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Executive functions development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451027/a-case-of-late-onset-ocd-developing-pls-and-ftd
#1
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448919/jasmonic-acid-facilitates-flower-opening-and-floral-organ-development-through-the-upregulated-expression-of-slmyb21-transcription-factor-in-tomato
#2
Tomoko Niwa, Takamasa Suzuki, Yumiko Takebayashi, Rie Ishiguro, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Sumie Ishiguro
Plants coordinate the timing of flower opening with pollen and gynoecium maturation to achieve successful pollination. However, little is known about how the coordination is executed. We found that flower bud development was paused immediately before flower opening in a jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive tomato mutant, jai1-1. Phytohormone measurement and RNA analysis in flower buds revealed that newly synthesised JA peaked at two days before flower opening and the expression of a transcription factor gene SlMYB21 delayed in jai1-1...
February 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447616/predictors-of-positive-youth-development-in-first-year-college-students
#3
Sarah E Brewer, Nicole Nicotera, Chrisopher Veeh, Julie Anne Laser-Maira
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adulthood is an important phase in the transition to adulthood. Emerging adults experience minimal social control and incomplete development of executive functioning leaving this age-group at risk for misusing this newfound independence. Hence, it is important to understand pathways to support positive development (PD) outcomes. In this study, we examined the relationship between participation in civically engaged learning and PD among first-year college students. PARTICIPANTS: First-year college students (N = 225) were surveyed during the 2012-2013 academic year...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445514/exploring-computerised-cognitive-training-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-for-people-with-huntington-s-disease-cogtrainhd-protocol-for-a-randomised-feasibility-study
#4
Emma Yhnell, Hannah Furby, Rachel S Breen, Lucy C Brookes-Howell, Cheney J G Drew, Rebecca Playle, Gareth Watson, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Anne E Rosser, Monica E Busse
Background: Cognitive impairments, especially deficits of executive function, have been well documented as a core and early feature in Huntington's disease (HD). Cognitive impairments represent considerable burden and can be devastating for people and families affected by HD. Computerised cognitive training interventions that focus on improving executive function present a possible non-pharmacological treatment option. We propose to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and appropriate outcome measures for use in a randomised controlled feasibility study...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444296/a-longitudinal-study-of-depressive-symptoms-neuropsychological-functioning-and-medical-responsibility-in-youth-with-spina-bifida-examining-direct-and-mediating-pathways
#5
Alexa Stern, Colleen F Bechtel Driscoll, Diana Ohanian, Grayson N Holmbeck
Objective: Given the increased risk for cognitive deficits and development of depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida (SB), this study aimed to examine two pathways through which depressive symptoms and neuropsychological dysfunction may be associated with medical autonomy in this population: (1) depressive symptoms as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by attention/executive functioning (the cognitive scarring model), and (2) attention/executive functioning as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by depressive symptoms (the cognitive vulnerability model)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439337/utility-of-the-libra-index-in-relation-to-cognitive-functioning-in-a-clinical-health-seeking-sample
#6
Anke Pons, Haley M LaMonica, Loren Mowszowski, Sebastian Köhler, Kay Deckers, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Dementia prevalence is expected to increase substantially over the next few decades. Since there is currently no cure for dementia available, there is an urgent need for the early identification of individuals at high risk for dementia, so that primary and secondary prevention strategies can be implemented. Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed as a new dementia risk algorithm. It specifically focuses on modifiable risk and protective factors that can be targeted in midlife...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437810/down-syndrome-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#7
Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Amandine Pallardy
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. The average age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranged from 50 to 55 years in DS, with early symptoms usually characterised by changes in behaviour and executive dysfunction. On the other hand, posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive impairment of visual functions in the absence of visual deficits and a pattern of atrophy involving posterior cortex. This syndrome is mostly caused by AD pathology...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436982/examining-the-association-between-executive-functions-and-developmental-domains-of-low-income-children-in-the-united-states-and-turkey
#8
Mubeccel Gonen, Tulin Guler-Yildiz, Ayca Ulker-Erdem, Aileen Garcia, Helen Raikes, Ibrahim H Acar, Feyza Ozkan-Yildiz, Ipek Karlidag, Sukran Ucus, Dawn L Davis
This study examined the relations between executive functions and developmental domains of preschool children from low-income families through an intercultural perspective in the U.S. and Turkey. A total of 471 children and their primary caregivers participated in the Turkey part of the study, while 286 children and their parents engaged in U.S. SAMPLE: Regression analyses revealed that fine motor, problem solving, and executive functions of children between two contexts were significantly different from each other...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435402/making-and-operating-molecular-machines-a-multidisciplinary-challenge
#9
REVIEW
Massimo Baroncini, Lorenzo Casimiro, Christiaan de Vet, Jessica Groppi, Serena Silvi, Alberto Credi
Movement is one of the central attributes of life, and a key feature in many technological processes. While artificial motion is typically provided by macroscopic engines powered by internal combustion or electrical energy, movement in living organisms is produced by machines and motors of molecular size that typically exploit the energy of chemical fuels at ambient temperature to generate forces and ultimately execute functions. The progress in several areas of chemistry, together with an improved understanding of biomolecular machines, has led to the development of a large variety of wholly synthetic molecular machines...
February 2018: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435084/mitigation-of-stress-new-treatment-alternatives
#10
REVIEW
Ahmad Rauf Subhani, Nidal Kamel, Mohamad Naufal Mohamad Saad, Nanda Nandagopal, Kenneth Kang, Aamir Saeed Malik
Complaints of stress are common in modern life. Psychological stress is a major cause of lifestyle-related issues, contributing to poor quality of life. Chronic stress impedes brain function, causing impairment of many executive functions, including working memory, decision making and attentional control. The current study sought to describe newly developed stress mitigation techniques, and their influence on autonomic and endocrine functions. The literature search revealed that the most frequently studied technique for stress mitigation was biofeedback (BFB)...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432039/the-ifs-ineco-frontal-screening-and-level-of-education-normative-data
#11
Natalia Sierra Sanjurjo, Antonella Belén Saraniti, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, María Roca, Facundo Manes, Teresa Torralva
Level of education is known to confound neuropsychological test performance. The INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) is an easy-to-use and brief measure of several domains of executive function, which has previously shown reliably clinical usefulness and superior psychometric performance when compared to other frontal screening instruments. However, previous studies with the IFS have been limited to participants with high levels of education, preventing its generalizability to populations with less than 12 years of formal education...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431654/enhanced-operant-extinction-and-prefrontal-excitability-in-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#12
Michael S Sidorov, Matthew C Judson, Hyojin Kim, Marie Rougie, Alejandra I Ferrer, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Natallia V Riddick, Sheryl S Moy, Benjamin D Philpot
Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431172/progression-and-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-changes-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Meredith Bock, Y-Nhy Duong, Anthony Kim, Isabel Allen, Jennifer Murphy, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth
Background: To prospectively evaluate the progression of cognitive-behavioral function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examine the association of cognitive-behavioral deficits with disease progression, patient quality of life (QOL), and caregiver burden. Methods: We evaluated cognitive-behavioral function using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Screen at enrollment and after 7 months in a cohort of patients with ALS. Paired t tests were used to evaluate the change in the 2 assessments...
December 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430447/mechanisms-involved-in-brain-dysfunction-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-implications-and-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Marc Turon, Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Josefina López-Aguilar, Lluís Blanch
Critical illness may lead to significant long-term neurological morbidity and patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor to the development of adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Patients undergoing MV for long periods present neurologic impairment with memory and cognitive alteration. Delirium is considered an acute form of brain dysfunction and its prevalence rises in mechanically ventilated patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426385/development-of-an-item-pool-reflecting-cognitive-concerns-expressed-by-people-with-hiv
#15
Sorayya Askari, Lesley Fellows, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Carolina Moriello, Martin Duracinsky, Nancy E Mayo
OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study is to create an item pool reflecting the cognitive concerns expressed by people with HIV as a first step toward developing such a measure. METHOD: Semiqualitative interviews with 292 people with HIV were carried out. Their concerns were mapped to neurocognitive domains to identify concern content areas and were compared with existing cognitive questionnaires. A questionnaire was developed to estimate the prevalence and importance of the items...
March 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426384/development-of-internet-based-tasks-for-the-executive-function-performance-test
#16
Debbie Rand, Keren Lee Ben-Haim, Rachel Malka, Sigal Portnoy
OBJECTIVE: The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based tool to assess executive functions (EFs). This study's objective was to develop and verify two Internet-based tasks for the EFPT. METHOD: A cross-sectional study assessed the alternate-form reliability of the Internet-based bill-paying and telephone-use tasks in healthy adults and people with subacute stroke (Study 1). It also sought to establish the tasks' criterion reliability for assessing EF deficits by correlating performance with that on the Trail Making Test in five groups: healthy young adults, healthy older adults, people with subacute stroke, people with chronic stroke, and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Study 2)...
March 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425116/integrated-systems-approach-reveals-sphingolipid-metabolism-pathway-dysregulation-in-association-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
John Stephen Malamon, Andres Kriete
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and age are significantly correlated such that one-third of Americans beyond 85 years of age are afflicted. We have designed and implemented a pilot study that combines systems biology approaches with traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis techniques to identify relevant regulatory pathways, infer functional relationships and confirm the dysregulation of these biological pathways in LOAD. Our study design is a most comprehensive systems approach combining co-expression network modeling derived from RNA-seq data, rigorous quality control (QC) standards, functional ontology, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) derived from whole exome (WES) single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotype data...
February 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423637/complementary-expression-of-calcium-binding-proteins-delineates-the-functional-organization-of-the-locomotor-network
#18
Eva M Berg, Maria Bertuzzi, Konstantinos Ampatzis
Neuronal networks in the spinal cord generate and execute all locomotor-related movements by transforming descending signals from supraspinal areas into appropriate rhythmic activity patterns. In these spinal networks, neurons that arise from the same progenitor domain share similar distribution patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, morphological and electrophysiological features. However, subgroups of them participate in different functionally distinct microcircuits to produce locomotion at different speeds and of different modalities...
February 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422151/interdisciplinary-ugandan-perspectives-on-computerized-intervention-implementation-for-child-survivors-of-severe-malaria-a-qualitative-analysis
#19
Katherine Finn, Jody Lori, Maurgan Lee, Bruno Giordani
PURPOSE: Severe malaria (SM) is the leading cause of pediatric cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CCRT), a promising intervention for children suffering from SM related cognitive delay, targets areas impacted by the disease (memory, attention, and executive function), but has yet to be implemented for daily use. This paper explores the perspectives of Ugandan professionals regarding CCRT implementation in the academic setting of Uganda...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419282/construction-of-axially-chiral-compounds-via-asymmetric-organocatalysis
#20
Yong-Bin Wang, Bin Tan
Axially chiral compounds have received much attention from chemists because of their widespread appearance in natural products, biologically active compounds, and useful chiral ligands in asymmetric catalysis. Because of the importance of this structural motif, the catalytic enantioselective construction of axially chiral scaffolds has been intensively investigated, and great progress has been accomplished. However, the majority of methodologies in this field focus on the use of metal catalysis, whereas approaches involving organocatalysis have started to emerge only recently...
February 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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