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Executive functions development

Lisa K Akison, Jenny Kuo, Natasha Reid, Roslyn N Boyd, Karen M Moritz
Prenatal alcohol exposure results in cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits in offspring. There is an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to overcome these effects. Maternal choline supplementation has been identified as a potential intervention. Our objective was to review preclinical and clinical studies using choline supplementation in known cases of fetal alcohol exposure to determine its effectiveness in ameliorating deficits in offspring. A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted and studies selected by reviewing titles/abstracts against specific inclusion/exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaochen Wang, George K Georgiou, Qing Li, Athanasios Tavouktsoglou
Several studies have shown that Executive Functioning (EF) is a unique predictor of mathematics performance. However, whether or not children with mathematics difficulties (MD) experience deficits in EF remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if Chinese children with MD experience deficits in EF. We assessed 23 children with MD (9 girls, mean age = 10.40 years), 30 children with reading difficulties and MD (RDMD; 12 girls, mean age = 10.82 years), and 31 typically-developing (TD) peers (16 girls, mean age = 10...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tetsuo Takahashi, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Koji Mori
Studying the crisis management systems of other developed countries has been effective in clarifying what the position and roles of occupational health and safety functions should be in the crisis management system in Japan. In addition to previous studies on the US system, we studied the UK system. We gathered relevant information by visiting the headquarters of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), as well as obtaining information available via the internet. In the UK, the crisis management system was developed based on the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004, which regulated the system of planning and actual correspondence...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Paul J Moberg, Mara J Richman, David R Roalf, Chelsea L Morse, Anna C Graefe, Laura Brennan, Kayci Vickers, Wangchen Tsering, Vidyulata Kamath, Bruce I Turetsky, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a known risk factor for development of schizophrenia and is characterized by a complex neuropsychological profile. To date, a quantitative meta-analysis examining cognitive functioning in 22q11.2DS has not been conducted. A systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with 22q11.2DS with age-matched healthy typically developing and sibling comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators were analyzed...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Alba Práxedes, Fernando Del Villar, David Pizarro, Alberto Moreno
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a teaching program, based on Non-Linear Pedagogy, on decision-making and performance in youth soccer players as a function of the type of play action. Our participants were 19 players from the U12 age category. The teaching program, which was based on the application of modified games characterized by a numerical superiority in attack, was used for 14 training sessions. This program was conducted in two phases (preparation-for-intervention and intervention)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Jennie Lin, Kiran Musunuru
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated many human genomic loci in the development of complex traits. The loci identified by these studies are potentially involved in novel pathways that contribute to disease pathophysiology. However, eventual therapeutic targeting of these pathways relies on bridging the gap between genetic association and function, a task that first requires validation of causal genetic variants, casual genes, and directionality of effect. Executing this task requires basic knowledge of interpreting GWAS results and prioritizing candidates for further study, in addition to understanding the experimental methods available for evaluating candidate variants...
February 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
Kevin Yehl, Timothy Lu
The semiconductor revolution that began in the 20th century has transformed society. Key to this revolution has been the integrated circuit, which enabled exponential scaling of computing devices using silicon-based transistors over many decades. Analogously, decreasing costs in DNA sequencing and synthesis, along with the development of robust genetic circuits, are enabling a "biocomputing revolution". First-generation gene circuits largely relied on assembling various transcriptional regulatory elements to execute digital and analog computing functions in living cells...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Tove Gerholm, Thomas Hörberg, Signe Tonér, Petter Kallioinen, Sofia Frankenberg, Susanne Kjällander, Anna Palmer, Hillevi Lenz Taguchi
BACKGROUND: During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children...
June 19, 2018: BMC Psychology
Francisco Martínez-Sánchez, Juan José G Meilán, Juan Carro, Olga Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Speech variations enable us to map the performance of cognitive processes of syntactic, semantic, phonological, and articulatory planning and execution. Speaking is one of the first functions to be affected by neurodegenerative complaints such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which makes the speech a highly promising biomarker for detecting the illness before the first preclinical symptoms appear. OBJECTIVE: This paper has sought to develop and validate a technological prototype that adopts an automated approach to speech analysis among older people...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
M Eric Irrgang, Jennifer M Hays, Peter M Kasson
Summary: Molecular dynamics simulations have found use in a wide variety of biomolecular applications, from protein folding kinetics to computational drug design to refinement of molecular structures. Two areas where users and developers frequently need to extend the built-in capabilities of most software packages are implementing custom interactions, for instance biases derived from experimental data, and running ensembles of simulations. We present a Python high-level interface for the popular simulation package GROMACS that 1) allows custom potential functions without modifying the simulation package code, 2) maintains the optimized performance of GROMACS, and 3) presents an abstract interface to building and executing computational graphs that allows transparent low-level optimization of data flow and task placement...
June 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Michael T Willoughby, Benjamin Piper, Dunston Kwayumba, Megan McCune
Interest in measuring executive function skills in young children in low- and middle-income country contexts has been stymied by the lack of assessments that are both easy to deploy and scalable. This study reports on an initial effort to develop a tablet-based battery of executive function tasks, which were designed and extensively studied in the United States, for use in Kenya. Participants were 193 children, aged 3-6 years old, who attended early childhood development and education centers. The rates of individual task completion were high (65-100%), and 85% of children completed three or more tasks...
June 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Karla Holmboe, Arielle Bonneville-Roussy, Gergely Csibra, Mark H Johnson
Executive functions (EFs) are key abilities that allow us to control our thoughts and actions. Research suggests that two EFs, inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM), emerge around 9 months. Little is known about IC earlier in infancy and whether basic attentional processes form the "building blocks" of emerging IC. These questions were investigated longitudinally in 104 infants tested behaviorally on two screen-based attention tasks at 4 months, and on IC tasks at 6 and 9 months. Results provided no evidence that basic attention formed precursors for IC...
June 17, 2018: Developmental Science
Jiao Li, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high risk of suicide. Conventional neuroimaging works showed abnormalities of static brain activity and connectivity in MDD with suicidal ideation (SI). However, little is known regarding alterations of brain dynamics. More broadly, it remains unclear whether temporal dynamics of the brain activity could predict the prognosis of SI. METHODS: We included MDD patients (n = 48) with and without SI and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 30) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Marcella Di Cara, Simona De Salvo, Giuliana Vermiglio, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino, Carmela Rifici
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an electro-clinical state associated to altered level of consciousness. In NCSE could occur the behavioural and emotional disorder, cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorder with a negative impact on quality of life and adaptive social behaviours. Cognitive rehabilitation for epileptic patients may include internal compensation strategies, external memory aids, psychoeducation, verbal and visual memory training, attention exercise and executive functions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Pratik Kadekar, Rita Chaouni, Emily Clark, Anna Kazanets, Richard Roy
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans can endure long periods of environmental stress by altering their development to execute a quiescent state called "dauer". Previous work has implicated LKB1 - the causative gene in the autosomal dominant, cancer pre-disposing disease called Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), and its downstream target AMPK, in the establishment of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence during the dauer stage. Loss of function mutations in both LKB1/par-4 and AMPK/aak(0) result in untimely GSC proliferation during the onset of the dauer stage, although the molecular mechanism through which these factors regulate quiescence remains unclear...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Linlin Fei, Kai H Luo, Qing Li
The cascaded or central-moment-based lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) proposed in [Phys. Rev. E 73, 066705 (2006)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.73.066705] possesses very good numerical stability. However, two constraints exist in three-dimensional (3D) CLBM simulations. First, the conventional implementation for 3D CLBM involves cumbersome operations and requires much higher computational cost compared to the single-relaxation-time (SRT) LBM. Second, it is a challenge to accurately incorporate a general force field into the 3D CLBM...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Marco Molinari, Marcella Masciullo, Sara Bulgheroni, Stefano D'Arrigo, Daria Riva
The question posed today is not whether the cerebellum plays a role in cognition, but instead, how the cerebellum contributes to cognitive processes, even in the developmental age. The central role of the cerebellum in many areas of human abilities, motor as well as cognitive, in childhood as well as in adulthood, is well established but cerebellar basic functioning is still not clear and is much debated. Of particular interest is the changing face of cerebellar influence on motor, higher cognitive, and behavioral functioning when adult and developmental lesions are compared...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yonghao Tao, Lingling Ni, Shuangqin Yan, Huihui Tao, Chunli Gu, Ting Shao, Hui Cao, Yanli Sun, Shilu Tong, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To classify the dietary patterns in preschoolers and explore the correlation between dietary patterns and executive functions. METHODS: Between April 2014 and June 2015, 12363 preschoolers were selected from 91 kindergartens of Ma 'anshan City. The classification of dietary patterns and executive functions by Brief-P were evaluated. Unconditional binary logistics regression model was used to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns and executive functions in preschool chidlren...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Leanne Tamm, James Peugh
The most common method used to evaluate child behavior and functioning is rating scales completed by parents and/or teachers. Given that executive functioning (EF) plays a fundamental role in the developing child's cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional development, it would be ideal if ratings of EF and performance-based EF measures assess the same construct. However, most studies report a small to negligible association between performance-based measures and ratings of EF. There are few studies investigating this association for preschoolers, and most only include parent ratings...
June 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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