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Executive functions development

Mélanie Barbay, Hervé Taillia, Claudine Nédélec-Ciceri, Flavie Bompaire, Camille Bonnin, Jérôme Varvat, Françoise Grangette, Momar Diouf, Emmanuel Wiener, Jean-Louis Mas, Martine Roussel, Olivier Godefroy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of poststroke neurocognitive disorder (NCD) has yet to be accurately determined. The primary objective of the present study was to optimize operationalization of the criterion for NCD by using an external validity criterion. METHODS: The GRECOG-VASC cohort (Groupe de Réflexion pour l'Évaluation Cognitive Vasculaire) of 404 stroke patients with cerebral infarct (91.3%) or hemorrhage (18.7%) was assessed 6 months poststroke and 1003 healthy controls, with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network standardized battery...
April 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Laura Arribas-Hernández, Simon Bressendorff, Mathias Henning Hansen, Christian Poulsen, Susanne Erdmann, Peter Brodersen
Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A) in mRNA is an important post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. m6A provides a binding site for effector proteins ("readers") that influence pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA degradation or translational efficiency. YT521-B homology (YTH) domain proteins are important m6A readers with established functions in animals. Plants contain more YTH domain proteins than other eukaryotes, but their biological importance remains unknown. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic Arabidopsis thaliana YTH domain proteins EVOLUTIONARILY CONSERVED C-TERMINAL REGION2/3 (ECT2/3) are required for the correct timing of leaf formation and for normal leaf morphology...
April 11, 2018: Plant Cell
Helena M Blumen, Lucy L Brown, Christian Habeck, Gilles Allali, Emmeline Ayers, Olivier Beauchet, Michele Callisaya, Richard B Lipton, P S Mathuranath, Thanh G Phan, V G Pradeep Kumar, Velandai Srikanth, Joe Verghese
Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dulce Romero-Ayuso, Sara Jorquera-Cabrera, Antonio Segura-Fragoso, Abel Toledano-González, M Carmen Rodríguez-Martínez, José Matías Triviño-Juárez
The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the "Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood" (EPYFEI), a questionnaire designed to assess the sensory processing and executive functions of children aged between 3 and 11 years. The EPYFEI was completed by a sample of 1,732 parents of children aged between 3 and 11 years who lived in Spain. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and showed five main factors: (1) executive attention, working memory, and initiation of actions; (2) general sensory processing; (3) emotional and behavioral self-regulation; (4) supervision, correction of actions, and problem solving; and (5) inhibitory...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Elizabeth S Gromisch, Jeffrey G Portnoy, Frederick W Foley
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a prevalent and often intrusive problem among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Valid and reliable assessments, including quick screening measures, are crucial. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) was developed for this reason. While it lends itself to use in locations where formal neuropsychological resources might be limited, it does not include measures of verbal fluency or executive functioning, domains assessed as part of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Noah J Glaser, Matthew Schmidt, Shari L Wade, Aimee Smith, Luke Turnier, Avani C Modi
This case study discusses the design, development, and formative evaluation of Epilepsy Journey, an individually-tailored, web-based intervention designed to address the unique executive functioning (EF) needs of adolescents with epilepsy. This intervention was designed through a three-phase iterative, patient-centered participatory action research process. First, a front-end analysis was completed to identify the unique needs of adolescents with epilepsy and initial design ideas via focus groups. Second, a preliminary design of the intervention was developed from focus group results...
December 2017: Journal of formative design in learning
Norelle C Wildburger, Frank Gyngard, Christelle Guillermier, Bruce W Patterson, Donald Elbert, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Theresa Schneider, Karen Green, Robyn Roth, Robert E Schmidt, Nigel J Cairns, Tammie L S Benzinger, Matthew L Steinhauser, Randall J Bateman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population-those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD-Aβ plaques. As a result, Aβ plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Dan-Dan Xiong, Hao Chen, Rong-Quan He, Ai-Hua Lan, Jin-Cai Zhong, Gang Chen, Zhen-Bo Feng, Kang-Lai Wei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are highly conserved small noncoding RNA molecules involved in gene regulation. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that miRNAs act as oncogenes or antioncogenes in various types of cancer, including breast cancer (BC). However, the exact role of miR‑671‑3p in BC has not yet been reported. In the present study, in vitro experiments were implemented to explore the effects of miR‑671‑3p on the proliferation and apoptosis of BC cells, and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted using in‑house clinical BC samples to address the expression level and clinical value of miR‑671‑3p in BC...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Marisa G Filipe, Sónia Frota, Selene G Vicente
Little is known about the relationship between prosodic abilities and executive function skills. As deficits in executive functions (EFs) and prosodic impairments are characteristics of autism, we examined how EFs are related to prosodic performance in children with high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifteen children with HFA ( M = 7.4 years; SD = 1.12), matched to 15 typically developing peers on age, gender, and non-verbal intelligence participated in the study. The Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) was used to assess prosodic performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tomonori Hosoya, Ricardo D'Oliveira Albanus, John Hensley, Greggory Myers, Yasuhiro Kyono, Jacob Kitzman, Stephen C J Parker, James Douglas Engel
In vertebrates, multiple transcription factors (TFs) bind to gene regulatory elements (promoters, enhancers, and silencers) to execute developmental expression changes. ChIP experiments are often used to identify where TFs bind to regulatory elements in the genome, but the requirement of TF-specific antibodies hampers analyses of tens of TFs at multiple loci. Here we tested whether TF binding predictions using ATAC-seq can be used to infer the identity of TFs that bind to functionally validated enhancers of the Cd4, Cd8, and Gata3 genes in thymocytes...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barry V L Potter
Steroid sulfatase is an emerging drug target for the endocrine therapy of hormone-dependent diseases, catalyzing estrogen sulfate hydrolysis to estrogen. Drug discovery, developing the core aryl O-sulfamate pharmacophore, has led to steroidal and non-steroidal drugs entering numerous clinical trials, with promising results in oncology and women's health. Steroidal estrogen sulfamate derivatives were the first irreversible active-site-directed inhibitors and one was developed clinically as an oral estradiol pro-drug and for endometriosis applications...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jaqueline de Carvalho Rodrigues, Wagner de Lara Machado, Denise Ren da Fontoura, Andrea Garcia Almeida, Rosane Brondani, Sheila Ouriques Martins, Denise Ruschel Bandeira, Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles
This study aimed to develop a short version of an instrument to detect cognitive impairment in stroke patients, investigate which cognitive dimensions best discriminate between stroke patients and healthy adults and to graphically analyze the relationships among the neuropsychological variables and groups. This pilot study included 94 adults (49 post-stroke and 45 neurologically healthy) who answered the Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery NEUPSILIN for patients with expressive aphasia (NEUPSILIN-Af) to assess orientation, perception, memory, praxis, executive functions, oral language, and academic achievement (written language and arithmetic)...
April 4, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Zsofia Sagi, Thomas Hieronymus
Langerhans cells (LCs), the epidermal dendritic cell (DC) subset, express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor Met also known as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor. HGF is the exclusive ligand of Met and upon binding executes mitogenic, morphogenic, and motogenic activities to various cells. HGF exerts anti-inflammatory activities via Met signaling and was found to regulate various functions of immune cells, including differentiation and maturation, cytokine production, cellular migration and adhesion, and T cell effector function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Francesca Zappa, Mario Failli, Maria Antonietta De Matteis
The Golgi complex occupies a strategic position in the endomembrane system and acts not only as a key trafficking and sorting station and a vital biosynthetic center for glycoproteins and lipids, but also as an active signaling hub. As such, the Golgi complex participates in the establishment and maintenance of cell compartmentalization and in general, cell processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The different functions of the Golgi complex are executed by composite molecular machineries that have been exhaustively dissected over the last three decades...
March 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Mihaela Duta, Nele Demeyere, Ryan G Wagner, Amanda Selin, Catherine MacPhail, Oliver Laeyendecker, James P Hughes, Alan Stein, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn
PURPOSE: Heightened sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood may be partially explained by deficits in executive functioning, the set of cognitive processes used to make reasoned decisions. However, the association between executive function and sexual risk is understudied among adolescent girls and young women, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: In a cohort of 853 young women age 18-25 in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, we evaluated executive function with three non-verbal cognitive tests: I...
2018: PloS One
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Anatolii M Hrynzovskyi, Irina A Holovanova, Sergei T Omelchuk, Olena V Kuzminska, Anastasia A Hrynzovska, Olena O Karlova, Vitalii Ye Kondratiuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The public health system modernization history is based upon the progress in state country administration and administration of healthcare within the sectorwide approach. The WHO European Bureau pays much attention to the National Health Service systems development while implementing their basic policies. The Ukrainian state health service management was founded basing on the regulatory field of the Russian Empire, using the European healthcare promotion experience...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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