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Executive functions development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243792/analysis-of-correlation-between-the-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-level-of-adiponectin-in-elderly-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm
#1
Z-Q Liu, M-X Zhang, J Wang, N Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and serum level of adiponectin in elderly patients with Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so as to provide evidence for early diagnosis of MCI and effective evaluation of the impairment of cognitive functions, thereby preventing the impairment of cognitive function as early as possible. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 260 T2DM patients (≥ 60 years old) in Endocrine Department and 120 healthy subjects (≥ 60 years old) who underwent physical examination in our hospital between June 2015 and June 2017...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243386/global-approaches-to-early-learning-research-and-practice-integrative-commentary
#2
Nicole Landi, Laurie E Cutting
This commentary presents highlights from the seven articles in this volume, along with a synthesis of take-home points that can be used to inform policy and practice. Across each article there is a story of both successes and the challenges of ongoing work that seeks to enhance children's development in diverse and challenging environments across the globe. Although the topics covered in this volume range from development of early self-regulation and executive function to the use of technology to aid literacy acquisition in remote areas, each points to the need for systems-level coordination and sustained commitment to reach children at risk...
December 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241411/prediction-of-zinc-binding-sites-in-proteins-using-sequence-derived-information
#3
Abhishikha Srivastava, Manish Kumar
Zinc is one the most abundant catalytic cofactor and also an important structural component of a large number of metallo-proteins. Hence prediction of zinc metal binding sites in proteins can be a significant step in annotation of molecular function of a large number of proteins. Majority of existing methods for zinc-binding site predictions are based on a dataset of proteins, which has been compiled nearly a decade ago. Hence there is a need to develop zinc-binding site prediction system using the current updated data to include recently added proteins...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238990/associations-between-developmental-changes-in-error-related-brain-activity-and-executive-functions-in-early-childhood
#4
Jennie K Grammer, William J Gehring, Frederick J Morrison
Behavioral evidence indicates that skills associated with children's cognitive control (e.g., response inhibition and attentional control) undergo rapid development during early childhood. A particularly important time is the transition to elementary school. Yet, at present, relatively little is known about developmental changes in the brain processes linked to cognitive control during this period, including those associated with error monitoring, including the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe)...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238952/executive-functions-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#5
Marialivia Bernardi, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill, Nicola Botting, Lucy A Henry
AIM: Executive function impairments have been identified in children with poor motor skills, with and without a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, most studies are cross-sectional. This study investigates the development of executive function in children with poor motor skills over 2 years. METHOD: Children aged 7 to 11 years (n=51) were assessed twice, 2 years apart, on verbal and nonverbal measures of executive functions: executive-loaded working memory (ELWM); fluency; response inhibition; planning; and cognitive flexibility...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238004/frailty-in-elderly-diabetes-patients
#6
Toshihiko Yanase, Ikumi Yanagita, Kazuo Muta, Hajime Nawata
Frailty is a state of vulnerability and a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. The occurrence of frailty depends on deterioration in muscle and nerve function, declining cardiopulmonary reserve and loss of executive function. Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes functional impairment in each of the above systems, thus leading to a loss of whole body homeostasis and deterioration in physical function. Inability of self-management in DM patients may also have considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia/frailty...
December 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237010/crispr-cas9-mediated-modulation-of-splicing-efficiency-reveals-short-splicing-isoform-of-xist-rna-is-sufficient-to-induce-x-chromosome-inactivation
#7
Minghui Yue, Yuya Ogawa
Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors results in multiple protein variants from a single gene and is critical for diverse cellular processes and development. Xist encodes a long noncoding RNA which is a central player to induce X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals and has two major splicing variants: long and short isoforms of Xist RNA. Although a differentiation-specific and a female-specific expression of Xist isoforms have been reported, the functional role of each Xist RNA isoform is largely unexplored...
December 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230172/sensor-motor-maps-for-describing-linear-reflex-composition-in-hopping
#8
Christian Schumacher, André Seyfarth
In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB), velocity (VFB) and force feedback (FFB) pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228203/in-vivo-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-atrophy-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Nicola J Ray, Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Umar Toseeb, Pablo Mir, George K Kountouriotis, Stefan J Teipel, Michel J Grothe
Cognitive impairments are a prevalent and disabling non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease, but with variable expression and progression. The onset of serious cognitive decline occurs alongside substantial cholinergic denervation, but imprecision of previously available techniques for in vivo measurement of cholinergic degeneration limit their use as predictive cognitive biomarkers. However, recent developments in stereotactic mapping of the cholinergic basal forebrain have been found useful for predicting cognitive decline in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226876/serum-c-peptide-visfatin-resistin-and-ghrelin-are-altered-in-sporadic-and-grn-associated-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#10
Roberta Zanardini, Luisa Benussi, Silvia Fostinelli, Claudia Saraceno, Miriam Ciani, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Giuliano Binetti, Roberta Ghidoni
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain resulting in different heterogeneous conditions, mainly characterized by personality changes, behavioral disturbances, such as binge eating, and deficits in language and executive functions. Null mutations in progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most frequent genetic determinants in familial frontotemporal dementia. Recently, progranulin was recognized as an adipokine involved in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance revealing its metabolic function...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226486/associations-between-and-development-of-cool-and-hot-executive-functions-across-early-childhood
#11
Sarah O'Toole, Claire P Monks, Stella Tsermentseli
This study explored the development of cool and hot EF skills across early childhood. Children 4.5- to 5.5-years-old (N = 80) completed performance-based assessments of cool EF (inhibition and working memory), hot EF (affective decision-making and delay of gratification) at three time points across 12 months. Cool EF task performance was consistently correlated with early childhood, but hot EF task performance was not. Performance on cool EF tasks showed significant improvements over early childhood, but performance on hot EF tasks did not...
December 10, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224173/testing-the-specificity-of-executive-functioning-impairments-in-adolescents-with-adhd-odd-cd-and-asd
#12
Virginia Carter Leno, Susie Chandler, Pippa White, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Chris Hobson, Anna B Smith, Tony Charman, Katya Rubia, Emily Simonoff
Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks...
December 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224096/origins-and-functions-of-the-ventrolateral-vmh-a-complex-neuronal-cluster-orchestrating-sex-differences-in-metabolism-and-behavior
#13
William C Krause, Holly A Ingraham
The neuroendocrine brain or hypothalamus has emerged as one of the most highly sexually dimorphic brain regions in mammals, and specifically in rodents. It is not surprising that hypothalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in controlling sex-dependent physiology. This brain region functions as a chief executive officer or master regulator of homeostatic physiological systems to integrate both external and internal signals. In this review, we describe sex differences in energy homeostasis that arise in one area of the hypothalamus, the ventrolateral subregion of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) with a focus on how male and female neurons function in metabolic and behavioral aspects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222971/the-divergent-impact-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genetic-polymorphisms-on-executive-function-in-adolescents-with-discrete-patterns-of-childhood-adversity
#14
Huihui Zhang, Jie Li, Bei Yang, Tao Ji, Zhouting Long, Qiquan Xing, Di Shao, Huayu Bai, Jiwei Sun, Fenglin Cao
PURPOSE: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val158Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. METHODS: A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function...
November 22, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222609/evaluating-cognition-in-individuals-with-huntington-disease-neuro-qol-cognitive-functioning-measures
#15
Jin-Shei Lai, Siera Goodnight, Nancy R Downing, Rebecca E Ready, Jane S Paulsen, Anna L Kratz, Julie C Stout, Michael K McCormack, David Cella, Christopher Ross, Jenna Russell, Noelle E Carlozzi
PURPOSE: Cognitive functioning impacts health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for individuals with Huntington disease (HD). The Neuro-QoL includes two patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of cognition-Executive Function (EF) and General Concerns (GC). These measures have not previously been validated for use in HD. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function measures for use in HD. METHODS: Five hundred ten individuals with prodromal or manifest HD completed the Neuro-QoL Cognition measures, two other PRO measures of HRQOL (WHODAS 2...
December 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220528/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-neuropsychological-performance-of-the-child-at-5-years-of-age
#16
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Zeyan Liew, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
Context: Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. Objective: To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Design: Follow-up study. Participants: A cohort of 1,153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#17
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218879/an-ultra-fast-and-scalable-quantification-pipeline-for-transposable-elements-from-next-generation-sequencing-data
#18
Hyun-Hwan Jeong, Hari Krishna Yalamanchili, Caiwei Guo, Joshua M Shulman, Zhandong Liu
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences which are capable of moving from one location to another and represent a large proportion (45%) of the human genome. TEs have functional roles in a variety of biological phenomena such as cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and aging. Rapid development in RNA-sequencing technology has enabled us, for the first time, to study the activity of TE at the systems level.However, efficient TE analysis tools are not yet developed. In this work, we developed SalmonTE, a fast and reliable pipeline for the quantification of TEs from RNA-seq data...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214403/executive-functioning-academic-skills-and-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-brain-tumors-post-proton-radiation-therapy
#19
Lea M Ventura, Julie A Grieco, Casey L Evans, Karen A Kuhlthau, Shannon M MacDonald, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock, Margaret B Pulsifer
Radiation therapy (RT) is integral in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors; however, photon RT (XRT) often results in intellectual decline, executive functioning (EF) deficits, academic underachievement/failure, and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Proton RT (PRT) provides more targeted therapy, minimizing damage to the developing brain, yet few studies have examined its neuropsychological effects. This study investigated the role of EF in academic skills and HRQoL in a sample of children treated with PRT...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213498/program-of-neuropsychological-stimulation-of-cognition-in-students-emphasis-on-executive-functions-development-and-evidence-of-content-validity
#20
Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Natália Martins Dias, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the construction process and content validity evidence of an early and preventive intervention program for stimulating executive functions (EF) in Elementary School children within the school environment. Methods: The process has followed the recommended steps for creating neuropsychological instruments: internal phase of program organization, with literature search and analyses of available materials in the classroom; program construction; analysis by expert judges; data integration and program finalization...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
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