulation of diverse cellular processes and that reside outside the realm of protein synthesis. Associations between faults in AaRS-mediated processes and human diseases have been long recognized. Most recent research findings strongly argue that 10 cytosolic and 14 mitochondrial AaRSs are implicated in some form of pathology of the human nervous system...
May 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527097/the-flexibility-scale-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-cognitive-flexibility-measure-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
John F Strang, Laura G Anthony, Benjamin E Yerys, Kristina K Hardy, Gregory L Wallace, Anna C Armour, Katerina Dudley, Lauren Kenworthy
Flexibility is a key component of executive function, and is related to everyday functioning and adult outcomes. However, existing informant reports do not densely sample cognitive aspects of flexibility; the Flexibility Scale (FS) was developed to address this gap. This study investigates the validity of the FS in 221 youth with ASD and 57 typically developing children. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a five-factor scale: Routines/rituals, transitions/change, special interests, social flexibility, and generativity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523234/the-effect-of-comt-val158met-and-drd2-c957t-polymorphisms-on-executive-function-and-the-impact-of-early-life-stress
#13
Kristel Klaus, Kevin Butler, Simon J Durrant, Manir Ali, Chris F Inglehearn, Timothy L Hodgson, Humberto Gutierrez, Kyla Pennington
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has indicated that variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) may influence cognitive function and that this may confer vulnerability to the development of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. However, increasing evidence suggests environmental factors such as early life stress may interact with genetic variants in affecting these cognitive outcomes. This study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress in healthy adults...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520974/the-neuropsychological-assessment-of-justice-involved-men-descriptive-analysis-preliminary-data-and-a-case-for-group-specific-norms
#14
Casey LaDuke, David DeMatteo, Kirk Heilbrun, Jennifer Gallo, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
Objective: Neuropsychological expertise has played an increasing role in legal decision-making in criminal contexts. Valid neuropsychological evidence in criminal forensic contexts requires normative data that are representative of justice-involved individuals. Unfortunately, existing normative data appear unlikely to represent justice-involved individuals due to significant demographic and clinical factors specific to this population. As a result, the interpretation of neuropsychological performance with justice-involved individuals using existing normative data may increase the risk of inaccurate description, invalid clinical conceptualization, misdiagnosis of impairment, and misattribution of deficits in functional-legal capacities...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518075/leveraging-cyverse-resources-for-de-novo-comparative-transcriptomics-of-underserved-non-model-organisms
#15
Blake L Joyce, Asher K Haug-Baltzell, Jonathan P Hulvey, Fiona McCarthy, Upendra Kumar Devisetty, Eric Lyons
This workflow allows novice researchers to leverage advanced computational resources such as cloud computing to carry out pairwise comparative transcriptomics. It also serves as a primer for biologists to develop data scientist computational skills, e.g. executing bash commands, visualization and management of large data sets. All command line code and further explanations of each command or step can be found on the wiki (https://wiki.cyverse.org/wiki/x/dgGtAQ). The Discovery Environment and Atmosphere platforms are connected together through the CyVerse Data Store...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512747/visuoperceptual-processing-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-true-deficit-or-artefact
#17
Lien Van Eylen, Ellen Plasschaert, Johan Wagemans, Bart Boets, Eric Legius, Jean Steyaert, Ilse Noens
Impairments in visuoperceptual processing have long been considered a hallmark deficit of individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, it is unclear which specific visuoperceptual subprocesses are impaired and whether impairments on these tasks really result from visuoperceptual impairments or rather from confounding factors like Executive Functioning (EF) impairments, lower intelligence (IQ) and/or co-occurring symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To answer these questions, we administered four visuoperceptual tasks and two control tasks in 39 children with NF1, 52 typically developing children and 52 children with ASD (8-18 years), all matched for age and gender...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512663/advancing-the-integration-of-hospital-it-pitfalls-and-perspectives-when-replacing-specialized-software-for-high-risk-environments-with-enterprise-system-extensions
#18
Carsten Engelmann, Dzifa Ametowobla
BACKGROUND: Planning and controlling surgical operations hugely impacts upon productivity, patient safety, and surgeons' careers. Established, specialized software for this task is being increasingly replaced by "Operating Room (OR)-modules" appended to enterprise-wide resource planning (ERP) systems. As a result, usability problems are re-emerging and require developers' attention. OBJECTIVE: Systematic evaluation of the functionality and social repercussions of a global, market-leading IT business control system (SAP R3, Germany), adapted for real-time OR process steering...
May 17, 2017: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512442/posterior-anterior-brain-maturation-reflected-in-perceptual-motor-and-cognitive-performance
#19
Patrícia Gerván, Péter Soltész, Orsolya Filep, Andrea Berencsi, Ilona Kovács
Based on several postmortem morphometric and in vivo imaging studies it has been postulated that brain maturation roughly follows a caudal to rostral direction. In this study, we linked this maturational pattern to psychological function employing a series of well-established behavioral tasks. We addressed three distinct functions and brain regions with a perceptual (contour integration, CI), motor (finger tapping, FT), and executive control (Navon global-local) task. Our purpose was to investigate basic visual integration functions relying on primary visual cortex (V1) in CI; motor coordination function related to primary motor cortex (M1) in FT, and the executive control component, switching, related to the dorsolateral prefrontal region of the brain in the Navon task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511728/birth-weight-interacts-with-a-functional-variant-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-to-predict-executive-functioning-in-children
#20
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Thomas J Hoffmann, Louis A Schmidt, Thomas G O'Connor, Jennifer M Jenkins
Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with several psychiatric conditions characterized by deficits in executive functioning (EF). A specific OXTR variant, rs2254298, has previously been associated with brain functioning in regions implicated in EF. Moreover, birth weight variation across the entire range is associated with individual differences in cortical structure and function that underlie EF. This is the first study to examine the main and interactive effect between rs2254298 and birth weight on EF in children...
May 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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