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Neuropsychological development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149519/early-executive-dysfunction-in-asd-simple-versus-complex-skills
#1
Nancy Garon, Isabel M Smith, Susan E Bryson
Despite the strong evidence of executive function (EF) impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), findings in the preschool period have been inconsistent. Whereas some research has supported an early deficit, many studies have not found early differences in EF. The present study assessed simple and complex components of three EF abilities: working memory, inhibition, and shifting, using a novel battery, the Preschool EF Battery (PEFB; Garon, Smith & Bryson, Child Neuropsychology, 20, 713-736, 2014). Previous research has indicated that the PEFB is sensitive to age differences in typically developing (TD) children aged 18-60 months...
November 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#2
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128118/associations-between-inflammatory-markers-and-cognitive-function-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#3
AnnaLynn M Williams, Raven Shah, Michelle Shayne, Alissa J Huston, Marcia Krebs, Nicole Murray, Bryan D Thompson, Kassandra Doyle, Jenna Korotkin, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Sharon Hyland, Jan A Moynihan, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Michelle C Janelsins
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is often related to chemotherapy. Increased chronic inflammation is believed to play a key role in the development of CRCI related to chemotherapy but studies assessing this hypothesis specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy are rare. METHODS: We assessed several cognitive domains using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in twenty-two breast cancer patients currently receiving chemotherapy...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126934/neuropsychological-functioning-in-military-pesticide-applicators-from-the-gulf-war-effects-on-information-processing-speed-attention-and-visual-memory
#4
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126874/decreased-serum-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-male-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Hui Fang, Xiao-Yu Xu, Rui-Zhe Xu, Yan-Feng Zhen, Gang Xu, Yu-Kai Li
BACKGROUND: Basic and clinical researches have suggested that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment, and diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recently, some reports found that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) could affect brain functions, and decreased in patients with T2DM. We aimed to investigate the association of serum ucOC with cognitive impairment in T2DM patients. METHODS: A total of 196 male T2DM patients without medications known to affect bone metabolism or history of bone fracture, aged ≥18years were recruited and divided into impaired cognition group and normal cognition group...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125488/comparison-between-fcsrt-and-lassi-l-to-detect-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Rosie E Curiel, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, David A Loewenstein, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most accurate test for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a novel cognitive test, the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), has been developed in order to provide an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the FCSRT and the LASSI-L for the diagnosis of AD in its preclinical and prodromal stages using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a reference...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123489/plasmapheresis-responsive-rapid-onset-dementia-with-predominantly-frontal-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy
#7
Dominique Endres, Magnus S Vry, Petra Dykierek, Anne N Riering, Eva Lüngen, Oliver Stich, Rick Dersch, Nils Venhoff, Daniel Erny, Irina Mader, Philipp T Meyer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures. Case presentation: Here, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118710/cognitive-vulnerability-in-aging-may-be-modulated-by-education-and-reserve-in-healthy-people
#9
María D Roldán-Tapia, Rosa Cánovas, Irene León, Juan García-Garcia
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115192/a-novel-experimental-paradigm-to-evaluate-children-and-adolescents-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comparison-with-two-standard-neuropsychological-methods
#10
Marcos F Rosetti, Rosa E Ulloa, Ernesto Reyes-Zamorano, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Francisco de la Peña, Robyn Hudson
INTRODUCTION: In this study we evaluated a recently developed test, the Ball Search Field Task (BSFT) as a neuropsychological tool for measuring cognitive and behavioral performance of individuals with disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which are frequently accompanied by cognitive deficits and a lack of behavioral inhibition. The task provides a complementary method of assessment that attempts ecological validity by drawing on challenges faced in real-world situations...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111773/factors-to-consider-when-reviewing-and-reconciling-research-findings-methodological-statistical-and-theoretical
#11
Sally J Robinson
Neuroscience is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field that is changing the way research is conducted and theories are developed. However, variability between studies and apparently discrepant findings may contribute to difficulties identifying commonalities that can help inform and enhance clinical practice. This article presents a framework to consider when reviewing neuropsychological studies, such that apparent discrepancies in findings may be considered in unison to provide informed theoretical understanding...
November 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110613/a-biomarker-combining-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-tracking-early-alzheimer-s-disease-in-clinical-trials
#12
Nishant Verma, S Natasha Beretvas, Belen Pascual, Joseph C Masdeu, Mia K Markey, The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Combining optimized cognitive (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, ADAS-Cog) and atrophy markers of Alzheimer's disease for tracking progression in clinical trials may provide greater sensitivity than currently used methods, which have yielded negative results in multiple recent trials. Furthermore, it is critical to clarify the relationship among the subcomponents yielded by cognitive and imaging testing, to address the symptomatic and anatomical variability of Alzheimer's disease...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108712/cognitive-functioning-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-its-relation-to-motor-function-communication-and-epilepsy
#13
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Francisca Gimeno, Ana Narberhaus, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of motor function often accompanied by cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of research focused on cognition in dyskinetic CP and on the potential effect of related factors. AIM: To describe the cognitive profile in dyskinetic CP and to assess its relationship with motor function and associated impairments. METHOD: Fifty-two subjects with dyskinetic CP (28 males, mean age 24 y 10 mo, SD 13 y) and 52 typically-developing controls (age- and gender-matched) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107351/drinking-water-disinfection-by-products-during-pregnancy-and-child-neuropsychological-development-in-the-inma-spanish-cohort-study
#14
Cristina M Villanueva, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Jordi Julvez, Loreto Santa-Marina, Nerea Lertxundi, Jesús Ibarluzea, Sabrina Llop, Ferran Ballester, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Adonina Tardón, Martine Vrijheid, Mònica Guxens, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) constitute a complex mixture of prevalent chemicals in drinking water and there is evidence of neurotoxicity for some of them. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between estimates of DBP exposure during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 1 and 4-5years of age. METHODS: We conducted a population-based mother-child cohort study in Spain with recruitment at first trimester of gestation (INMA Project, 2003-2008)...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105598/parental-reflective-functioning-and-executive-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#15
Ulrika Håkansson, Kerstin Söderström, Reidulf Watten, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Having a substance use disorder (SUD) may adversely affect caregiving capacities. Reflective functioning (RF) and executive functioning (EF) are both important capacities for sensitive parenting, and are often impaired in a SUD. Only a few studies have explored the possible association between the two phenomena. In this study, we used a neuropsychological test battery to assess EF, and the Parent Development Interview to assess RF in a sample of mothers with a SUD (N = 43). Although parental RF (PRF) was associated with EF, when controlled for intelligence (IQ) and mental health, there was no significant association between EF and PRF...
November 6, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105114/cortical-thickness-in-adolescents-with-a-family-history-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
Kate E Henderson, Jatin G Vaidya, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Douglas R Langbehn, Daniel S O'Leary
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a family history (FH+) of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a higher risk for developing an AUD than those with no family history (FH-) of AUD. In addition, FH+ individuals tend to perform worse on neuropsychological measures and show heightened impulsivity, which may be due to underlying differences in brain structure such as cortical thickness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in cortical thickness in FH+ compared to FH- adolescents...
November 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083495/earlier-alcohol-use-onset-predicts-poorer-neuropsychological-functioning-in-young-adults
#17
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Georg E Matt, Joanna Jacobus, Irene Li, Claudia Cota, Norma Castro, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopment may be shaped by environmental factors such as alcohol intake. Over 20% of U.S. high school students begin drinking before age 14, and those who initiated drinking before age 14 are 4 times more likely to develop psychosocial, psychiatric, and substance use difficulties than those who began drinking after turning 20. Little is known, however, about how the age of alcohol use onset influences brain development. METHODS: This study prospectively examined the effects of alcohol use onset age on neurocognitive functioning in healthy adolescent drinkers (N = 215)...
October 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082443/preschool-predictors-of-adhd-symptoms-and-impairment-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#18
REVIEW
Sarah O'Neill, Khushmand Rajendran, Shelagh M Mahbubani, Jeffrey M Halperin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper summarizes key, recently published research examining longitudinal outcomes for preschoolers with high levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. RECENT FINDINGS: Symptom trajectories show that hyperactivity/impulsivity declines across childhood. At the group level, the course of inattention appears more variable. However, identification of subgroups of children showing stable, rising, and falling inattention over time is promising...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077803/cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-features-of-early-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Sarah J Getz, Bonnie Levin
The clinical definition of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cardinal motor features including bradykinesia as well as an additional symptom of tremor, postural instability, or rigidity. Evidence from neuropathological, imaging, and clinical research suggests a premotor, early phase of PD pathology. Further understanding of the earliest biomarkers of PD is crucial for the development of neuroprotective, disease modifying, cognitive, and psychiatric interventions. Recent research has explored early non-motor markers of PD pathology...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070481/examining-internet-and-ehealth-practices-and-preferences-survey-study-of-australian-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia
#20
Haley M LaMonica, Amelia English, Ian B Hickie, Jerome Ip, Catriona Ireland, Stacey West, Tim Shaw, Loren Mowszowski, Nick Glozier, Shantel Duffy, Alice A Gibson, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Interest in electronic health (eHealth) technologies to screen for and treat a variety of medical and mental health problems is growing exponentially. However, no studies to date have investigated the feasibility of using such e-tools for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe patterns of Internet use, as well as interest in and preferences for eHealth technologies among older adults with varying degrees of cognitive impairment...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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