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Executive functions development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650064/-a-new-case-of-psychotic-break-as-the-presenting-symptom-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-treatment-from-a-neuropsychiatric-approach
#1
P Hernaez-Goni, P Luna-Lario, J Tirapu-Ustarroz
INTRODUCTION: Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is a severe acute neurological condition that is more prevalent in young females and is associated with an underlying tumour. The appearance of severe initial psychiatric signs and symptoms and the fact that it is accompanied by emotional disorders and severe cognitive impairment make it necessary to reconsider the contributions of neuropsychiatry to the diagnosis, development and treatment of the disease, since these have received little attention from researchers to date...
July 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649719/regulation-of-growth-defense-balance-by-the-jasmonate-zim-domain-jaz-myc-transcriptional-module
#2
Ian T Major, Yuki Yoshida, Marcelo L Campos, George Kapali, Xiu-Fang Xin, Koichi Sugimoto, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Sheng Yang He, Gregg A Howe
The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ-TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648572/cortical-excitability-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-healthy-adults
#3
Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Evidence from clinical populations, such as epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggests a relationship between hyperexcitability and cognitive impairment, but this relationship has not been demonstrated in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate the relationship between cortical excitability and cognitive functioning in healthy adults. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was applied to 20 healthy adults to measure cortical excitability and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess aspects of attention, executive function, and mood...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647214/development-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-functionalized-ritonavir-proliposomes-for-lymphatic-targeting
#4
Vasif Ahammed, Reema Narayan, John Paul, Yogendra Nayak, Bisakha Roy, Gopal V Shavi, Usha Y Nayak
AIMS: The aim of the present work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate proliposomes containing lipophilic prodrug ritonavir for targeting towards CD4+ T cells in the lymphatic system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The liposomes were prepared by lipid thin film hydration method and lyophilized in the presence of cryoprotectant mannitol to obtain proliposomes. The optimized proliposomes by Central Composite Design, were surface modified with biotin. The proliposomes were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies...
June 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646712/prediction-of-vocational-participation-and-global-role-functioning-in-help-seeking-young-adults-from-neurocognitive-demographic-and-clinical-variables
#5
Alice J Cairns, David J Kavanagh, Frances Dark, Steven M McPhail
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate neurocognitive, demographic and clinical correlates of vocational participation among a sample of young help-seeking adults. METHODS: Young people (18-25 years) accessing an early intervention youth health service participated. The Global Functioning: Role scale and level of vocational participation, participant characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic background and family history of serious mental illness), distress, psychotic-like experiences, substance use, and mental health diagnoses were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645972/does-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-modify-hand-dexterity-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Anthony Terrence O'Brien, Gabriel Torrealba Acosta, Rodrigo Huerta, Aurore Thibaut
INTRODUCTION: Dexterity is described as coordinated hand and finger movement for precision tasks. It is essential for day-to-day activities like computer use, writing or buttoning a shirt. Integrity of brain motor networks is crucial to properly execute these fine hand tasks. When these networks are damaged, interventions to enhance recovery are frequently accompanied by unwanted side effects or limited in their effect. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) are postulated to target affected motor areas and improve hand motor function with few side effects...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645156/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Natalia Jozwiak, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Véronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Sylvain Chouinard, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Jean-François Gagnon
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33 to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment, and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language...
June 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644705/narrative-development-and-supported-employment-of-persons-with-severe-mental-illness
#8
Kelly Ann Cartwright, Tania Lecomte, Marc Corbière, Paul Lysaker
BACKGROUND: While the relationship between objective recovery and work among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is well-established, few studies have examined the link between subjective recovery and employment. AIMS: The study investigated the prospective relationship between narrative development at the start of supported employment (SE) and positive work outcomes. METHODS: The authors employed a time-limited, mixed-method longitudinal design to examine the relationship between the baseline narrative development of 38 SE participants with SMI and employment outcomes eight months later, as well as whether narratives evolved over the course of the study...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#10
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638064/quantitative-phosphoproteomics-reveals-a-role-for-collapsin-response-mediator-protein-2-in-pdgf-induced-cell-migration
#11
Adil R Sarhan, Justyna Szyroka, Shabana Begum, Michael G Tomlinson, Neil A Hotchin, John K Heath, Debbie L Cunningham
The Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) family of ligands have well established functions in the induction of cell proliferation and migration during development, tissue homeostasis and interactions between tumours and stroma. However, the mechanisms by which these actions are executed are incompletely understood. Here we report a differential phosphoproteomics study, using a SILAC approach, of PDGF-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). 116 phospho-sites were identified as up-regulated and 45 down-regulated in response to PDGF stimulation...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633629/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-cognitive-and-sleep-symptoms-in-me-cfs-and-ms
#12
Vageesh Jain, Amit Arunkumar, Caroline Kingdon, Eliana Lacerda, Luis Nacul
BACKGROUND: There are considerable phenotypic and neuroimmune overlaps between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While the precise aetiologies of both MS and ME/CFS are unclear, evidence suggests that deterioration in cognitive function is widely prevalent in patients with either condition. Little is known about differing risk factors or exposures, which may lead to severe cognitive or sleep symptoms. This study aims to gauge the extent of cognitive and sleep symptoms in ME/CFS and MS patients participating in the UK ME/CFS Biobank and identify the characteristics of those experiencing severe symptoms...
June 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631987/development-of-a-scale-of-executive-functioning-for-the-rbans
#13
Robert J Spencer, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Kathryn A Tolle
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631966/executive-functioning-of-portuguese-preschoolers-in-the-shape-school-test-a-cross-cultural-study
#14
Joana Rodrigues Rato, Filipa Ribeiro, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
The Shape School is a neuropsychological test of executive functions (EF) for preschool-aged children. The purposes of this study were: (a) to adapt the use of the Shape School for European Portuguese preschool children and (b) to examine the cultural sensitivity of this test comparing the performance of Portuguese sample and U.S. normative sample. The executive functioning of 233 typically developing children aged 3 to 5 years old (M = 57.52; SD = 10.25; in months) was analyzed and according to our results, the adapted version was appropriate to obtain the discrimination among age-groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#15
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626884/empirical-tests-of-a-brain-based-model-of-executive-function-development
#16
Sammy Perone, Daniel J Plebanek, Megan G Lorenz, John P Spencer, Larissa K Samuelson
Executive function (EF) plays a foundational role in development. A brain-based model of EF development is probed for the experiences that strengthen EF in the dimensional change card sort task in which children sort cards by one rule and then are asked to switch to another. Three-year-olds perseverate on the first rule, failing the task, whereas 4-year-olds pass. Three predictions of the model are tested to help 3-year-olds (N = 54) pass. Experiment 1 shows that experience with shapes and the label "shape" helps children...
June 19, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#17
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626280/children-s-executive-function-in-a-cps-involved-sample-effects-of-cumulative-adversity-and-specific-types-of-adversity
#18
Leslie E Roos, Hyoun K Kim, Simone Schnabler, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the presence of executive function (EF) deficits in child protective service (CPS) involved (versus non-involved) children but minimal work has examined predictors that might explain individual differences within these CPS-involved children. Here, we sought to characterize EF in a large sample (N=694) of CPS-involved children and examine how specific adversities (physical abuse, neglect, caregiver domestic violence, and caregiver substance dependence) and cumulative adversity (at ages 0-3 and 3-6 years) predict EF (at approximately 5-6 years)...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625941/meditation-and-successful-aging-can-meditative-practices-counteract-age-related-cognitive-decline
#19
Marco Sperduti, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#20
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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